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3 qualitative research in business & data analysis dr. holloman


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3 qualitative research in business & data analysis dr. holloman

  1. 1. Chapter 7•Qualitative ResearchMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Learning Objectives• Understand . . .• How qualitative methodologies differ fromquantitative methodologies.• The controversy surrounding qualitative research.• The types of decisions that use qualitativemethodologies.• The different qualitative research methodologies.7-2
  3. 3. Web as a Source7-3“It is better to think of the Web . . . as the soundsof independent voices, just like the street cornersoapbox preacher or that friend of yours whoalways recommends the best books.”David Meerman Scottmarketing strategist and author,The New Rules of Marketing and PR
  4. 4. PulsePoint:Research Revelation7-462 The percent of wealthy consumersreporting that the state of theeconomy has changed their view ofluxury purchases . . . that flauntingluxury is insensitive.
  5. 5. Qualitative Researchand the Research Process7-5
  6. 6. Qualitative Research7-6Focus GroupsEthnographyObservationDataCollectionTechniquesIDIsCase StudiesActionResearchGroundedTheoryGroupInterviews
  7. 7. Why Use Qualitative Research?7-7“Most of what influences what we say anddo occurs below the level of awareness.That’s why we need new techniques:to get at hidden knowledge –to get at what people don’t know they know.”Gerald ZaltmanEmeritus Professor, HarvardCreator, Zmet technique
  8. 8. Qualitative Research7-8TraceEvidenceArtifactsOtherTechniquesBehavioralObservationsTextual AnalysisDebriefings
  9. 9. Qualitative Research in Business•Job Analysis•Advertising ConceptDevelopment•Productivity Enhancement•New ProductDevelopment•Benefits Management•Retail Design•Process Understanding•Union Representation•Market Segmentation•Sales Analysis7-9
  10. 10. Data Sources7-10PeopleOrganizationsTextsEnvironmentsEvents andhappeningsArtifacts/ mediaproducts
  11. 11. The Roots ofQualitative Research7-11PsychologyAnthropologyCommunicationSociologySemioticsEconomicsQualitativeResearch
  12. 12. Distinction betweenQualitative & Quantitative7-12TheoryTestingTheoryBuilding
  13. 13. Focus of Research• Qualitative• Understanding• Interpretation• Quantitative• Description• Explanation7-13
  14. 14. Researcher Involvement•Qualitative•High•Participation-based•Quantitative•Limited•Controlled7-14
  15. 15. Research Design•Qualitative•Longitudinal•Multi-method•Quantitative•Cross-sectional orlongitudinal•Single method7-15
  16. 16. Sample Design and Size•Qualitative•Non-probability•Purposive•Small sample•Quantitative•Probability•Large sample7-16
  17. 17. Data Type and Preparation•Qualitative•Verbal or pictorial•Reduced to verbal codes•Quantitative•Verbal descriptions•Reduced to numericcodes7-17
  18. 18. Turnaround•Qualitative• Shorter turnaroundpossible• Insight developmentongoing•Quantitative• May be time-consuming• Insight developmentfollows data entry7-18
  19. 19. Data Analysis7-19Qualitative•Nonquantitative;•Human judgment mixedwith fact•Emphasis on themesQuantitative•Computerized analysis•Facts distinguished•Emphasis on counts
  20. 20. Qualitative Researchand the Research Process7-20
  21. 21. Pretasking Activities7-21Use product in homeBring visual stimuliCreate collageKeep diariesConstruct a storyDraw pictures
  22. 22. Formulating the Qualitative ResearchQuestion7-22
  23. 23. Choosing theQualitative Method7-23Types ofparticipantsResearchercharacteristicsFactorsScheduleBudgetTopicsProject’spurpose
  24. 24. NonProbability Sampling7-24PurposiveSamplingSnowballSamplingConvenienceSampling
  25. 25. Qualitative Sampling7-25General sampling rule:Keep conducting interviews until nonew insights are gained.
