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Veilleurs : aidez-vous à décider ou à rassurer?

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Elsa Drevon, Candidate au doctorat, École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information, Université de Montréal
Cette communication vise à démontrer que la veille stratégique soutient la prise de décision en aval, en légitimant des décisions déjà prises, et en réduisant l'incertitude par une meilleure compréhension de l'environnement d'une organisation.

Cette conférence est basée sur le travail de ces auteures: Elsa Drevon, candidate au doctorat à l'École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information, Université de Montréal Dominique Maurel, professeure agrégée à l'École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information, Université de Montréal Christine Dufour, professeure agrégée à l'École de bibliothéconomie et des sciences de l'information, Université de Montréal

Published in: Leadership & Management
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Veilleurs : aidez-vous à décider ou à rassurer?

  1. 1. Veilleurs : aidez-vous à décider ou à rassurer? ELSA DREVON, CANDIDATE AU DOCTORAT, UNIVERSITÉ DE MONTRÉAL CHRISTINE DUFOUR, PROFESSEURE AGRÉGÉE, UNIVERSITÉ DE MONTRÉAL DOMINIQUE MAUREL, PROFESSEURE AGRÉGÉE, UNIVERSITÉ DE MONTRÉAL 2ème Congrès des professionnels de l’information 11 octobre 2017
  2. 2. • Introduction et problématique • 5 principaux modèles de prise de décision • 3 facteurs d’influence sur la prise de décision • 3 soutiens de la veille stratégique à la prise de décision • Conclusion ➢ Présentation d’une partie de la revue de la littérature dans le cadre de ma thèse intitulée La veille stratégique dans le secteur public de la santé au Québec : une étude de cas multiples Objectif et plan de la présentation
  3. 3. La veille stratégique est un processus systématique, continu, éthique et légal, de collecte, d’analyse, de traitement et de diffusion de l’information, celle-ci visant à aider les gestionnaires, la haute direction ou l’organisation dans son ensemble à prendre de meilleures décisions et à soutenir la stratégie des organisations, grâce à une meilleure compréhension de l’environnement externe et interne. (Bergeron et Hiller, 2002; Guechtouli, 2014; Drevon, 2017) La veille stratégique pour prendre des décisions… ➢ Dans la littérature professionnelle et scientifique, la veille stratégique s’inscrit dans une perspective d’aide à la décision. Crédit : Dia™ via Visualhunt / CC BY-NC-ND
  4. 4. … mais dans les faits, pourquoi ce n’est pas toujours le cas? ➢ Comment la veille stratégique contribue-t-elle à améliorer la prise de décision? « Those who provide information collect what they believe to be important. (…) A decision maker may be unable to predict what information he needs or would use. » (Pfeffer et Salancik, 1978)
  5. 5. Qu’est-ce que la prise de décision? La prise décision est un processus non linéaire qui consiste à effectuer un choix supposé éclairé par de l’information, et motivé par l’expérience ou l’intuition du décideur, entre plusieurs options envisageables, dans le but d’agir dans un contexte social donné et en fonction des acteurs en jeu. (Simon, 1977; Eisenhardt et Zbaracki, 1992; March, 1994; Zsambock et Klein, 2014) Crédit : via Visualhunt.com
  6. 6. 5 principaux modèles de prise de décision Crédit: Impact Hub via VisualHunt / CC BY-SA
  7. 7. Modèle de la rationalité absolue • L’homo oeconomicus dispose d’une information complète sur la situation • Il connaît toutes les solutions envisageables • Il prend la meilleure décision en tenant compte des contraintes de son environnement (March et Simon, 1958) Crédit : via Visualhunt.com
  8. 8. • Capacités cognitives limitées du cerveau humain • Incertitude difficile à gérer • Décision satisfaisante plutôt que meilleure décision (Simon, 1977; March, 1994) Modèle de la rationalité limitée Crédit : digitaltree515 via VisualHunt / CC BY-NC-ND
  9. 9. • Environnements dynamiques, complexes, en temps réel • Décision fondée sur l’expérience et l’intuition (Zsambock et Klein, 2014) Modèle naturaliste Crédit : khora via Visual Hunt / CC BY-NC-SA
  10. 10. Modèle politique et de pouvoir • Décision la plus acceptable pour tous les acteurs en jeu • Compromis entre les diverses parties prenantes (Pfeffer et Salancik, 1974; Quinn, 1989) Crédit : Nemodus photos via Visualhunt.com / CC BY-NC-ND
  11. 11. • Une décision est la rencontre hasardeuse entre des solutions qui existent déjà, des problèmes, des opportunités et des participants (Cohen, March et Olsen, 1972) Modèle « garbage can » Crédit : jev55 via VisualHunt / CC BY-NC
  12. 12. 3 facteurs d’influence sur la prise de décision Prise de décision Contexte social Expérience et intuition Information
  13. 13. L’information influence la prise de décision Champ de vision limité Perception sélective Interprétation de la situation perçue Décision la plus satisfaisante (et non la meilleure) (Hambrick et Mason, 1984)
  14. 14. L’expérience et l’intuition influencent la prise de décision Problèmes peu clairs Enjeux élevés Qui engagent de multiples acteurs Dans des environnements dynamiques et incertains Prise de décision fondée sur l’intuition (Eisenhardt, 1989; Zsambock et Klein, 2014)
