Chapter 7  The Other Sensory Systems
Audition <ul><li>Our senses have evolved to allow us to detect and interpret biologically useful information from our envi...
Audition <ul><li>Audition  refers to our sense of hearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Audition depends upon our ability to detect s...
Audition <ul><li>The  amplitude  refers to the height and subsequent intensity of the sound wave. </li></ul><ul><li>Loudne...
Fig. 7-1, p. 190
Audition <ul><li>Anatomist distinguish between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The outer ear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The middle ...
Audition <ul><li>The outer ear includes the  pinna,  the structure of flesh and cartilage attached to each side of the hea...
Audition <ul><li>The middle ear contains the  tympanic membrane  which vibrates at the same rate when struck by sound wave...
Fig. 7-2, p. 191
Audition <ul><li>The inner ear contains a snail shaped structure called the  cochlea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contains three ...
Fig. 7-3, p. 192
Audition <ul><li>Pitch perception theories include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Place theory -  each area along the ba...
Fig. 7-4, p. 193
Audition <ul><li>The current pitch theory combines modified versions of both the  place theory  and  frequency theory : </...
Audition <ul><li>Volley principle  - auditory nerve as a whole produces volleys of impulses (for sounds up to about up to ...
Audition <ul><li>People vary in their sensitivity to pitch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ amusia”- the impaired detection of freq...
Audition <ul><li>Absolute pitch (“perfect pitch”) is the ability to hear a note and identify it. </li></ul><ul><li>Either ...
Audition <ul><li>The  primary auditory cortex  (area A1)is the destination for most information from the auditory system. ...
Audition <ul><li>Organization of the auditory cortex parallels that of the visual cortex. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>superior t...
Fig. 7-5, p. 194
Audition <ul><li>The cortex is necessary for the  advanced  processing of hearing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to A1 does...
Fig. 7-6, p. 195
Audition <ul><li>Areas around the primary auditory cortex exist in which cells respond more to changes in sound than to pr...
Audition <ul><li>Two categories of hearing impairment include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conductive or middle ear deafness. </...
Audition <ul><li>Conductive / middle ear deafness  occurs if bones of the middle ear fail to transmit sound waves properly...
Audition <ul><li>Nerve or inner-ear deafness  results from damage to the cochlea, the hair cells, or the auditory nerve. <...
Audition <ul><li>Tinnitus  is a frequent or constant ringing in the ears. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>experienced by many people...
Audition <ul><li>Sound localization depends upon comparing the responses of the two ears. </li></ul><ul><li>Three cues: </...
Audition <ul><li>Three mechanisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-frequency sounds (2000 to 3000Hz) create a “sound shadow”, m...
Fig. 7-7, p. 196
Fig. 7-8, p. 197
Fig. 7-9, p. 197
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>The mechanical senses include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vestibular sensation </li></ul></ul...
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>The  vestibular sense  refers to the system that detects the position and the movement of th...
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>The  vestibular organ  consists of two otolith organs (the saccule and untricle) and three s...
Fig. 7-10, p. 200
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>The  somatosensory system  refers to the sensation of the body and its movements. </li></ul>...
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Touch receptors may be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>simple bare neuron ending  </li></ul></ul><ul>...
Fig. 7-11, p. 201
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>The  pacinian corpuscle  is a type of touch receptor that detects sudden displacement or hig...
Fig. 7-12, p. 200
Receptor Location Responds to Free nerve ending  (myelinated or thinly myelinated axons) Near base of hairs and elsewhere ...
Receptor Location Responds to Merkel’s disks Both hairy and hairless skin Tangential forces across skin Ruffini endings Bo...
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Information from touch receptors in the head enters the CNS through the cranial nerves. </li...
Fig. 7-13, p. 202
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Each spinal nerve has a sensory component and a motor component and connects to a limited ar...
Fig. 7-14, p. 202
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Various aspects of body sensations remain separate all the way to the cortex. </li></ul><ul>...
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Pain is the experience evoked by a harmful stimulus, directs our attention, and holds it </l...
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Axons carrying pain info have little of no myelin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, brain proce...
 
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Pain pathways to a tract ascending the contralateral side of the spinal cord  </li></ul><ul>...
 
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Opioid mechanisms  are systems that are sensitive to opioid drugs and similar chemicals.  </...
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Gate theory  suggests that the spinal cord areas that receive messages from pain receptors a...