  26. 26. The Interview Question Hierarchy7-26
  27. 27. Interviewer Responsibilities• Recommends topicsand questions• Controls interview• Plans location andfacilities• Proposes criteria fordrawing sample• Writes screener• Recruits participants• Develops pretaskingactivities• Prepares researchtools• Supervisestranscription• Helps analyze data• Draws insights• Writes report7-27
  28. 28. Elements of a Recruitment Screener• Heading• Screeningrequirements• Identity information• Introduction• Security questions• Demographicquestions• Behavior questions• Lifestyle questions• Attitudinal andknowledge questions• Articulation andcreative questions• Offer/ Termination7-28
  29. 29. Interview Formats7-29UnstructuredSemi-structuredStructured
  30. 30. Requirements forUnstructured Interviews7-30DistinctionsDeveloped dialogInterviewer skillProbe foranswersInterviewercreativity
  31. 31. The Interview Mode7-31GroupIndividual
  32. 32. IDI vs GroupIndividual Interview Group Interview• Explore life of individual in depth• Create case histories throughrepeated interviews over time• Test a survey• Orient the researcher to a field of inquiry andthe language of the field• Explore a range of attitudes, opinions, andbehaviors• Observe a process of consensus anddisagreement• Detailed individual experiences,choices, biographies• Sensitive issues that mightprovoke anxiety• Issues of public interest or common concern• Issues where little is known or of a hypotheticalnature• Time-pressed participants or thosedifficult to recruit (e.g., elite or high-status participants)• Participants with sufficient languageskills (e.g., those older than seven)• Participants whose distinctionswould inhibit participation• Participants whose backgrounds are similar ornot so dissimilar as to generate conflict ordiscomfort• Participants who can articulate their ideas• Participants who offer a range of positions onissues7-32ResearchObjectiveTopicConcernsParticipants
  33. 33. Research Using IDIs7-33CulturalinterviewsSequentialinterviewingTypesLife historiesCriticalincidenttechniquesOral historiesEthnography
  34. 34. Projective Techniques7-34METSensory sortsSemanticMapping DataCollectionTechniquesSentenceCompletionCartoonsThematicApperceptionLaddering AssociationComponentSortsImaginationExercises
  35. 35. Projective Techniques7-35Anderson Analyticsuses a cast ofcharacters duringinterviewing.
  36. 36. Group Interviews•Mini-Groups–Dyads–Triads•Small Groups–Focus Groups•Supergroups7-36
  37. 37. Determining the Number ofGroups7-37ScopeNumber of distinct segmentsDesired number of ideasDesired level of detailHomogeneityLevel of distinction
  38. 38. Group Interview Modes7-38TelephoneOnlineVideoconferenceFace-to-Face
  39. 39. Combining Qualitative Methodologies7-39Action ResearchCase Study
  40. 40. Triangulation: Merging Qualitative andQuantitative7-40Conduct studiessimultaneouslyPerform series:Qualitative,Quantitative,QualitativeOngoing qualitativewith multiple wavesof quantitativeQuantitativeprecedesQualitative
  41. 41. Key Terms• Action research• Case study• CAPI• Content analysis• Creativity session• Ethnography• Focus groups• Group interview• IDI– Convergent interviewing– Critical incident technique– Cultural interviews– Grounded theory– Life histories– Oral history– Sequential interviewing• Interview7-41
  42. 42. Key Terms (cont.)• Interview guide• Moderator• Non-probability sampling• Pretasking• Probability sampling• Qualitative research• Quantitative research• Recruitment screener• Triangulation• Projective techniques– Cartoons– Component sorts– Imagination exercises– Laddering– Metaphor ElicitationTechnique– Semantic mapping• Brand mapping– Sensory sorts– Sentence completion– Thematic ApperceptionTest– Word or pictureassociation7-42
  43. 43. Chapter 8•Observation StudiesMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  44. 44. 8-44Learning Objectives• Understand . . .• When observation studies are most useful.• Distinctions between monitoring. nonbehavioraland behavioral activities• Strengths of the observation approach inresearch design.• Weaknesses of the observation approach inresearch design.
  45. 45. 8-45Learning Objectives• Understand . . .• Three perspectives from which the observer-participant relationship may be viewed.• Various designs of observation studies.
  46. 46. 8-46How Our Brain Works“Once a pattern becomes predictable, thebrain starts to ignore it. We get bored;attention is a scare resource, so why wasteit on something that’s perfectly predictable.”Jonah Lehrerneuroscientist and author,How We Decide
  47. 47. 8-47PulsePoint:Research Revelation3 The number of minutes the averagecubicle dweller works before beinginterrupted by phone, e-mail, instantmessage, or social networking activities.
  48. 48. 8-48Observation and the ResearchProcess
  49. 49. 8-49Selecting theData Collection Method
  50. 50. 8-50Selecting an ObservationData Collection Approach
  51. 51. 8-51Research DesignHow?Where?Task DetailsWhat?(event or time)When?Who?
