Marine Bio

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Marine Bio

  1. 1. ODD SHAPED SWIMMERS By Daniel Rezac
  2. 2. ODD SHAPED SWIMMERS <ul><li>puffers </li></ul><ul><li>boxfishes </li></ul><ul><li>triggerfishes </li></ul><ul><li>filefishes </li></ul><ul><li>drums </li></ul><ul><li>croakers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. PUFFERS of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Puffer Fish- Family Tetraodontidae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Species: 121 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chiefly marine. Many going into and inhabiting brackish and freshwater. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distribution: tropical and subtropical areas of Atlantic, Indian and Pacific. Naked or with short prickles in belly. Jaw teeth fused but separated by a median suture in each jaw, giving rise to 4 fused teeth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capable of greatly inflating themselves with water. Attains 90 cm maximum length. Some puffers contain tetraodotoxin, especially in the viscera; in the gonads of some during spawning season. European Community legislation prohibits trading with puffer fish products. Some species seem to comsume about everything, whereas others have preferences for certain invertebrates or algae. Demersal eggs are laid in a nest and presumably defended. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. PUFFERS of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Southern Puffer- Sphoeroides nephelus </li></ul>
  5. 5. PUFFERS of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Southern Puffer- Sphoeroides nephelus </li></ul>
  6. 6. PUFFERS of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Southern Puffer- Sphoeroides nephelus </li></ul>Maximum Size: 30.0 cm (male) Depth Range: Depth range 0 - 11 m What to Look For: Upper side brown with large dark grey to black spots and light (pale blue or green in fresh specimens) irregular-shaped reticulations. Sexually mature, ripe males sometimes covered with brilliant red or orange spots of about 1 mm in diameter What they eat: Feeds primarily on shellfish, also on some finfish. Dangerous? Harmless
  7. 7. PUFFERS of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Bandtail Puffer- Sphoeroides spengleri </li></ul>
  8. 8. PUFFERS of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Bandtail Puffer- Sphoeroides spengleri </li></ul>
  9. 9. PUFFERS of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Bandtail Puffer- Sphoeroides spengleri </li></ul>Maximum Size: 30.0 cm (male) Depth Range: 2 - 70 m What to Look For: Sharply defined round black spots on head and lower side of body. The numerous tan lappers on the rear part of the body and distinct spots along the lower side make it unmistakable What they eat: Feeds on mollusks, crustaceans and echinoderms. Dangerous? Poisonous to eat . http://www. youtube .com/watch? v=BD5Y3KWQxLE
  10. 10. PUFFERS of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Sharpnose Puffer - Canthigaster rostrata </li></ul>
  11. 11. PUFFERS of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Sharpnose Puffer - Canthigaster rostrata </li></ul>Maximum Size: 12.0 cm (male) Depth Range: 1 - 40 m What to Look For: Distinguished from all other Atlantic species by a short upper dark longitudinal stripe, presence of few spots on flank and dorsum, and absence of a conspicuous (larger than eye) spot on the dorsum. What they eat: Diet consists of seagrass, sponges, crabs and other crustaceans, mollusks, polychaete worms, sea urchins, starfishes, hydroids and algae . Dangerous? Harmless and Monogamous
  12. 12. PUFFERS of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Sharpnose Puffer - Canthigaster rostrata </li></ul>
  13. 13. BOXFISH of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Boxfish Fish- Family Ostraciidae </li></ul>
  14. 14. BOXFISH of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Boxfish - Family Ostraciidae </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Species: 33 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Distribution: Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. A bony carapace enclosing body. Pelvic skeleton absent. Vertebrae usually 18. Some species of trunkfishes secrete ostracitoxin, poisonous to other fishes and, to some extent, even to trunkfishes. Feed on small sessile invertebrates and on algae. They are territorial and haremic, spawning pelagic eggs at dusk. Not recommended for aquaria. Other common names in use are cowfishes and trunkfishes. About 60 cm maximum length. </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Honeycomb Cowfish- Acanthostracion polygonius </li></ul>
  16. 16. Boxfish of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Honeycomb Cowfish- Acanthostracion polygonius </li></ul>Maximum Size: 50.0 cm Depth Range: 3 - 80 m What to Look For: Bold pattern of hexagons outlined by narrow dark lines; centers and areas between hexagons pale. Purplish blue on sides and ventrally What they eat: Occurs in clear water around coral reefs. Feeds on sponges, alcyonarians, tunicates, and shrimp. Uncommon and wary. Dangerous? Consumed fresh, generally roasted .
  17. 17. Boxfish of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Honeycomb Cowfish- Acanthostracion polygonius </li></ul>
  18. 18. BOXFISH of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Acanthostracion quadricornis - Scrawled cowfish </li></ul>
  19. 19. Boxfish of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Acanthostracion quadricornis - Scrawled cowfish </li></ul>Maximum Size: 55.0 cm (male) Depth Range: - 80 m What to Look For: Dark markings on head and body; parallel bands on cheek. Pair of prominent spines projecting from in front of eyes suggests cow horns. Second pair of spines. Body deep, covered with hexagonal dermal plates What they eat: Feeds on sessile invertebrates such as tunicates, gorgonians and anemones, as well as on slow-moving crustaceans, sponges, hermit crabs and marine plants. Dangerous? Considered an excellent food fish; marketed fresh.
  20. 20. Boxfish of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Acanthostracion ( Lactophrys) quadricornis - Scrawled cowfish </li></ul>
  21. 21. Triggerfish of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Family Balistidae - Triggerfishes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Species: 40 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. Usually compressed body. Capable of rotating eyeballs independently. Popular and hardy in aquaria, but often aggressive. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Triggerfish of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Balistes vetula - Queen triggerfish </li></ul>
