Ch12 Portable Final


Published on

Published in: Technology

Ch12 Portable Final

  1. 1. Instructor Version
  2. 2. Chapter 12: Personality Theory and Assessment This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law.  The following are prohibited by law: any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or part, of any images; any rental, lease, or lending of the program.
  3. 3. Chapter 12 Overview <ul><li>Psychoanalytic Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Humanistic Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Trait Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Social-Cognitive Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Nature, Nurture, and Personality </li></ul><ul><li>Personality Assessment </li></ul>
  4. 4. Psychoanalytic Theories <ul><li>Psychoanalysis is Freud’s theory of personality and his therapy for treating psychological disorders; focuses on unconscious processes </li></ul><ul><li>Personality is a person’s characteristic pattern of behaving, thinking, and feeling </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Levels of Consciousness <ul><li>The conscious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All thoughts, feelings, memories of which we are aware at a given moment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The preconscious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thoughts, feelings, memories that we are not consciously aware of but can easily bring to mind </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The unconscious </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The primary motivating force of human behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains repressed memories and instincts, wishes, and desires that have never been conscious </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. The Structure of Personality <ul><li>Id </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Contains life and death instincts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates according to the pleasure principle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The logical, rational part of personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operates according to the reality principle </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Superego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The moral system of the personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consists of the conscience and the ego ideal </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Figure 12.1 Freud’s Conception of Personality
  8. 8. Defense Mechanisms <ul><li>The ego uses defense mechanisms to maintain self-esteem and protect itself from anxiety created by conflict between the id and superego </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The id’s demands for pleasure often conflict with the superego’s desires for moral perfection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>e.g., ego protects itself from unacceptable thoughts and memories through repression </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removing painful thoughts, memories, desires from consciousness and keeping them in the unconscious </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Psychosexual Stages of Development <ul><li>According to Freud, the sex instinct is the most important factor influencing personality </li></ul><ul><li>It is present at birth, and then develops through a series of psychosexual stages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each stage involves an erogenous zone and a conflict </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If the conflict is not resolved, the child develops a fixation , and a portion of the libido remains invested at that stage </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Evaluating Freud’s Contribution <ul><li>Oral stage : Birth to 1 year </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict: Weaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixation can lead to dependency and passivity or sarcasm and hostility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anal stage : 1 to 3 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict: Toilet training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixation can lead to excessive cleanliness and stinginess or messiness and rebelliousness </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Evaluating Freud’s Contribution cont… <ul><li>Phallic stage : 3 to 5 or 6 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflict: Oedipus complex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixation can lead to flirtatiousness and promiscuity or excessive pride and chastity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Latency : 5 or 6 years to puberty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Period of sexual calm </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genital stage : Puberty on </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Revival of sexual interests </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Evaluating Freud’s Contribution cont… <ul><li>Freud is credited with making important contributions to psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognizing the importance of childhood experiences in shaping personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying the role of defense mechanisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Calling attention to the unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But critics argue that </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People do not typically repress painful memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dreams do not have symbolic meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freud’s ideas are difficult to test scientifically </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. The Neo-Freudians <ul><li>Several theorists built on the strengths of Freud’s theory, and tried to avoid its weaknesses </li></ul><ul><li>They are called the neo-Freudians </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carl Jung (1875-1961) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alfred Adler (1870-1937) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Karen Horney (1885-1952) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The Neo-Freudians cont… <ul><li>Jung’s theory , the personality has three parts </li></ul><ul><li>Ego </li></ul><ul><li>Personal unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Collective unconscious </li></ul><ul><li>Jung rejected Freud’s ideas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>that the sexual instinct is the most important determinant of personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>that personality is mostly formed in childhood </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Figure 12.2 Jung’s Conception of Personality