Fig. 7-17, p. 206
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>A  placebo  is a drug or other procedure with no pharmacalogical effect. </li></ul><ul><li>P...
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Mechanisms of the body to increase sensitivity to pain include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage...
The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>The release of histamines by the skin produce itching sensations. </li></ul><ul><li>The rele...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Coding in the sensory system could theoretically follow: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The  labeled-li...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Vertebrate sensory systems probably have no pure label-lined codes. </li></ul><ul><li>The brai...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Taste refers to the stimulation of the  taste buds , which are receptors on the tongue. </li><...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Receptors for taste are modified skin cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Taste receptors have excitable ...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Papillae  are structures on the surface of the tongue that contain the taste buds. </li></ul><...
 
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Procedures that alter one receptor but not others can be used to identify taste receptors. </l...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Western societies have traditionally described sweet, sour, salty and bitter tastes as the “pr...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>The saltiness receptor permits sodium ions to cross the membrane. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>result...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Different chemicals also result in different temporal patterns of action potentials and activi...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Bitter receptors are sensitive to a wide range of chemicals with varying degrees of toxicity. ...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Taste coding in the brain depends upon a  pattern  of responses  across  fibers in the brain. ...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Different nerves carry taste information to the brain from the anterior two-thirds of the tong...
 
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Various areas of the brain are responsible for processing different taste information. </li></...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Genetic factors and hormones can account for some differences in taste sensitivity. </li></ul>...
 
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Olfaction  is the sense of smell and refers to the detection and recognition of chemicals that...
 
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Olfactory receptors are located on cilia which extend from the cell body into the mucous surfa...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Proteins in olfactory receptors respond to chemicals outside the cells and trigger changes in ...
 
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Axons from olfactory receptors carry information to the olfactory bulb. </li></ul><ul><li>Chem...
Olfaction <ul><li>Olfactory receptors are replaced approximately every month, but are subject to permanent impairment from...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Individual differences in olfaction exist regarding olfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Women detect ...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>The  vomeronasal organ (VNO)  is a set of receptors located near the olfactory receptors that ...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>The VNO and pheromones are important for most mammals, but less so for humans. </li></ul><ul><...
The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Synesthesia  is the experience of one sense in response to stimulation of a different sense. <...
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Ppt Chap 7

  1. 1. Chapter 7 The Other Sensory Systems
  2. 2. Audition <ul><li>Our senses have evolved to allow us to detect and interpret biologically useful information from our environment . </li></ul><ul><li>However, we do not detect all sensory information in the world. </li></ul><ul><li>Some sensory information lies beyond our ability to detect it </li></ul>
  3. 3. Audition <ul><li>Audition refers to our sense of hearing. </li></ul><ul><li>Audition depends upon our ability to detect sound waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Sound waves are periodic compressions of air, water or other media. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Audition <ul><li>The amplitude refers to the height and subsequent intensity of the sound wave. </li></ul><ul><li>Loudness refers to the perception of the sound wave. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Amplitude is one factor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequency refers to the number of compressions per second and is measured in hertz. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Related to the pitch (high to low) of a sound. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Fig. 7-1, p. 190
  6. 6. Audition <ul><li>Anatomist distinguish between: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The outer ear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The middle ear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The inner ear </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Audition <ul><li>The outer ear includes the pinna, the structure of flesh and cartilage attached to each side of the head. </li></ul><ul><li>Responsible for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Altering the reflection of sound waves into the middle ear from the outer ear. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helping to locate the source of a sound. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Audition <ul><li>The middle ear contains the tympanic membrane which vibrates at the same rate when struck by sound waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Also known as the ear drum </li></ul><ul><li>Connects to three tiny bones (malleus, incus, & stapes) that transform waves into stronger waves to the oval window </li></ul><ul><li>oval window is a membrane in the inner ear </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmits waves through the viscous fluid of the inner ear </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Fig. 7-2, p. 191
