Is An  On-Virtu  Digital Sketching Environment Cognitively Identical To  In-Situ  Free-Hand Sketching? Hsien-Hui Tang,  Yu...
Outline <ul><li>Two Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Method and Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Structure </li></ul><ul><...
Research Problem <ul><li>Could we establish an remotely  on-virtu  digital sketching environment being cognitively identic...
Objectives <ul><li>Utilize current IT products to establish an remotely on-virtu digital sketching environment </li></ul><...
TWO ENVIRONMENTS [email_address]
Traditional Environment [email_address]
Digital Environment [email_address]
Setting Details [email_address] Traditional Envir. Digital Envir. Location Co-located Virtually Co-loacted  Physically in ...
METHOD AND STEPS [email_address]
Methodology <ul><li>Protocol Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting the experi...
Coding Scheme 1 <ul><li>Design Prototype (Gero 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology of design process  </li></ul>[email_address]
Coding Scheme 2 <ul><li>Valkenburg & Dorst (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>The reflective practice of  design teams </li></ul><ul...
Coding Example [email_address] 1  2
STATISTICAL RESULTS [email_address]
Segment Number <ul><li>Intention / Element of Design process </li></ul><ul><li>no significant difference  </li></ul><ul><u...
FBS Result [email_address] Traditional Media Digital Media Team F B S F B S A 36 716 27 35 651 16 B 32 474 10 19 476 6 C 3...
FMNR Result [email_address] Traditional Media Digital Media Team F M N R F M N R A 16 632 36 95 23 547 34 98 B 15 390 32 7...
Statistics <ul><li>In terms of FBS (design process) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No statistical significant differences between t...
Conclusions <ul><li>The  in-situ  environment is of no difference to the  on-virtu  environment  </li></ul><ul><li>In term...
Discussions <ul><li>Design Computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is possible to establish a computer-aided conceptual design ...
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2009 CAADRIA

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2009 CAADRIA

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  • 2009 CAADRIA

    1. 1. Is An On-Virtu Digital Sketching Environment Cognitively Identical To In-Situ Free-Hand Sketching? Hsien-Hui Tang, Yu-Ying Lee, Wen-Ko Chiou National Taiwan University of Science and Technology & CGU
    2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Two Environments </li></ul><ul><li>Method and Steps </li></ul><ul><li>Analytical Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical Results </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusions </li></ul>[email_address]
    3. 3. Research Problem <ul><li>Could we establish an remotely on-virtu digital sketching environment being cognitively identical to co-located in-situ free-hand sketching environment? </li></ul>[email_address]
    4. 4. Objectives <ul><li>Utilize current IT products to establish an remotely on-virtu digital sketching environment </li></ul><ul><li>Conduct empirical protocol studies to compare it with traditional environment </li></ul><ul><li>Propose ideas for design computing and cognition </li></ul>[email_address]
    5. 5. TWO ENVIRONMENTS [email_address]
    6. 6. Traditional Environment [email_address]
    7. 7. Digital Environment [email_address]
    8. 8. Setting Details [email_address] Traditional Envir. Digital Envir. Location Co-located Virtually Co-loacted Physically in two separate rooms Ultra VNC (Sharing Desktop) Communication Face-to-Face Virtually Face-to-Face MSN (Net Conferencing + extra LCD monitor Media Pen-and-Paper Digital Pen-and-Paper (Wacon Cintiq 21 + Alias Sketches Book Pro) Recording DV X 4 Camtasia + DV x 2 Name In-Situ On-Virtu
    9. 9. METHOD AND STEPS [email_address]
    10. 10. Methodology <ul><li>Protocol Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental Procedure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducting the experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 teams of two 3 rd ID students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Transcribing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>10 data sets for each environment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyzing by Coding Scheme </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical Results and Discussions </li></ul></ul>[email_address]
    11. 11. Coding Scheme 1 <ul><li>Design Prototype (Gero 1990) </li></ul><ul><li>Ontology of design process </li></ul>[email_address]
    12. 12. Coding Scheme 2 <ul><li>Valkenburg & Dorst (1998) </li></ul><ul><li>The reflective practice of design teams </li></ul><ul><li>Content of designing </li></ul>[email_address]
    13. 13. Coding Example [email_address] 1 2
    14. 14. STATISTICAL RESULTS [email_address]
    15. 15. Segment Number <ul><li>Intention / Element of Design process </li></ul><ul><li>no significant difference </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chi-Square = 7.3 df=9 p=.605 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>strong relationship </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spearman nonparametric correlation r=.964 p=.000 </li></ul></ul>[email_address] Team A D C F G H E I B J Digital 301 272 305 245 219 221 248 213 222 216 Traditional 253 280 235 275 294 290 246 251 201 196
    16. 16. FBS Result [email_address] Traditional Media Digital Media Team F B S F B S A 36 716 27 35 651 16 B 32 474 10 19 476 6 C 36 474 15 26 483 21 D 19 187 10 13 156 6 E 31 352 14 27 369 7 F 18 414 12 12 393 11 G 16 333 10 14 344 14 H 11 316 8 15 304 15 I 19 497 18 14 460 27 J 19 344 12 20 349 12
    17. 17. FMNR Result [email_address] Traditional Media Digital Media Team F M N R F M N R A 16 632 36 95 23 547 34 98 B 15 390 32 79 12 402 19 73 C 10 430 36 49 8 456 26 40 D 7 159 19 31 8 126 13 31 E 12 304 31 50 18 316 27 42 F 14 344 18 69 14 333 12 57 G 16 279 16 48 15 299 11 47 H 12 267 11 45 13 268 9 44 I 14 447 17 56 10 418 14 59 J 22 294 19 40 11 325 13 32
    18. 18. Statistics <ul><li>In terms of FBS (design process) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No statistical significant differences between the distribution of FBS media in each team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chi-Square <5.99, p > .05, df = 2 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>In terms of FMNR (design content) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No statistical significant differences between the distribution of FBS media in each team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chi-Square <7.81, p > .05, df = 3 </li></ul></ul></ul>[email_address]
    19. 19. Conclusions <ul><li>The in-situ environment is of no difference to the on-virtu environment </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of design process and content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Function-behavior-structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Naming-Moving-Reflection-Framing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Empirically examined by protocol analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Statistical verification </li></ul><ul><li>Being cognitively identical </li></ul>[email_address]
    20. 20. Discussions <ul><li>Design Computing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is possible to establish a computer-aided conceptual design environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design Practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is possible to remotely conduct conceptual design collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design Cognition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It is possible to conduct quantitative protocol studies with statistically significant results </li></ul></ul>[email_address]

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