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  1. 1. <ul><li>DR.SHAMBHU N. GUPTA </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CITY HOSPITAL, </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>45 MODEL COLONY SRI GANGANAGAR-335001 </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  2. 4. Population <ul><li>The total number of people who inhabit an area, region, in a particular group . </li></ul>
  3. 5. <ul><li>Highlights the need to support young people in their efforts to lead safe, rewarding lives and contribute to the well-being of their families and communities. </li></ul>“ One billion adolescents: the right to health, information and services”.
  4. 7. Being young is tough <ul><li>With the slogan this year's World Population Day focuses on young people – ensuring that their voices are heard. </li></ul><ul><li>Their needs are met and their human rights are protected. </li></ul><ul><li>World Population Day aims to raise awareness about important population and development issues. </li></ul>
  5. 9. <ul><li>&quot; One of every six people on earth is an adolescent. In the developing world, more than 40 percent of the population is under age 20. </li></ul><ul><li>The decisions these young people make will shape our world and the prospects of future generations . </li></ul><ul><li>On this World Population Day, let us recognize their right to the health, information and services they need and deserve.&quot; </li></ul>
  6. 10. <ul><li>Today more than 1.2 billion adolescents are coming of age. </li></ul><ul><li>Their success and happiness depend on their having access to the support, the role models, the education, the skills, the opportunities and the resources that can empower them to make responsible and healthy choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Investing in the well-being and ensuring the participation of the world's largest generation of young people will improve their lives immediately and yield dividends for generations to come . </li></ul>
  7. 11. <ul><li>&quot;One of every six people on earth is an adolescent. </li></ul><ul><li>In the developing world, more than 40 percent of the population is under age 20. </li></ul><ul><li>The decisions these young people make will shape our world and the prospects of future generations. </li></ul><ul><li>On this World Population Day, let us recognize their right to the health, information and services they need and deserve.&quot; </li></ul>
  8. 12. Defining terms <ul><li>Use and meanings of the terms 'young people', 'youth', and 'adolescents' vary in different societies around the world, depending on political, economic and socio-cultural context. </li></ul><ul><li>UNFPA follows the definitions below: </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescents: 10-19 year olds </li></ul><ul><li>early adolescence 10-14 and </li></ul><ul><li>late adolescence 15-19 </li></ul><ul><li>Youth: 15-24 year olds </li></ul><ul><li>Young People: 10-24 year olds </li></ul>
  9. 13. <ul><li>The 20th century saw the biggest increase in the world's population in human history. </li></ul><ul><li>The following table shows estimates of when each billion milestone was met: </li></ul><ul><li>1 billion was reached in 1802. </li></ul><ul><li>2 billion was reached 125 years later in 1927. </li></ul><ul><li>3 billion was reached 34 years later in 1961. </li></ul><ul><li>4 billion was reached 13 years later in 1974. </li></ul><ul><li>5 billion was reached 13 years later in 1987. </li></ul><ul><li>6 billion was reached 12 years later in 1999. </li></ul>
  10. 14. <ul><li>These numbers show that the world's population has tripled in 72 years, and doubled in 38 years up to the year 1999. </li></ul><ul><li>Some estimates say that the human population around AD 950 was 250 million and in 2027 will be 8 billion, and the world population doubled (or will double) in the following years (doubling times in parentheses): </li></ul>
  11. 15. Fast Facts <ul><li>Today, there are more than 6 billion people on the planet. </li></ul><ul><li>With half of the world’s population under the age of 25—at or just reaching their childbearing years. </li></ul><ul><li>Some 1.2 billion people are between the ages of 10 and 19. Eighty-seven per cent of these adolescents live in developing countries. </li></ul>
  12. 17. How fast is India Growing <ul><li>The population clock in the Union Health Ministry, Nirman Bhavan, New Delhi, now ticks at the rate of 31 persons per minute. </li></ul><ul><li>The clock shows that about 44,640 babies are born in India everyday. </li></ul><ul><li>Hence the population of India increases by 16.29 million every year, which is equivalent to the total population of Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are some more facts about our motherland. </li></ul>