  10. 10. Audition <ul><li>The inner ear contains a snail shaped structure called the cochlea </li></ul><ul><ul><li>contains three fluid-filled tunnels (scala vestibuli, scala media, & the scala tympani). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hair cells are auditory receptors that lie between the basilar membrane and the tectorial membrane in the cochlea. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When displaced by vibrations in the fluid of the cochlea, they excite the cells of the auditory nerve </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Fig. 7-3, p. 192
  12. 12. Audition <ul><li>Pitch perception theories include the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Place theory - each area along the basilar membrane has hair cells sensitive to only one specific frequency of sound wave. </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency theory - the basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony with the sound and causes auditory nerve axons to produce action potentials at the same frequency. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Fig. 7-4, p. 193
  14. 14. Audition <ul><li>The current pitch theory combines modified versions of both the place theory and frequency theory : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low frequency sounds best explained by the frequency theory. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High frequency sounds best explained by place theory. </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Audition <ul><li>Volley principle - auditory nerve as a whole produces volleys of impulses (for sounds up to about up to 4000 per second) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no individual axon solely approaches that frequency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requires auditory cells to precisely time their responses </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hearing of higher frequencies not well-understood </li></ul>
  16. 16. Audition <ul><li>People vary in their sensitivity to pitch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ amusia”- the impaired detection of frequency changes (tone deafness) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Associated with thicker than average auditory cortex in the right hemisphere but with less than average white matter </li></ul><ul><li>Relates to abnormal migration of auditory neurons during early development paired with reduced connections between the auditory cortex and other areas </li></ul>
  17. 17. Audition <ul><li>Absolute pitch (“perfect pitch”) is the ability to hear a note and identify it. </li></ul><ul><li>Either high accuracy or none </li></ul><ul><li>Genetic predisposition may contribute </li></ul><ul><li>Main determinant is early and extensive musical training </li></ul><ul><li>More common among people who speak tonal langauges </li></ul>
  18. 18. Audition <ul><li>The primary auditory cortex (area A1)is the destination for most information from the auditory system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Located in the superior temporal cortex. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each hemisphere receives most of its information from the opposite ear. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Audition <ul><li>Organization of the auditory cortex parallels that of the visual cortex. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>superior temporal cortex contains area MT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allows detection of the motion of sound </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>area A1 is important for auditory imagery. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requires experience to develop properly. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Axons leading from the auditory cortex develop less in people deaf since birth </li></ul></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Fig. 7-5, p. 194
  21. 21. Audition <ul><li>The cortex is necessary for the advanced processing of hearing. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to A1 does not necessarily cause deafness unless damage extends to the subcortical areas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The auditory cortex provides a tonotopic map in which cells in the primary auditory cortex are more responsive to preferred tones. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some cells respond better to complex sounds than pure tones. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Fig. 7-6, p. 195
  23. 23. Audition <ul><li>Areas around the primary auditory cortex exist in which cells respond more to changes in sound than to prolonged sounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells outside A1 respond to auditory “objects” (animal cries, machinery noise, music, etc.). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Because initial response is slow, most likely responsible for interpreting the meaning of sounds. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Audition <ul><li>Two categories of hearing impairment include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conductive or middle ear deafness. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nerve deafness. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Audition <ul><li>Conductive / middle ear deafness occurs if bones of the middle ear fail to transmit sound waves properly to the cochlea. </li></ul><ul><li>Caused by disease, infections, or tumerous bone growth. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be corrected by surgery or hearing aids that amplify the stimulus. </li></ul><ul><li>Normal cochlea and normal auditory nerve allows people to hear their own voice clearly. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Audition <ul><li>Nerve or inner-ear deafness results from damage to the cochlea, the hair cells, or the auditory nerve. </li></ul><ul><li>Can vary in degree </li></ul><ul><li>Can be confined to one part of the cochlea. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>people can hear only certain frequencies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Can be inherited or caused by prenatal problems or early childhood disorders (rubella, syphilis, inadequate oxygen to the brain during birth, repeated exposure to loud noises, etc). </li></ul>