  15. 15. Le contexte social influence la prise de décision Normes et valeurs des décideurs Politiques et culture organisation- nelles Pressions publiques et règlementaires Normes au sein de l’industrie Décision la plus acceptée socialement (Di Maggio et Powell, 1983; Scott, 2014)
  16. 16. 3 soutiens de la veille stratégique à la prise de décision Crédit : Impact Hub via VisualHunt / CC BY-SA
  17. 17. Réduire l’incertitude • Incertitude causée par un manque ou une surabondance d’information • Meilleure compréhension de l’environnement externe (Auster et Choo, 1994) Crédit : Marco Bellucci via Visual Hunt / CC BY
  18. 18. Détecter des signaux faibles • Acquérir des connaissances issues de stimuli de l’environnement • Reconnaître des micro- changements dans l’environnement, qui se trouvent en périphérie de ce sur quoi les décideurs sont concentrés • Anticiper les évolutions (Ansoff, 1975; Lesca et Lesca, 2011; Schoemaker et al., 2013) Crédit : via Visualhunt.com
  19. 19. Légitimer des décisions déjà prises « The use of information is embedded in social norms that make it highly symbolic » (Feldman et March, 1981, p. 171) Crédit : via Visualhunt.com
  20. 20. Conclusion ✓ La veille stratégique contribue à soutenir la prise de décision de manière indirecte et davantage en aval qu’en amont de la décision. ✓ Les veilleurs atteignent leur objectif de soutenir la prise de décision s’ils aident à rassurer le décideur. ➢ Mais la veille stratégique peut-elle y contribuer autrement?
  21. 21. Prochaines étapes • Étude de cas multiples dans le secteur public • Collecte des données dans des organisations publiques de santé : • Entrevues semi-dirigées avec des veilleurs • Entrevues semi-dirigées avec des gestionnaires clients de la veille • Pour suivre l’avancement de la thèse : http://drevon.ebsi.umontreal.ca/these
  22. 22. Sources citées • Ansoff, H. I. (1975). Managing strategic surprise by response to weak signals. California Management Review, 18(2), 2-33. • Auster, E. et Choo, C. W. (1994). CEO’s, information and decision-making : scanning the environment for strategic advantage. Library Trends, 43(2), 206-225. • Bergeron, P. et Hiller, C. A. (2002). Competitive intelligence. Annual Review of Information Science and Technology, 36(1), 353-390. • Cohen, M. D., March, J. G. et Olsen, J. P. (1972). A garbage can model of organizational choice. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17(1), 1-25. • Di Maggio, P. J. et Powell, W. W. (1983). The iron cage revisited : institutional isomorphism and collective rationality in organizational fields. American Sociological Review, 48, 147-160. • Drevon, E. (2017). La veille stratégique dans le secteur public de la santé au Québec : une étude de cas multiples (Proposition de recherche non publiée). Université de Montréal, Université de Montréal. • Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Making fast strategic decisions in high-velocity environments. Academy of Management Journal, 32(3), 543-576. • Eisenhardt, K. M. et Zbaracki, M. J. (1992). Strategic decision making. Strategic Management Journal, 13(S2), 17-37. • Feldman, M. S. et March, J. G. (1981). Information in organization as signal and symbol. Administrative Science Quarterly, 26(2), 171-186. • Guechtouli, M. (2014). Management des activités de veille stratégique : entre une organisation formelle et informelle. La Revue des Sciences de Gestion, 2(266), 23-31. • Hambrick, D. C. et Mason, P. A. (1984). Upper echelons : the organization as a reflection of its top managers. The Academy of Management Review, 9(2), 193-206. Lesca, H. et Lesca, N. (2011). Weak signals for strategic intelligence : anticipation tool for managers. Hoboken, NJ : John Wiley & Sons Inc. • March, J. G. (1994). A primer on decision making : how decisions happen. New York, NY : The Free Press. • March, J. G. et Simon, H. A. (1958). Organizations. New York, NY : John Wiley. • Pfeffer, J. et Salancik, G. R. (1974). Organizational decision making as a political process : the case of a university budget. Administrative Science Quarterly, 19, 135-151. • Pfeffer, J. et Salancik, G. R. (1978). The external control of organizations. New York, NY : Harper and Row. • Quinn, J. B. (1989). Strategic change : « logical incrementalism ». Sloan Management Review, 30(4), 45-60. • Schoemaker, P. J. H., Day, G. S. et Snyder, S. A. (2013). Integrating organizational networks, weak signals, strategic radars and scenario planning. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 80(4), 815-824. • Scott, W. R. (2014). Crafting an analytic framework. Dans Institutions and organizations : ideas, interests, and identities (p. 55-85). Los Angeles, CA : SAGE. • Simon, H. A. (1977). The new science of management decision (2è éd.). Englewood Cliffs, NJ : Prentice-Hall. • Zsambock, C. E. et Klein, G. (2014). Naturalistic decision making. New York, NY : Psychology Press.
  23. 23. Merci ! Des questions? ELSA DREVON, CANDIDATE AU DOCTORAT, UNIVERSITÉ DE MONTRÉAL CHRISTINE DUFOUR, PROFESSEURE AGRÉGÉE, UNIVERSITÉ DE MONTRÉAL DOMINIQUE MAUREL, PROFESSEURE AGRÉGÉE, UNIVERSITÉ DE MONTRÉAL 2ème Congrès des professionnels de l’information 11 octobre 2017

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