  13. 18. <ul><li>Estimated Population of India on  Saturday July 8, 2006   at 8:31:05 AM 1,095,427,930   </li></ul><ul><li>Rate of Increase in Indian Population </li></ul><ul><li>Per Year = 1,55,31,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Per Month = 12,73,033 </li></ul><ul><li>Per Day = 42,434 </li></ul><ul><li>Per Hour = 1,768 </li></ul><ul><li>Per Minute = 31 </li></ul>
  14. 20. Population of India <ul><li>Although India occupies only 2.4% of the world's land area, it supports over 15% of the world's population. </li></ul><ul><li>Only China has a larger population. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost 40% of Indians are younger than 15 years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>About 70% of the people live in more than 550,000 villages, and the remainder in more than 200 towns and cities. </li></ul>
  15. 21. <ul><li>The total population of Rajasthan as at 1st March 2001 stood at 56,473,122. </li></ul><ul><li>In terms of population it holds the eighth position among the States and Union territories in the country. </li></ul><ul><li>This has registered a growth rate of 28.33% when compared to national average of 21.34% during the decade 1991-2001. </li></ul><ul><li>The sex ratio (i.e., the number of females per thousand males) of population in the State has improved from 910 in the previous census to 922 in the current census. The literacy rate in the State has shown a remarkable improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>The literacy rate has increased to 61.03% when compared to 38.55% ten years back during 1991 Census. </li></ul>
  16. 22. India is expected to grow from 1.09bn to 1.63bn people, overtaking China, which is forecast to reach 1.44bn from 1.3bn currently <ul><li>1 India, 1,628m (2) </li></ul><ul><li>2 China, 1,437m (1) </li></ul><ul><li>3 United States, 420m (3) </li></ul><ul><li>4 Indonesia, 308m (4) </li></ul><ul><li>5 Nigeria, 307m (9) </li></ul><ul><li>Source: PRB (2004 position in brackets) </li></ul>
  17. 23. Population Projections for India (million) <ul><li>March 1991 = 846.3 </li></ul><ul><li>March 2001 = 1012.4 </li></ul><ul><li>March 2011 = 1178.9 </li></ul><ul><li>March 2016 = 1263.5 1 </li></ul>
  18. 24. <ul><li>The birth rate in India (31 per thousand people) is greater than that of China (20 per thousand people). </li></ul><ul><li>India is set to overtake China as the world's most populous nation by 2050, while some countries will shrink by nearly 40%, according to new research . </li></ul>
  19. 25. <ul><li>The density of the population in India has climbed up from 261 per square kilometer in 1981 to 267 per square kilometer in 1991. </li></ul><ul><li>This is ten times greater than the density in the United States (26 per square kilometer) and 2.5 times greater than the density in China (109 per square kilometer). </li></ul>
  20. 26. <ul><li>While global population has increased threefold during this century, from 2 billion to 6 billion, the population of India has increased nearly five times from 238 million (23 crores) to 1 billion in the same period. </li></ul><ul><li>India's current annual increase in population of 15.5 million is large enough to neutralize efforts to conserve the resource endowment and environment. </li></ul>
  21. 27. <ul><li>Half of the world's people are under the age of 25. </li></ul><ul><li>This includes the largest-ever generation of adolescents (1.2 billion people between the ages of 10 and 19), who are approaching adulthood in a rapidly changing world. </li></ul><ul><li>The vast majority – 87 per cent – live in the developing world, in highly diverse economic and social situations, family structures, cultures and localities. </li></ul>Supporting Adolescents and Youth
  22. 28. <ul><li>&quot;Throughout the world, millions of girls and boys are deprived of an education, harming their individual prospects and those of society at large. </li></ul><ul><li>In some countries, half of all girls are married before the age of 18, often resulting in early childbearing that poses serious health risks to both mother and child. </li></ul><ul><li>Experience shows that educated women are more likely to marry later, and have healthy and better educated children, who will pass on these benefits from one generation to the next. </li></ul>
  23. 29. UNFPA's vision and approach <ul><li>UNFPA's vision of a world fit for adolescents and youth is one in which their rights are promoted and protected. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a world in which girls and boys have optimal opportunities to develop their full potential </li></ul><ul><li>To freely express themselves and have their views respected. </li></ul><ul><li>To live free of poverty, discrimination and violence. </li></ul>
  24. 30. <ul><li>In such a world, young people would be enabled to make informed. </li></ul><ul><li>Voluntary and responsible life choices, including those regarding their sexual and reproductive health. </li></ul><ul><li>UNFPA is committed to fulfilling this vision from a holistic, gender-sensitive and youth-centered approach . </li></ul>
