Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e — Chapter 3: Student Handout Answer Key                                    ...
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Handout 34: Clini...
Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e — Chapter 3: Student Handout Answer Key                               6



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Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e — Chapter 3: Student Handout Answer Key                               7



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Abnormal Psych Hand out Ans Key Ch03

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Abnormal Psych Hand out Ans Key Ch03

  1. 1. Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e — Chapter 3: Student Handout Answer Key 1 Chapter 3 — Clinical Assessment, Diagnosis, and Treatment Slides, handouts, and answers keys created by Karen Clay Rhines, Ph.D. Handout 2: Clinical Assessment: How and Why Does the Client Behave Abnormally? What is assessment?  The collecting of relevant information in an effort to reach a conclusion  Clinical assessment is used to determine how and why a person is behaving abnormally and how that person may be helped 0. Focus is idiographic – on an individual person 1. Also enables an evaluation of progress once treatment has begun Handout 4: Characteristics of Assessment Tools To be useful, assessment tools must be standardized and have clear reliability and validity  To standardize a technique is to set up common steps to be followed whenever it is administered  One must standardize administration, scoring, and interpretation Handout 5: Characteristics of Assessment Tools Reliability refers to the consistency of a test A good test will yield the same results in the same situation  Two main types:  Test–retest reliability 2. To test for this type of reliability, a subject is tested on two different occasions and the scores are correlated – the higher the correlation, the greater the test’s reliability  Interrater reliability 3. Independent judges agree on how to score and interpret a particular test Handout 6: Characteristics of Assessment Tools Validity refers to the accuracy of a test’s results A good test must accurately measure what it is supposed to be measuring
  2. 2. Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e — Chapter 3: Student Handout Answer Key 2 Three specific types:  Face validity – a test appears to measure what it is supposed to measure; does not necessarily indicate true validity  Predictive validity – a test accurately predicts future characteristics or behavior Concurrent validity – a test’s results agree with independent measures assessing similar characteristics or behavior Handout 8: Clinical Interviews Conducting the interview  Focus depends on theoretical orientation  Can be either unstructured or structured 4. In unstructured interviews, clinicians ask open-ended questions 5. In structured interviews, clinicians ask prepared questions, often from a published interview schedule  May include a mental status exam Handout 9: Clinical Interviews Limitations:  May lack validity or accuracy  Interviewers may be biased or may make mistakes in judgment  Interviews, particularly unstructured ones, may lack reliability Handout 11: Clinical Tests 1. Projective tests Require that subject interprets ambiguous stimuli Mainly used by psychodynamic practitioners Most popular:  Rorschach Test  Thematic Apperception Test  Sentence Completion Test  Drawings Handout 16: Clinical Tests 1. Projective tests  Strengths and weaknesses: 6. Helpful for providing “supplementary” information 7. Have rarely demonstrated much reliability or validity
  3. 3. Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e — Chapter 3: Student Handout Answer Key 3 8. May be biased against minority ethnic groups Handout 17: Clinical Tests 2. Personality inventories  Designed to measure broad personality characteristics  Focus on behaviors, beliefs, and feelings  Usually based on self-reported responses  Most widely used: Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 9. For Adults: MMPI (original) or MMPI-2 (1989 revision) 10. For Adolescents: MMPI-A Handout 20: Clinical Tests 2. Personality inventories  Strengths and weaknesses: 11. Easier, cheaper, and faster to administer than projective tests 12. Objectively scored and standardized 13. Appear to have greater validity than projective tests Measured traits often cannot be directly examined – how can we really know the assessment is correct? 14. Tests fail to allow for cultural differences in responses Handout 24: Clinical Tests 4. Psychophysiological tests  Measure physiological response as an indication of psychological problems 15. Includes heart rate, blood pressure, body temperature, galvanic skin response, and muscle contraction  Most popular is the polygraph (lie detector) Handout 26: Clinical Tests 5. Neurological and neuropsychological tests Neurological tests directly assess brain function by assessing brain structure and activity  Examples: EEG, PET scans, CAT scans, MRI Neuropsychological tests indirectly assess brain function by assessing cognitive,
