Psychodynamic Theory: Jung and Horney<br />Many of Freud's original followers eventually split from a traditional psychodynamic approach due to differences in the emphasis placed on sexual and aggressive instincts. These early theorists are often referred to as Neo-Freudians as they share Freud's focus on unconscious influence and intrapsychic conflict, but they take a new perspectives in examining personality motivation. This week, we will examine Jung's and Horney's contributions to the psychodynamic theory of personality to gain a thorough understanding of analytical and psychoanalytical social psychologies.To get started, read Chapter 4 - Jung: Analytical Psychology and Chapter 6 - Horney: Psychoanalytical Social Psychology.<br />Carl Jung<br />Jung was one of Freud's most prized followers; Freud was even known to have referred to Jung as "
my beloved son."
Jung was a brilliant theorist; but, equally important during this era, he was one of the first non-Jewish psychologists to join the Freudian movement. Jung's religious status was especially important, as many of Freud's ideas and theories were considered "
and easily dismissed by the general public who was flooded with anti-sematic messages from Hitler. Jung gave credibility and acceptance to Freud's ideas concerning the unconscious. Over time though, the relationship between Freud and Jung became strained and their theories took very different directions. View the video clip "
Jung and Freud"
(text version) to learn more about their turmulous relationship. After breaking from Freud, Jung proposed his own theory of personality which he called analytical psychology.<br />Jung believed that the unconscious was a powerful influence on the formation of personality and the forces that motivate behavior. View the video "
Jung's Understanding of the Unconscious"
(text version) for a detailed examination of the role of the unconscious. A key feature of his theory, is the differentiation between the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious. The personal unconscious is unique to each individual and is made up of personal experiences. The collective unconscious is a "
component of everyone's unconscious that includes universal elements passed from generations of ancestors.<br />Jung placed considerable emphasis on the collective unconscious and the influence of its contents. The highly developed, universal contents of the collective unconscious are called archetypes. View the video "
Jung's Explanation of Archetypes"
(text version) to hear Jung describe the role and purpose of archetypes. Some of the most common archetypes are explained in the following table.<br />ArchetypeExplanationpersonaThe persona is often called the "
of personality as it contains the aspects of our self (roles, attitudes, behaviors, etc.) that we are willing to show the outside world. shadowThe shadow is considered the persona's evil twin as it contains the aspects of our personality that we wish to hide or disguise from our self and others. animaThe feminine aspect of a man's personality representing irrational moods and emotions.animusThe masculine aspect of a woman's personality symbolic of logic, thinking, and reasoning.selfThe innate, inherited potential for total growth and completion. The self moves us toward an individual perfection achieved through the unity of the other archetypes. <br />The aspect of Jung's theory that is most popular in modern psychology is the explanation of psychological types formed through the relationship between attitudes and functions. The following presentation highlights the formation of the eight Jungian personality types:<br />PowerPoint on Jungian Personality Types<br />There are a variety of free tests to determine your personality typology using the Jungian system. If you are interested in knowing your personality type, take the Jung Typology Test, then go to Type Logic for an interpretation.<br />Supplemental resources:Chapter outline PowerPoint review of chapter Article, "
Did Carl Jung Wish for the Death of His Wife?"
Questions for further thought:Describe Jung's levels of the psyche.List and briefly describe Jung's most important archetypes.Discuss Jung's notion of extraversion and introversion.Compare and contract Freud and Jung's ideas concerning the role of the unconscious.<br />Karen Horney<br />Horney proposed the psychoanalytic social theory of personality. Like the theorists we have discussed thus far, the roots of Horney's theory lie in the psychodynamic tradition which acknowledges the importance of unconscious influences and intrapsychic conflict. Unique to Horney's theory is the emphasis on the social and cultural factors that influence the formation of personality. Horney believed that the core personality is shaped in childhood and occurs as a direct result of the relationship between children and their parents. <br />Children are born with basic needs (safety and satisfaction) and rely on their parents to create a loving, affectionate environment in which these needs can be met. When the needs are met, children have a solid basis for healthy personality growth and development. But, when these needs are not met, children develop a resentment toward the parents; Horney termed this resentment basic hostility. Because children are in a helpless position in relation to their parents, they are unable to express this hostility and respond by withdrawing. This, in turn, leads the child to develop basic anxiety which is characterized by feelings of insecurity and isolation. <br />Horney believed that personality develops as a consequence of the attempt to deal with basic anxiety; she called these attempts neurotic needs. The neurotic needs can be grouped into three neurotic trends or fundamental styles of relating to people: moving toward people, moving against people, and moving away from people. The following chart shows the relationship between neurotic needs and neurotic trends.<br />All individuals possess one of the fundamental styles of relating to people as basic conflict cannot be completely avoided. A person with a healthy personality shows spontaneous movement and operates within a socially-acceptable range of behaviors. The neurotic individual, on the other hand, is compulsive and tends to take an extreme position when forming interpersonal relationships. For example:<br />Basic AttitudesNormal PersonalityNeurotic Personalitymoving towardfriendly, loving, affectionate, warmcompliant, clingy, codependentmoving againstcompetitive, goal-orientedaggressive, hostile, angrymoving away fromautonoumus, serene, independentdetached, isolated, emotionally-distant<br />Horney's theories continue to have an influence in the training of therapists and in our understanding of personality. <br />Supplemental resources:Chapter outline PowerPoint review of chapterQuestions for further thought:Discuss Horney's criticism of Freud. Discuss Horney's concepts of neurotic needs and neurotic trends. Summarize he chief findings of Lyon and Greenberg's 1991 study and discuss how it relates to Horney's theory.<br />