  27. 27. Audition <ul><li>Tinnitus is a frequent or constant ringing in the ears. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>experienced by many people with nerve deafness. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sometimes occurs after damage to the cochlea. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>axons representing other part of the body innervate parts of the brain previously responsive to sound. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similar to the mechanisms of phantom limb. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Audition <ul><li>Sound localization depends upon comparing the responses of the two ears. </li></ul><ul><li>Three cues: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sound shadow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Time of arrival </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>phase difference </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Humans localize low frequency sound by phase difference and high frequency sound by loudness difference. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Audition <ul><li>Three mechanisms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-frequency sounds (2000 to 3000Hz) create a “sound shadow”, making the sound louder for the closer ear. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The difference in the time of arrival at the two ears is most useful for localizing sounds with sudden onset. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Phase difference between the ears provides cues to sound location for localizing sounds with frequencies up to 1500 Hz. </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Fig. 7-7, p. 196
  31. 31. Fig. 7-8, p. 197
  32. 32. Fig. 7-9, p. 197
  33. 33. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>The mechanical senses include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The vestibular sensation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other body sensations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The mechanical senses respond to pressure, bending, or other distortions of a receptor. </li></ul>
  34. 34. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>The vestibular sense refers to the system that detects the position and the movement of the head. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directs compensatory movements of the eye and helps to maintain balance. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The vestibular organ is in the ear and is adjacent to the cochlea. </li></ul>
  35. 35. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>The vestibular organ consists of two otolith organs (the saccule and untricle) and three semicircular canals. </li></ul><ul><li>Otoliths are calcium carbonate particles that lie next to hair cells and push against the and cause excitation when the head tilts. </li></ul><ul><li>The 3 semicircular canals are filled with a jellylike and hair cells that are activated when the head moves. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Action potentials travel to the brain stem and cerebellum </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Fig. 7-10, p. 200
  37. 37. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>The somatosensory system refers to the sensation of the body and its movements. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes discriminative touch, deep pressure, cold, warmth, pain, itch, tickle and the position and movement of the joints. </li></ul>
  38. 38. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Touch receptors may be: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>simple bare neuron ending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>an elaborated neuron ending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>a bare ending surrounded by non-neural cells that modify its function. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stimulation opens sodium channels to trigger an action potential </li></ul>
  39. 39. Fig. 7-11, p. 201
  40. 40. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>The pacinian corpuscle is a type of touch receptor that detects sudden displacement or high-frequency vibrations on the skin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Onion-like outer structure resists gradual or constant pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sudden or vibrating stimulus bends the membrane and increases the flow of sodium ions to triggers an action potential. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Chemical can stimulate receptors for heat and cold </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Capsaicin & menthol) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Fig. 7-12, p. 200
  42. 42. Receptor Location Responds to Free nerve ending (myelinated or thinly myelinated axons) Near base of hairs and elsewhere in skin Pain, warmth, cold Hair-follicle receptors Hair-covered skin Movement of hairs Meissner’s corpuscules Hairless areas Sudden displacement of skin; low-frequency vibration (flutter) Pacinian corpuscules Both hairy and hairless skin Sudden displacement of skin; high-frequency vibration
  43. 43. Receptor Location Responds to Merkel’s disks Both hairy and hairless skin Tangential forces across skin Ruffini endings Both hairy and hairless skin Stretch of skin Krause end bulbs Mostly or entirely in hairless areas, perhaps including genitals Uncertain
  44. 44. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Information from touch receptors in the head enters the CNS through the cranial nerves. </li></ul><ul><li>Information from receptors below the head enter the spinal cord and travel through the 31 spinal nerves to the brain. </li></ul>
  45. 45. Fig. 7-13, p. 202
  46. 46. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Each spinal nerve has a sensory component and a motor component and connects to a limited area of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>A dermatome refers to the skin area connected to or innervated by a single sensory spinal nerve. </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory information entering the spinal cord travel in well-defined and distinct pathways. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: touch pathway is distinct from pain pathway. </li></ul></ul>
  47. 47. Fig. 7-14, p. 202
  48. 48. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Various aspects of body sensations remain separate all the way to the cortex. </li></ul><ul><li>Various areas of the somatosensory thalamus send impulses to different areas of the somatosensory cortex located in the parietal lobe. </li></ul><ul><li>Different sub areas of the somatosensory cortex respond to different areas of the body. </li></ul><ul><li>Damage to the somatosensory cortex can result in the impairment of body perceptions. </li></ul>
  49. 49. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Pain is the experience evoked by a harmful stimulus, directs our attention, and holds it </li></ul><ul><li>Pain sensation begins with the least specialized of all receptor (bare nerve endings) </li></ul><ul><li>Some pain receptors also respond to chemical or heat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Capsaicin a chemical found in hot pepper stimulates these receptors </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Axons carrying pain info have little of no myelin </li></ul><ul><ul><li>However, brain processes pain information rapidly and motor responses are fast. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mild pain triggers the release of glutamate in the spinal cord and stronger pain triggers the release of glutamate and substance P . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Substance P results in the increased intensity of pain. </li></ul></ul>