  4. 4. Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e — Chapter 3: Student Handout Answer Key 4 perceptual, and motor functioning  Most widely used is Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test Handout 29: Clinical Tests 6. Intelligence tests  Designed to measure intellectual ability  Composed of a series of tests assessing both verbal and nonverbal skills  Generate an intelligence quotient (IQ) Handout 31: Clinical Tests 6. Intelligence tests  Strengths and weaknesses: 16. Performance can be influenced by nonintelligence factors (e.g., motivation, anxiety, test-taking experience) 17. Tests may contain cultural biases in language or tasks Handout 33: Clinical Observations Naturalistic and analog observations Naturalistic observations occur in everyday environments 18. Can occur in homes, schools, institutions (hospitals and prisons), and community settings 19. Tend to focus on parent–child, sibling–child, or teacher–child interactions 20. Observations are generally made by “participant observers” and reported to a clinician If naturalistic observation is impractical, analog observations are used in artificial settings
  5. 5. Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e — Chapter 3: Student Handout Answer Key 5 Handout 34: Clinical Observations Naturalistic and analog observations  Strengths and weaknesses: 21. Reliability is a concern  Different observers may focus on different aspects of behavior 22. Validity is a concern  Risk of “overload,” “observer drift,” and observer bias  Client reactivity may also limit reliability  Observations may lack cross-situational validity Handout 37: Diagnosis: Does the Client’s Syndrome Match a Known Disorder? Using all available information, clinicians attempt to paint a “clinical picture” Influenced by their theoretical orientation Using assessment data and the clinical picture, clinicians attempt to make a diagnosis A determination that a person’s problems reflect a particular disorder or syndrome Based on an existing classification system Handout 40: The DSM-IV-TR Most widely used classification system in the US Multiaxial  Uses 5 axes (branches of information) to develop a full clinical picture  People usually receive a diagnosis on either Axis I or Axis II, but they may receive diagnoses on both Handout 47: Is DSM-IV-TR an Effective Classification System? The validity of a classification system is the accuracy of information that the diagnostic categories provide  Predictive validity is of the most use clinically  DSM-IV has greater validity than any previous editions 23. Conducted extensive literature reviews and ran field studies  Validity is still a concern
  6. 6. Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e — Chapter 3: Student Handout Answer Key 6 Handout 48: Is DSM-IV-TR an Effective Classification System?  Beyond concerns about reliability and validity, a growing number of theorists believe that two fundamental problems weaken the DSM:  Basic assumption that disorders are qualitatively different from normal behavior  Reliance on discrete diagnostic categories Handout 49: Can Diagnosis and Labeling Cause Harm? Misdiagnosis always a concern  Major issue is reliance on clinical judgment Also present is the issue of labeling and stigma  Diagnosis may be a self-fulfilling prophecy  Because of these problems, some clinicians would like to cease the practice of diagnosis Handout 50: Treatment: How Might the Client Be Helped? Treatment decisions Begin with assessment information and diagnostic decisions to determine a treatment plan  Use a combination of idiographic and nomothetic information Other factors:  Therapist’s theoretical orientation  Current research General state of clinical knowledge – currently focusing on empirically supported, evidence-based treatment Handout 53: The Effectiveness of Treatment Is therapy generally effective?  Research suggests that therapy is generally more effective than no treatment or placebo  In one major study using meta-analysis, the average person who received treatment was better off than 75% of the untreated subjects
  7. 7. Comer, Fundamentals of Abnormal Psychology, 5e — Chapter 3: Student Handout Answer Key 7 Handout 56: The Effectiveness of Treatment Are particular therapies generally effective?  Generally, therapy-outcome studies lump all therapies together to consider their general effectiveness 24. One critic has called this the “uniformity myth”  It is argued that scientists must look at the effectiveness of particular therapies 25. There is a movement (“rapprochement”) to look at commonalities among therapies Handout 57: The Effectiveness of Treatment Are particular therapies effective for particular problems?  Studies now being conducted to examine effectiveness of specific treatments for specific disorders: 26. “What specific treatment, by whom, is the most effective for this individual with that specific problem, and under which set of circumstances?”  Recent studies focus on the effectiveness of combined approaches—drug therapy combined with certain forms of psychotherapy—to treat certain disorders

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