  25. 31. <ul><li>UNFPA believes that for this vision to become a reality, change is required at multiple levels, from the individual to the community to the national level. </li></ul><ul><li>The Fund recognizes that young people have a right to enjoy this period of their lives. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, with their creativity, adaptability and talents, young people are a precious resource, with a vital role to play in how the future unfolds. </li></ul>
  26. 32. UNFPA's programs: <ul><li>In line with its vision, </li></ul><ul><li>Address the inherent diversity of young people </li></ul><ul><li>Promote gender equality and equity </li></ul><ul><li>Affirm and safeguard the human rights of young people, including their rights to access sexual and reproductive health information, education, counseling and other services </li></ul><ul><li>Foster youth participation </li></ul><ul><li>Work from a holistic, comprehensive and interdisciplinary approach, recognizing that reproductive health issues are intimately linked with other concerns and realities facing young people </li></ul>
  27. 33. <ul><li>UNFPA considers that supporting the well-being of adolescents is imperative. </li></ul><ul><li>Investing in young people is also one of the most significant and cost-effective strategies for achieving global development goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Supporting young people in achieving their full potential means improving prospects for their own — and their countries' — well-being. </li></ul>
  28. 34. <ul><li>The empowerment of young people is integrally linked to promoting and safeguarding their human rights. </li></ul><ul><li>A rights-based approach to development recognizes that people become empowered to act on their own behalf and claim their human rights as they gain access to relevant information, skills and opportunities. </li></ul><ul><li>For adolescents, this implies progressive measures to remove barriers to the recognition of their needs and realities and the realization of their rights and capacities to participate in decisions affecting their lives. </li></ul>
  29. 35. Between vision and reality <ul><li>UNFPA's vision is not yet a reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty diminishes the lives of far too many girls and boys, who often forego schooling to find work to supplement family income. </li></ul><ul><li>For too many adolescents, especially girls, adolescence can be a time of narrowing life opportunities and choices. </li></ul><ul><li>Many adolescent girls face double-discrimination as a result of both their sex and age. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys are often socialized to believe that dominant attitudes toward women and risk-taking are part of being a man . </li></ul>
  30. 36. <ul><li>Attitudes and behaviors related to gender relations, sexuality and reproductive rights and responsibilities are central to the fabric of life. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence is a critical time for developing positive attitudes and behaviors in this arena. </li></ul><ul><li>But the needs that young people have for information and services related to sexual and reproductive health are often neglected, and the gender disparities facing them are often overlooked. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuing this neglect at a time when HIV/AIDS is infecting some 6,000 young people each day is unconscionable. </li></ul>
  31. 37. Adolescent Realities in a Changing World <ul><li>Although all countries, cultures and traditions want what is best for their young generations, adolescence may be viewed differently from one community or culture to the next. </li></ul><ul><li>Still, the psychosocial, emotional and biological changes that characterize this stage of life are widely shared. During this critical stage of life, personality and self-identity become more defined. </li></ul><ul><li>Parents can have an enormous role in guiding their children. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence is also a time for expanding relationships and friendships outside the family circle, for establishing greater autonomy, and for intensified development of interpersonal and social skills. </li></ul>
  32. 38. <ul><li>How young people develop their understanding of the biological, emotional and social changes they experience in adolescence is closely related to their sense of social identity and purpose, self-perception and self-esteem, thoughts and feelings, and capacity to establish caring relationships and intimacy with others. </li></ul><ul><li>It is all the more important for young people to receive the guidance and support they need considering that worldwide, most people become sexually active during this stage of life, whether within or outside of marriage. </li></ul>