  51. 52. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Pain pathways to a tract ascending the contralateral side of the spinal cord </li></ul><ul><li>Pain-sensitive cells in the spinal cord relay information to several areas of the brain. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Somatosensory cortex responds to painful stimuli, memories of pain, and signal that warn of impending pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central nuclei of the thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and cingulate cortex are associated with emotional associations </li></ul></ul>
  52. 54. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Opioid mechanisms are systems that are sensitive to opioid drugs and similar chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>Activating opiate receptors blocks the release of substance P in the spinal chord and in the periaqueductal grey of the midbrain. </li></ul><ul><li>Enkephalins refer to opiate-type chemical in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Endorphins - group of chemicals that attach to the same brain receptors as morphine. </li></ul>
  53. 55. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Gate theory suggests that the spinal cord areas that receive messages from pain receptors also receive input from other skin receptors and from axons descending from the brain. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>These other areas that provide input can close the “gates” and decrease pain perception. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Non-pan stimuli around it can modify the intensity of the pain </li></ul></ul>
  54. 56. Fig. 7-17, p. 206
  55. 57. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>A placebo is a drug or other procedure with no pharmacalogical effect. </li></ul><ul><li>Placebo’s decrease pain perception by decreasing the brains emotional response to pain perception and not the sensation itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases response in cingulate cortex but not in the somatosensory cortex </li></ul><ul><li>Cannabinoids are chemicals related to marijuana that also block certain kinds of pain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Act mainly in the periphery of the body </li></ul></ul>
  56. 58. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>Mechanisms of the body to increase sensitivity to pain include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damaged or inflamed tissue releases histamine, nerve growth factor, and other chemicals that increase the number of sodium gates in nearby pain receptors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Certain receptors become potentiated after an intense barrage of painful stimuli. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>leads to increased sensitivity or chronic pain later. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  57. 59. The Mechanical Senses <ul><li>The release of histamines by the skin produce itching sensations. </li></ul><ul><li>The release of histamine by the skin activates a distinct pathway in the spinal cord to the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Impulses travel slowly along this pathway (half a meter per second). </li></ul><ul><li>Pain and itch have an inhibitory relationship. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Opiates increase itch while antihistamines decrease itch. </li></ul></ul>
  58. 60. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Coding in the sensory system could theoretically follow: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The labeled-line principle - each receptor responds to a limited range of stimuli and sends a direct line to the brain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Across-fiber pattern - each receptor responds to a wider range of stimuli and contributes to the perception of each of them. </li></ul></ul>
  59. 61. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Vertebrate sensory systems probably have no pure label-lined codes. </li></ul><ul><li>The brain gets better information from a combination of responses. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: auditory perception and color perception both rely on label-lined codes. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Taste and smell stimuli activate several neurons and the meaning of the response of a single neuron depends on the context of responses by other neurons. </li></ul>
  60. 62. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Taste refers to the stimulation of the taste buds , which are receptors on the tongue. </li></ul><ul><li>Our perception of flavor is the combination of both taste and smell. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Taste and smell axons converge in the endopiriform cortex. </li></ul></ul>
  61. 63. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Receptors for taste are modified skin cells. </li></ul><ul><li>Taste receptors have excitable membranes that release neurotransmitters to excite neighboring neurons. </li></ul><ul><li>Taste receptors are replaced every 10 to 14 days. </li></ul>
  62. 64. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Papillae are structures on the surface of the tongue that contain the taste buds. </li></ul><ul><li>Each papillae may contain up to ten taste buds. </li></ul><ul><li>Each taste bud contains approximately 50 receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Most taste buds are located along the outside edge of the tongue in humans. </li></ul>
  63. 66. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Procedures that alter one receptor but not others can be used to identify taste receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation refers to reduced perception of a stimuli due to the fatigue of receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Cross-adaptation refers to reduced response to one stimuli after exposure to another. </li></ul>
  64. 67. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Western societies have traditionally described sweet, sour, salty and bitter tastes as the “primary” tastes and four types of receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Evidence suggests a fifth type of glutamate receptor (umami). </li></ul>