  52. 52. 8-52Observation Location
  53. 53. 8-53Content of ObservationFactual Inferential• Introduction/identification of salesperson andcustomer.• Credibility of salesperson. Qualified status ofcustomer.• Time and day of week. • Convenience for the customer. Welcomingattitude of the customer• Product presented. • Customer interest in product.• Selling points presented per product. • Customer acceptance of selling points of product.• Number of customer objections raised perproduct.• Customer concerns about features and benefits.• Salesperson’s rebuttal of objection. • Effectiveness of salesperson’s rebuttal attempts.• Salesperson’s attempt to restore controls. • Effectiveness of salesperson’s control attempt.• Consequences for customer who prefersinteraction.• Length of interview. • Customer’s/salesperson’s degree of enthusiasmfor the interview.• Environmental factors interfering with theinterview.• Level of distraction for the customer.• Customer purchase decision. • General evaluation of sale presentation skill.
  54. 54. 8-54Data CollectionWatchingListeningTouchingSmellingReading
  55. 55. 8-55Using ObservationSystematic planningProperly controlledConsistently dependableAccurate account of events
  56. 56. 8-56Observation Classification•Nonbehavioral• Physical conditionanalysis• Process or Activityanalysis• Record analysis•Behavioral• Nonverbal• Linguistic• Extralinguistic• Spatial
  57. 57. 8-57Selecting an Observation DataCollection Approach …Nonbehavioral
  58. 58. 8-58Nonbehavioral ObservationRecordAnalysisPhysical ConditionAnalysisPhysical ProcessAnalysis
  59. 59. 8-59Selecting an ObservationData Collection Approach…Behavioral
  60. 60. 8-60Wal-Mart ImplementsRFID Labels
  61. 61. 8-61RFID Changes Monitoring“We can certainly understand and appreciateconsumer concern about privacy. That’s why wewant our customers to know that RFID tags willnot contain nor collect any additional data aboutour customers. In fact in the foreseeable future,there won’t even be any RFID readers on ourstores’ main sales floors.”Linda DillmanEVP & Chief Information OfficerWal-Mart
  62. 62. 8-62Behavioral Observation•“We noticed peoplescraping the toppings offour pizza crusts. Wethought at first there wassomething wrong, but theysaid, ‘We love it, we justdon’t eat the crustanymore.”Tom Santor,Donatos Pizza
  63. 63. 8-63Systematic ObservationEncodingobservationinformationStructuredSystematicTrainedobserversStandardizedproceduresRecordingschedules
  64. 64. 8-64Flowchart for ObservationChecklist Design
  65. 65. 8-65Mechanical/ Digital BehavioralObservationEye cameraPupilometerDevicesAudio recorderVideo cameraGalvanometerTachistoscope
  66. 66. 8-66SizeUSABody Measurement System
  67. 67. 8-67Portable People Meters
  68. 68. 8-68Observer-Participant RelationshipDirect vs. indirectKnown vs. unknownInvolved vs. uninvolved
  69. 69. 8-69Extralinguistic ObservationVocalTemporalInteractionVerbal Stylistic
  70. 70. 8-70Desired Characteristics for ObserversConcentrationDetail-orientedUnobtrusiveExperience level
  71. 71. 8-71Errors Introduced by ObserversObserver DriftHalo Effect
  72. 72. 8-72Evaluation ofBehavioral Observation•Strengths• Securing information thatis otherwise unavailable• Avoiding participantfiltering/ forgetting• Securing environmentalcontext• Optimizing naturalness• Reducing obtrusiveness•Weaknesses• Enduring long periods• Incurring higher expenses• Having lower reliability ofinferences• Quantifying data• Keeping large records• Being limited onknowledge of cognitiveprocesses
  73. 73. 8-73Key Terms• Concealment• Event sampling• Halo effect• Observation– Direct– Extralinguistic– Indirect– Linguistic– Nonverbal– Participant– Simple– Spatial– Systematic
  74. 74. 8-74Key Terms• Observation checklist• Observer drift• Physical conditionanalysis• Physical trace• Process (activity)analysis• Reactivity response• Record analysis• Spatial Relationships• Time sampling• Unobtrusive measures
  75. 75. Chapter 9•ExperimentsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin Copyright © 2011 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  76. 76. 9-76Learning Objectives• Understand . . .• Uses for experimentation.• Advantages and disadvantages of theexperimental method.• Seven steps of a well-planned experiment.• Internal and external validity with experimentalresearch designs.• Three types of experimental designs and thevariations of each.