  33. 39. A time of learning and exploration <ul><li>Adolescents are resilient and resourceful individuals, with their own views and evolving decision-making capacities. </li></ul><ul><li>Adolescence is a time of learning and exploring, and can be a good time to establish healthy attitudes and behaviors for life. </li></ul><ul><li>For many, it is also a time when job skills may be developed and economic life begins, although often in underpaid, unsafe or exploitative conditions. </li></ul>
  34. 40. <ul><li>Adolescence is also a time when risks of sexual and other forms of abuse, exploitation and violence are high. </li></ul><ul><li>When the drive for autonomy and self-definition often means a reduced reliance on parents or other adults as trusted sources of guidance and support. </li></ul><ul><li>This is especially true when it comes to sensitive areas such as sexual and reproductive health and gender relations. </li></ul><ul><li>Without guidance, young people may suffer violence and abuse, be exploited, or find themselves in otherwise unsafe circumstances, or become sexually active without the knowledge and means they need to avoid unintended consequences. </li></ul>
  35. 41. Adolescents in the midst of globalization <ul><li>Adolescents have been traditionally ignored by public sector programs and budgets, which tend to focus on children (under 10), and then on adults. </li></ul><ul><li>Investing in adolescents is an opportunity to ensure that the earlier investments made in childhood come to fruition for the benefit of national development. </li></ul><ul><li>Otherwise, accomplishments in improved child educational and health status may be undermined. </li></ul><ul><li>Since the 1990s, many international agreements and forums have brought more attention to the needs of adolescents and young people. </li></ul>
  36. 42. attention to the needs of adolescents and young people. <ul><li>Because young people today are typically entering puberty at a younger age and getting married later than in the past, they face a longer period between sexual maturity and marriage. </li></ul><ul><li>Many young people are raised in the age of global telecommunications and globalization of a ‘youth culture' spread through the mass media. </li></ul><ul><li>They often get information, including about sexuality and health, from sources outside of the family, whereas once the family was the traditional institution for imparting social norms about these issues. </li></ul>
  37. 43. <ul><li>Young people tend to have higher levels of educational attainment than in the past, but they also require better education and more skills to compete in today's world, and overcome social exclusion and poverty. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the historical progress in school enrolment, millions of adolescents are outside the school system, or forced to abandon their schooling due to poverty or HIV/AIDS, among other reasons. </li></ul>
  38. 44. Overcoming Gender Disparities <ul><li>Girls and boys face different sets of challenges and pressures as they approach adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>Disparities in the way girls and boys are raised and treated are at the root of many sexual and reproductive health problems and development challenges. </li></ul><ul><li>UNFPA recognizes that the world is different for girls than it is for boys, and programmed approaches must reflect this. </li></ul>
  39. 45. <ul><li>For boys, adolescence can be a time for expanded participation in community and public life. </li></ul><ul><li>Girls, however, may experience new restrictions, and find their freedom of movement limited. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition, socially constructed gender roles may give girls little say about their own aspirations and hopes, and restrict them to being wives and mothers. </li></ul><ul><li>Boys face other kinds of societal and peer pressures, as they may be encouraged to be risk-takers and to demonstrate their manhood through aggressive behaviour. </li></ul>
  40. 46. Preventing HIV/AIDS among Young People <ul><li>A youth is infected with HIV every 14 seconds, and youth (increasingly young women) account for nearly half of the new cases of HIV infection worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>Many young people are unable to protect themselves from HIV infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Discussing sexual behaviour is taboo in many countries, so large numbers of young people do not have the information or skills to refuse sex or negotiate safer sex practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Concerted, scaled-up prevention efforts, as successful programs have shown, are crucial to turning back the epidemic. </li></ul>
