Psy 3 cattell eysenck

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Psy 3 cattell eysenck

  1. 1. Cattell and Eysenck Chapter 13
  2. 2. Outline • Biography of Cattell • Introduction to Cattell’s Trait Theory • Basics of Factor Analysis • Source Traits • Personality Traits • Dynamic Traits • Genetic Basis of Traits Cont’d
  3. 3. Outline • Biography of Eysenck • Introduction to Eysenck’s Factor Theory • Measuring Personality • Dimensions of Personality • Related Research • Critique of Trait and Factor Theories • Concept of Humanity
  4. 4. Biography of Cattell • Born in England in 1905 • Second of three sons of middle-class parents • Received his Ph.D in psychology from University of London • Taught at Columbia, Clark University, Harvard, and the University of Illinois • Died in 1998 at age 92
  5. 5. Cattell’s Trait Theory • P Technique – A correlational method that involves one person taking two or more tests on many occasions • Media of observation – L data – Q data – T data
  6. 6. Basics of Factor Analysis • Factor analysis • Factors • Factor loadings • Unipolar and Bipolar traits • Eysenck  orthogonal rotation • Cattell  oblique rotation
  7. 7. Source Traits • Source traits refer to the underlying factor or factors responsible for the intercorrelation among surface traits • Surface traits that consistently cluster together indicate the existence of an underlying source trait • Source traits can be identified through each of the three media of observation; that is, L, Q, and T data
  8. 8. Personality Traits • Temperament Traits –Normal traits –Abnormal traits • Second-Order Traits
  9. 9. Dynamic Traits • Attitudes • Ergs • Sems • The Dynamic Lattice
  10. 10. Genetic Basis of Traits • Cattell and colleagues provided estimates of the heritability of the various source traits • Heritability is an estimate of the extent to which the variance of a given trait is due to heredity
  11. 11. Biography of Eysenck • Born in Berlin, Germany in 1916 • As a teenager, moved to England to escape Nazi tyranny • Received his Ph.D in psychology at the University of London • One of the most prolific and controversial psychologists in the world • Died in 1997 at age 81
  12. 12. Measuring Personality • Criteria for Identifying Factors – Personality factors must: 1. Be based on strong psychometric evidence 2. Fit an acceptable genetic model 3. Make sense theoretically 4. Possess social relevance
  13. 13. Measuring Personality • Hierarchy of Measures – Four-level hierarchy of behavior organization: • Specific behaviors or cognitions • Habitual acts or cognitions • Traits or personal dispositions • Types or superfactors
  14. 14. Dimensions of Personality • What Are the Major Personality Factors? • Measuring Superfactors • Biological Bases of Personality • Personality and Behavior • Personality and Disease
  15. 15. Related Research • Personalities of Creative Scientists and Artists • In a quantitative review of the literature, G.J. Feist (1998) found that – on Cattell’s 16PF writers and artists were more intelligent, dominant, adventurous, emotionally sensitive, radical, and self-sufficient than other people – on Eysenck’s EPQ creative artists scored high on the neuroticism and psychoticism scales
  16. 16. Critique of Trait and Factor Theories • Trait and Factor Theories are: – Very High on Generating Research – High on Organizing Knowledge and Parsimony – Moderate on Falsifiability, Guiding Action, and Internal Consistency
  17. 17. Concept of Humanity • The concepts of free choice, optimism versus pessimism, and causality versus teleology do not apply to Cattell and Eysenck • Biology over Culture • Equal emphasis on Conscious and Unconscious • Uniqueness over Similarity

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