  77. 77. 9-77Experiments Challenge Perceptions“There is no such thing as a failedexperiment, only experiments withunexpected outcomes.”Richard Buckminster Fuller,engineer and architect
  78. 78. 9-78PulsePoint:Research Revelation45 The percent of smartphone users whocheck their e-mail before they getdressed.
  79. 79. 9-79Causal EvidenceAgreement betweenIVs and DVsTime order of occurrenceExtraneous variablesdid not influence DVs
  80. 80. 9-80Causal Evidence?
  81. 81. 9-81Evaluation of Experiments•Advantages• Ability to manipulate IV• Use of control group• Control of extraneousvariables• Replication possible• Field experimentspossible•Disadvantages• Artificiality of labs• Non-representativesample• Expense• Focus on present andimmediate future• Ethical limitations
  82. 82. 9-82Experimentation in the ResearchProcess
  83. 83. 9-83Conducting an ExperimentSpecify treatment levelsControl environmentChoose experimental designSelect and assign participantsPilot-test, revise, and testCollect dataAnalyze dataSpecify treatment variables
  84. 84. 9-84Experiment: Placement of BenefitsModule
  85. 85. 9-85Selecting and Assigning ParticipantsRandomassignmentMatching
  86. 86. 9-86Random Assignment
  87. 87. 9-87Quota Matrix Example
  88. 88. 9-88Measurement OptionsScalingtechniquesPhysiologicalmeasuresOptionsPaper-and-pencil testsObservationSelf-administeredinstruments
  89. 89. 9-89Validity in ExperimentationExternalInternal
  90. 90. 9-90Threats to Internal ValidityThreatsMaturation HistoryTestingInstrumentationSelectionStatisticalregressionExperimentalmortality
  91. 91. 9-91Additional Threats to InternalValidityDiffusion of treatmentCompensatory equalizationCompensatory rivalryResentful disadvantagedLocal history
  92. 92. 9-92Threats to External ValidityReactivity oftesting on XInteraction ofselection and XOtherreactive factors
  93. 93. 9-93Experiments Challenge Perceptions“We need to keep an open mind and approachlife as a series of experiments. We need toobserve the experiments happening around usand create new ones. Instead of accepting theworld as we think it is, we need to keep testing itto find out what it is and what works.”Jerry WindWharton School of Business,University of Pennsylvania
  94. 94. 9-94Experimental Research DesignsPre-experimentsTrue experimentsField experiments
  95. 95. 9-95After-Only Case StudyX OPre-experiment
  96. 96. 9-96One Group Pretest-PosttestO1 X O2Pre-experiment
  97. 97. 9-97Static Group ComparisonX O1O2Pre-experiment
  98. 98. 9-98Pretest-Posttest Control GroupDesignR O1 X O2R O3 O4True experiment
  99. 99. 9-99Posttest-Onlywith Control GroupTrue experimentR X O1R O2
  100. 100. 9-100Nonequivalent Control GroupDesignO1 X O2O3 O4Field experiment
  101. 101. 9-101Separate SamplePretest-PosttestR O1 (X)R X O2Field experiment
  102. 102. 9-102Group Time Series DesignR O1 O2 O3 X O4 O5 O6R O7 O8 O9 O10 O11 O12Field experiment
  103. 103. 9-103Job EnrichmentQuasi-Experiment
  104. 104. 9-104Experiment:Refining Store Design
  105. 105. 9-105Experiment:The Right Size of Flavor
  106. 106. 9-106Key Terms• Blind• Control group• Controlled testmarket• Dependent variable• Double-blind• Environmentalcontrol• Experiment• Experimentaltreatment• External validity• Field experiment• Hypothesis• Independent variable• Internal validity
  107. 107. 9-107Key Terms• Matching• Operationalized• Quota matrix• Random assignment• Replication• Test market– Electronic test market– Simulated test market– Standard test market– Virtual test market• Treatment levels• Web-enabled testmarket
  108. 108. Appendix 9b•Test Markets9-108
  109. 109. 9-109Test Market SelectionIsolationControl ofdistributionCriteriaRepresentativeOver-testingMediacoverageMultiplelocations
  110. 110. 9-110Types of Test MarketsStandardControlledElectronicSimulatedVirtualWeb-enabled
  111. 111. 9-111Test Market Cities