  23. 23. Triggerfish of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Balistes vetula - Queen triggerfish </li></ul>Maximum Size: 60.0 cm (male) Depth Range: 2 - 275 m What to Look For: Greenish or bluish gray on back, orange-yellow on lower part of head and abdomen, with two broad diagonal curved bright blue bands running from snout to below and in front of pectoral fins, the lowermost continuous with a blue ring around lips. What they eat: Found over rocky or coral areas. May form schools, sometimes solitary over sand and grassy areas. Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates. It preys on sea urchins by blowing water to overturn it and then attacks it where the spines are short (Ref. 9710). Dangerous? Excellent food fish but occasionally can cause intoxication due to the liver.
  24. 24. Triggerfish of Ambergris Caye <ul><ul><li>Balistes vetula - Queen triggerfish </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. FileFish of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Family Monacanthidae - Filefishes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Species: 95 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans. Usually two dorsal spines; Upper jaw usually with three teeth in outer and two in the inner series, developed for nibbling; 19-31 vertebrae. Alutera scripta reaches 1 m maximum length. Most species feed on a wide variety of benthic invertebrates, but some specialize on corals or zooplankton. Filefishes lay demersal eggs in a site prepared and guarded by the male or both parents. Some of the subtropical species release eggs in open water. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Filefishes of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Scrawled Filefish - Aluterus scriptus </li></ul>
  27. 27. FileFishes of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Scrawled Filefish - Aluterus scriptus </li></ul>Maximum Size: 110 cm (male) Depth Range: 3 - 120 m What to Look For: olive brown to grey in color, juveniles may be yellowish brown with dark spots. Elongate, strongly compressed filefish; tan with blue lines and spots. Gill opening oblique, body and head with scattered small black spots. What they eat: Feeds mainly on benthic invertebrates. It preys on sea urchins by blowing water to overturn it and then attacks it where the spines are short. Seen?: Inhabit lagoon and seaward reefs.Occasionally are seen under floating objects. Juveniles may travel with weed rafts in open ocean for a long time and reaching a large size. Adults are usually seen along deep coastal slopes or outer reef drop-offs in about 20 meters depth Dangerous? Reports of ciguatera poisoning
  28. 28. What is Ciguatera? <ul><li>Ciguatera poisoning is the most common nonbacterial, fish-borne poisoning in the United States. </li></ul><ul><li>From : www.emedicine.com/emerg/topic100.htm </li></ul>
  29. 29. Filefishes of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Scrawled Filefish - Aluterus scriptus </li></ul>
  30. 30. Filefishes of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Orangespotted Filefish - Cantherhinus pullus </li></ul>
  31. 31. FileFishes of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Orangespotted Filefish - Cantherhinus pullus </li></ul>Maximum Size: 20.0 cm (male) Depth Range: 3 - 50 m What to Look For: Body with small scattered orange spots, many of which have brown centers, and whitish spots of same size; dull yellow lines on head which run towards snout, those near eye alternating with bluish lines. What they eat: Feeds on bottom growth, primarily sponge and algae, Where?: Found in shallow water and around coral and rocky reefs (Ref. 3790). Usually remains near the bottom, hiding among gorgonians and branching coral . Dangerous? Reports of ciguatera poisoning
  32. 32. Filefishes of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Orangespotted Filefish - Cantherhinus pullus </li></ul>
  33. 33. Drums and Croakers of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Family Sciaenidae - Drums or croakers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of Species: 270 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Drums or croakers are distributed in the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific oceans. Dorsal fin long, having a deep notch between the spinous and soft-rayed parts, but the parts rarely separate. Some species with 1 barbel or a patch of small barbels on chin. Large cavernous canals in head. Snout and lower jaw with conspicuous pores. Vertebrae 24-29. Bottom dwelling carnivores, feeding on benthic invertebrates and small fishes. Juveniles are popular aquarium fishes, but difficult to maintain. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Drums and Croakers of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Odontoscion dentex - Reef croaker </li></ul>
  35. 35. Drums and Croakers of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Odontoscion dentex - Reef croaker </li></ul>Maximum Size: 20.0 cm (male) Depth Range: 1 - 30 m What to Look For: No barbels; brownish silver with dark dots on scales; a large black spot at base and axil of pectoral fins What they eat: Feeds on bottom growth, primarily sponge and algae, Where?: Inhabits caves and crevices or among corals. Feeds at night mainly on shrimps and small fishes and their larvae. Dangerous? Harmless
  36. 36. Drums and Croakers of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Odontoscion dentex - Reef croaker </li></ul>
  37. 37. Drums and Croakers of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Jackknife Fish - Equetus lanceolatus </li></ul>
  38. 38. Drums and Croakers of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Jackknife Fish - Equetus lanceolatus </li></ul>Maximum Size: 25.0 cm (male) Depth Range: 10 - 60 m What to Look For: Very high first dorsal fin with a short base. Gray with three white-edged dark brown to black bands, What they eat: Inhabits bays and sounds; also deep coral reefs. Juveniles sometimes inshore. Easily approached. Where?: Inhabits caves and crevices or among corals. Feeds at night mainly on shrimps and small fishes and their larvae. Dangerous? reports of ciguatera poisoning
  39. 39. Drums and Croakers of Ambergris Caye <ul><li>Jackknife Fish - Equetus lanceolatus </li></ul>
  40. 40. References <ul><li>http://www.fishbase.org </li></ul><ul><li>Hol Chan Census </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http://ambergriscaye.com/holchan/4.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>YouTube </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Queen Triggerfish: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tjTSCnYNQNk&feature=related </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scrawled Filefish: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=INNHdXYXBuw </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dancing Cowfish: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6_DTVkavmts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharpnose Puffer: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4nIrElKJExM </li></ul></ul></ul>

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