  16. 16. The Neo-Freudians cont… <ul><li>Adler’s theory </li></ul><ul><li>The predominant force of the personality is not sexual in nature </li></ul><ul><li>The drive to overcome feelings of inferiority motivates most human behavior </li></ul><ul><li>When feelings of inferiority prevent personal development, they constitute an inferiority complex </li></ul>
  17. 17. The Neo-Freudians cont… <ul><li>Karen Horney believed that Freud overemphasized the role of sexual instinct </li></ul><ul><li>Rejected his psychosexual stages – ideas such as the Oedipus complex and penis envy </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s psychological difficulties arise from failure to live up to idealized versions of themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Women and men must overcome irrational beliefs about the need for perfection </li></ul><ul><li>Modern cognitive-behavioral therapy </li></ul>
  18. 18. Humanistic Theories <ul><li>In humanistic psychology, people are assumed to have a natural tendency toward growth and the realization of their fullest potential </li></ul><ul><li>These theories are more optimistic about human nature than Freud’s theory </li></ul><ul><li>But, like Freud’s theory, humanistic theories are difficult to test scientifically </li></ul>
  19. 19. Maslow and Self-Actualizations <ul><li>Abraham Maslow (1908-1970) proposed a hierarchy of needs that motivates human behavior </li></ul><ul><li>The highest need is self-actualization </li></ul><ul><li>Self actualizers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accurately perceive reality and quickly spot dishonesty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tend not to depend on external authority, but are internally driven, autonomous, and independent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequently have peak experiences </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Rogers and Conditions of Worth <ul><li>According to Carl Rogers (1902-1987), our parents set up conditions of worth </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conditions on which their positive regard depends </li></ul></ul><ul><li>These conditions force us to live according to someone else’s values </li></ul><ul><li>A goal of person-centered therapy is to enable people to live by their own values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NOT live by the values of others to gain positive regard </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unconditional positive regard </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Trait Theories <ul><li>Attempts to explain personality and differences among people in terms of personal characteristics that are stable across situations </li></ul>
  22. 22. Early Trait Theories <ul><li>Allport (1897-1967) proposed two kinds of traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardinal traits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central traits </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cattell’s(1950) theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface traits are the observable qualities of personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source traits underlie surface traits, and cause certain surface traits to cluster together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cattell identified 23 source traits </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Figure 12.3 The 16PF Personality Profile
  24. 24. Early Trait Theories cont… <ul><li>Eysenck (1916-1997) : Three Personality Factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychoticism an individual’s link to reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion a dimension ranging from outgoing to shy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroticism a dimension of emotional stability, from stable to anxious and irritable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rooted in neurological functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by modern brain-imaging studies </li></ul>
  25. 25. The Five-Factor Model <ul><li>A trait theory that attempts to explain personality using five broad dimensions, each of which is composed of a constellation of personality traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extraversion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Neuroticism </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. The Five-Factor Model cont… <ul><li>Openness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open to new experiences, curious, and broad minded versus having narrow interests and preferring the familiar </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reliable, orderly, and industrious versus undependable and lazy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Extraversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Outgoing with a preference to be around other people versus shy with a preference to be alone </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. The Five-Factor Model cont… <ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easygoing and friendly versus unfriendly and cold </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Neuroticism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pessimistic and irritable versus optimistic and able to take things in stride </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Social-Cognitive Theories <ul><li>The view that personality can be defined as a collection of learned behaviors acquired through social interactions </li></ul>