  41. 47. <ul><li>This year on World Population Day, the focus is on young people . </li></ul><ul><li>From a 10-year-old girl to a young man of 24, their needs are different, their cultures diverse. </li></ul><ul><li>Yet, all over the world, young people want to be heard and involved. </li></ul><ul><li>They possess the ideas, determination and energy to accelerate effective action to reduce poverty and inequality. </li></ul><ul><li>In every region, young people are taking action on HIV/AIDS and other issues that threaten their health, education and future opportunities. </li></ul>
  42. 48. <ul><li>Young people want to stay safe and healthy. They want a chance at a better future. </li></ul><ul><li>About HIV prevention, they tell us: “Adults say we are too young to know; we say we are too young to die.” </li></ul><ul><li>About family planning, young people tell us: “Men should share responsibility with women.” </li></ul><ul><li>About sexual and reproductive health, they say: </li></ul><ul><li>“Young people need this information. It shapes our lives and affects our future.” </li></ul>
  43. 49. <ul><li>Yet today, millions of young people are threatened by poverty, illiteracy, risks of pregnancy and childbirth, and HIV/AIDS. </li></ul><ul><li>Today, more than 500 million people aged 15 to 24 live on less than $2 per day; 96 million young women in developing countries do not know how to read or write; and 14 million adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 become mothers every year. </li></ul><ul><li>Every day, 6,000 young people are newly infected with HIV. </li></ul>
  44. 50. <ul><li>These challenges lie at the heart of goals set by world leaders to reduce poverty and improve health and well-being. </li></ul><ul><li>It is clear that the Millennium Development Goals will not be met unless young people are actively involved in policymaking and programming, their voices are heard, their needs are met and their human rights are respected. </li></ul>
  45. 51. <ul><li>UNFPA champions young people’s rights to education, health and employment. </li></ul><ul><li>We recognize that investments in young people promote social and economic growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Key to these efforts are keeping girls in school, building life skills, delaying marriage and pregnancy until adulthood, and preventing HIV infection. </li></ul><ul><li>Young people have the power to drive development forward. </li></ul>
  46. 52. <ul><li>On World Population Day, let us focus on young people and seek new ways to work side-by-side as partners in development. </li></ul><ul><li>Although it is often said that young people are the future, it is also true that young people are the present and their leadership should be supported today. </li></ul><ul><li>As a young peer educator said, “We are creating the future and it is great.” </li></ul>
  47. 53. Youth and the Millennium Development Goals <ul><li>UNFPA has a vision of a world fit for young people. It is a world that promotes and protects their rights. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides opportunities to develop their full potential, welcomes and respects their voices and views, and where they live free of poverty, discrimination and violence. </li></ul><ul><li>In such a world, young people possess the knowledge and skills required to make informed, voluntary and responsible life choices, including decisions about sexual and reproductive health. </li></ul>
  48. 55. Create the tomorrow .. So that what you missed, the next generation don’t miss .. Give them what you cherished ..
  49. 56. <ul><li>We should not treat population as bad to our country. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a real resource and we have enough natural resources. </li></ul><ul><li>So educate people about their capability, make India strong. </li></ul>Population……….is it bad??
  50. 57. <ul><li>Most them are saying that most of the problems like unemployment, poverty etc is caused due to population. </li></ul><ul><li>Population is not at all a BIG (I repeat a BIG) problem! Population was once considered bad but now it is a human resource. </li></ul><ul><li>In India about 70% of the population are below 35 yrs. </li></ul><ul><li>Then imagine at what rate India would have developed if all these work hard and were educated. </li></ul><ul><li>In a western country more than 50% of the population are above 45-50yrs and that country is a super power today. </li></ul>
  51. 58. <ul><li>Why is this not happening with India when there are so many youngsters? </li></ul><ul><li>It is because of some people's attitudes they are not working hard and are illiterate. </li></ul><ul><li>India has an excellent and the best human resource, but India with such a kind of human resource should have developed long back and this is because of illiteracy. </li></ul><ul><li>So never consider population as a problem because it is a resource which some countries don't have! </li></ul>
  52. 60. ThankYou. Dr. Shambhu Gupta City Hospital 45 Model Colony