  65. 68. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>The saltiness receptor permits sodium ions to cross the membrane. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>results in an action potential. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sourness receptors close potassium channels when acid binds to receptors. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>results in depolarization of the membrane. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sweetness, bitterness, and umami receptors activate a G protein that releases a second messenger in the cell when a molecule binds to a receptor. </li></ul>
  66. 69. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Different chemicals also result in different temporal patterns of action potentials and activity in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>Taste is a function of both the type of cell activity, as well as the rhythm of cell activity. </li></ul>
  67. 70. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Bitter receptors are sensitive to a wide range of chemicals with varying degrees of toxicity. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>About 25 types of bitter receptors exist. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most taste cells contain only a small number of these receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>We are sensitive to a wide range of harmful substances, but not highly sensitive to any single one. </li></ul>
  68. 71. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Taste coding in the brain depends upon a pattern of responses across fibers in the brain. </li></ul><ul><li>The brain determines taste by comparing the responses of several types of taste neurons. </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors converge their input onto the next cells in the taste system. </li></ul><ul><li>Cells thus respond best to a particular taste but others as well. </li></ul>
  69. 72. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Different nerves carry taste information to the brain from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue than from the posterior tongue and throat. </li></ul><ul><li>Taste nerves project to a structure in the medulla known as the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>projects information to various parts of the brain </li></ul></ul>
  70. 74. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Various areas of the brain are responsible for processing different taste information. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The somatosensory cortex responds to the touch aspect of taste. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The insula is the primary taste cortex. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each hemisphere of the cortex is also responsive to the ipsilateral side of the tongue. </li></ul>
  71. 75. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Genetic factors and hormones can account for some differences in taste sensitivity. </li></ul><ul><li>Variations in taste sensitivity are related to the number of fungiform papillae near the tip of the tongue. </li></ul><ul><li>Supertasters have higher sensitivity to all tastes and mouth sensations in general. </li></ul>
  72. 77. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Olfaction is the sense of smell and refers to the detection and recognition of chemicals that contact the membranes inside the nose. </li></ul><ul><li>Olfaction is more subject to adaptation than our other senses. </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory cells line the olfactory epithelium in the rear of the nasal passage and are the neurons responsible for smell. </li></ul>
  73. 79. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Olfactory receptors are located on cilia which extend from the cell body into the mucous surface of the nasal passage. </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebrates have hundreds of olfactory receptors which are highly responsive to some related chemicals and unresponsive to others. </li></ul><ul><li>Olfaction processes a wide variety of airborne chemicals, hence the need for many different types of receptors. </li></ul>
  74. 80. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Proteins in olfactory receptors respond to chemicals outside the cells and trigger changes in G protein inside the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>G protein then triggers chemical activities that lead to action potentials. </li></ul>
  75. 82. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Axons from olfactory receptors carry information to the olfactory bulb. </li></ul><ul><li>Chemicals smelling similar excite neighboring areas, chemicals that smell different excite more separated areas </li></ul><ul><li>Coding in the brain is determined by which part of the olfactory bulb is excited. </li></ul><ul><li>The olfactory bulb sends axons to the cerebral cortex where messages are coded by location. </li></ul>
  76. 83. Olfaction <ul><li>Olfactory receptors are replaced approximately every month, but are subject to permanent impairment from massive damage. </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors regenerate within a month. </li></ul>
  77. 84. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Individual differences in olfaction exist regarding olfaction. </li></ul><ul><li>Women detect odor more readily than men and brain responses are stronger. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to attend to a faint odor and become more sensitive to it is characteristic of young adult women and thus seems to be influenced by hormones. </li></ul>
  78. 85. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a set of receptors located near the olfactory receptors that are sensitive to pheromones. </li></ul><ul><li>Pheromones are chemicals released by an animal to affect the behavior of others of the same species. </li></ul>
  79. 86. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>The VNO and pheromones are important for most mammals, but less so for humans. </li></ul><ul><li>The VNO is tiny in human adults and has no receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Humans unconsciously respond to some pheromones through receptors in the olfactory mucosa. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: synchronization of menstrual cycle’s in women. </li></ul></ul>
  80. 87. The Chemical Senses <ul><li>Synesthesia is the experience of one sense in response to stimulation of a different sense. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Estimates suggest 1 in every 500 people. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>fMRI case studies show activity in both the auditory and visual cortex responsive to color when exposed to spoken language. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suggests some axons from one area have branches to other cortical regions. </li></ul></ul>

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