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Psych 3 ch09 erikson 1


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Psych 3 ch09 erikson 1

  1. 1. Erickson <ul><li>Chapter 9 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Biography of Erickson </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of the Ego </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of Psychosocial Development </li></ul><ul><li>Erickson’s Method of Investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Related Research </li></ul><ul><li>Critique of Erickson </li></ul><ul><li>Concept of Humanity </li></ul>
  3. 3. Biography of Erickson <ul><li>Born in Frankfurt, Germany in 1902 </li></ul><ul><li>Son of Jewish mother and unknown father </li></ul><ul><li>Experienced several “identity crises”, possibly due to not having known his father </li></ul><ul><li>As a child, does not feel accepted by either Jewish or Gentile community </li></ul><ul><li>Leaves home at 18 to live as itinerant artist </li></ul>
  4. 4. Biography (cont’d) <ul><li>In Vienna, is introduced to psychoanalysis by Anna Freud </li></ul><ul><li>Graduates from Vienna Psychoanalytic Institute </li></ul><ul><li>Although lacking an academic degree, accepts position at Harvard Medical School </li></ul><ul><li>Also taught at Yale, Berkeley, and several other institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Died in Cape Cod in 1994 </li></ul>
  5. 5. Importance of the Ego <ul><li>Description of Ego Psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three facets: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Body ego </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ego ideal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ego Identity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Society’s Influence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ego develops within and is influenced by a culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Epigenetic Principle </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ego grows according to a genetically established rate and in a fixed sequence </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Stages of Psychosocial Development <ul><li>Infancy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oral-Sensory Mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basic Trust versus Basic Mistrust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hope: The Basic Strength of Infancy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Early Childhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anal-Urethral-Muscular Mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Autonomy versus Shame and Doubt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Will: The Basic Strength of Childhood </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Stages of Psychosocial Development (cont’d) <ul><li>Play Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genital-Locomotor Mode </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiative versus Guilt </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose: The Basic Strength of the Play Age </li></ul></ul><ul><li>School Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Latency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Industry versus Inferiority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competence: The Basic Strength of the School Age </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Stages of Psychosocial Development (cont’d) <ul><li>Adolescence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Puberty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identity versus Identity Confusion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fidelity: The Basic Strength of Adolescence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Young Adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Genitality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Intimacy versus Isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Love: The Basic Strength of Young Adulthood </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Stages of Psychosocial Development (cont’d) <ul><li>Adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procreativity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generativity versus Stagnation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Care: The Basic Strength of Adulthood </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Old Age </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Generalized Sensuality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrity versus Despair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisdom: The Basic Strength of Old Age </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Erickson’s Method of Investigation <ul><li>Anthropological Studies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sioux nation of South Dakota </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yurok nation of northern California </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychohistory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination of the methods of psychoanalysis and historical research to study personality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Play Construction </li></ul>
  11. 11. Related Research <ul><li>Identity in Early Adulthood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pals and Helson (2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women with anchored identity had a clear and strong sense of well-being </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Identity established in early adulthood was associated with stable marriage and high levels of creativity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pals (1999) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Women who had solid identity and high creative potential at age 21 were more likely than other women to have had a challenging and creative work experience at age 52 </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Critique of Erickson <ul><li>Erickson’s Theory is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High on Organizing Knowledge and Internal Consistency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moderate on Generating Research, Falsifiability, Guiding Action, and Parsimony </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Concept of Humanity <ul><li>Determinism over Free Choice </li></ul><ul><li>Optimism over Pessimism </li></ul><ul><li>Causality over Teleology </li></ul><ul><li>Equal emphasis on Unconscious and Conscious </li></ul><ul><li>Culture over Biology </li></ul><ul><li>Uniqueness over Similarity </li></ul>