  29. 29. The Situation versus Trait Debate <ul><li>An ongoing discussion among theorists about the relative influence of traits and situations on personality </li></ul><ul><li>Walter Mischel (1968) proposed that situations dictate personality more than traits </li></ul><ul><li>Research suggests that traits are generally stable over time and across situations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Although situations can modify personality traits </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism <ul><li>Bandura proposed that internal, environmental, and behavioral variables interact to influence personality </li></ul><ul><li>An important cognitive factor in Bandura’s theory is self-efficacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A person’s perception of his or her ability to perform competently whatever is attempted </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Figure 12.4 Bandura’s Reciprocal Determinism
  32. 32. Rotter’s Locus of Control <ul><li>Julian Rotter proposed a personality factor called locus of control </li></ul><ul><li>People with an internal locus of control see themselves as primarily in control of their behavior and its consequences </li></ul><ul><li>People with an external locus of control p erceive that what happens to them is in the hands of fate, luck, or chance </li></ul>
  33. 33. Nature, Nurture, and Personality <ul><li>Although all psychologists agree that our genes play at least some roles in personality, most also acknowledge that environmental factors influence how our traits change over time </li></ul>
  34. 34. Twin and Adoption Studies <ul><li>Identical twins are similar on several personality dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whether raised together or apart </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adoption studies indicate that shared family environment has little influence on personality development </li></ul><ul><li>These findings show that heredity strongly influences personality </li></ul>
  35. 35. Figure 12.5 Estimated Influence of Heredity and Environment on the Big Five Personality Dimensions
  36. 36. Personality and Culture <ul><li>Advocates of the five-factor model assert that the factors are universal </li></ul><ul><li>But other theorists argue that cultures differ in individualism/collectivism , a dimension of personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In individualist cultures more emphasis is placed on independence and individual achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In collectivist cultures , people emphasize social connectedness and tend to define themselves in terms of group membership </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. Personality Assessment <ul><li>Personality assessment is commonly used in business and industry to aid in hiring decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Clinical psychologists, psychiatrists, and counselors use various ways of measuring personality in the diagnosis of patients and in the assessment of progress in therapy </li></ul>
  38. 38. Observation, Interviews, and Rating Scales <ul><li>Assessment methods include </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Behavioral assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In which behavior is observed and recorded </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structured interviews </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In which an interview follows a prescribed procedure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Rating scales provide a standardized format for recording behaviors or interview responses </li></ul>
  39. 39. Personality Inventories <ul><li>An inventory is a paper and pencil test with questions about a person’s thoughts, feelings, and behaviors </li></ul><ul><li>Scored according to a standard procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Used to measure several dimensions of personality </li></ul>
  40. 40. Personality Inventories cont… <ul><li>The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory ( MMPI-2) is the most widely used personality inventory </li></ul><ul><li>Used to screen for and diagnose psychiatric problems and disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Includes 550 items that differentiate specific groups of psychiatric patients from people considered to be normal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Also includes validity scales, such as a social desirability scale </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Personality Inventories cont… <ul><li>California Personality Inventory (CPI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed to assess personality in normal individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Is useful for predicting school achievement, leadership and executive success, and effectiveness of police and military personnel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on Jung’s theory of personality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measures normal individual differences on four personality dimensions </li></ul></ul>
  42. 42. Projective Tests <ul><li>A projective test is a personality test consisting of inkblots, drawings of ambiguous human situations, or incomplete sentences for which there are no correct or incorrect responses </li></ul><ul><li>People respond by projecting their inner thoughts, feelings, fears, or conflicts onto the test materials </li></ul>
  43. 43. Projective Tests cont… <ul><li>In the Rorschach Inkblot Method the test taker is asked to describe 10 inkblots </li></ul><ul><li>According to Rorschach, responses can be used to diagnose disorders </li></ul><ul><li>Critics argue that results are too dependent on the judgment of the examiner </li></ul><ul><li>In response, Exner (1993) developed the Comprehensive System for scoring </li></ul>
  44. 44. Figure 12.6 An Inkblot Similar to One Used for the Rorschach Inkblot Method
  45. 45. Projective Tests cont… <ul><li>The Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) was developed by Henry Murray </li></ul><ul><li>Test taker describes a series of drawings of ambiguous human situations </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptions are thought to reveal inner feelings, conflicts, and motives </li></ul><ul><li>Critics argue that </li></ul><ul><li>It relies too heavily on interpretation of the examiner </li></ul><ul><li>Responses may reflect temporary states and may not indicate more permanent aspects of personality </li></ul>