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Clinical pharmacology.Basics.


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Clinical pharmacology.Basics.

  1. 1. Clinical pharmacology The basics of pharmacokinethics and pharmacodynamic Eugene I. Shorikov, associate prof., PhD The department of internal medicine, clinical pharmacology and occupational diseases, BSMU, Chernivtsi
  2. 2. Clinical pharmacology: studies action of medication on the organism of sick man <ul><li>  Basic tasks of clinical pharmacology: </li></ul><ul><li>clinical research of new pharmacological facilities; </li></ul><ul><li>clinical researches and overvalue of old preparations; </li></ul><ul><li>development of methods of effective and safe application of medications; </li></ul><ul><li>organization of informative services and advisory help to the different specialists in the usage of drugs; </li></ul><ul><li>studies of students and doctors; </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>In practical medicine a clinical pharmacologist decides a question: </li></ul><ul><li>a choice of medications for treatment of concrete patient; </li></ul><ul><li>determination of most effective medical forms or routs and mode of their application for the state of sick; </li></ul><ul><li>choice of routs of administration of drugs; </li></ul><ul><li>looking is after the action of medication; </li></ul><ul><li>prevention and timely removal of adverse reactions and undesirable consequences of cooperation of medications </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Basic sections of clinical pharmacology: </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>pharmacodynamic - studies the aggregate of effects of medication matter and mechanisms of its action </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>pharmacokinetics - studies the routs of administration, distribution, biotransformation and destroying of drugs from an sick organism </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>pharmacogenetics - studies genetic bases of reactions of organism of sick man on drugs </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pharmacodynamics <ul><li>D eals with the study of the biochemical and physiological effects of drugs and their mechanisms of action. </li></ul><ul><li>A thorough analysis of drug action can provide the basis for both the rational therapeutic use of a drug and the design of new and superior therapeutic agents. </li></ul><ul><li>Basic research in pharmacodynamics also provides fundamental insights into biochemical and physiological regulation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Pharmacodynamics <ul><li>І. The kinds of actions of medications </li></ul><ul><li>local (local); </li></ul><ul><li>general </li></ul><ul><li>direct </li></ul><ul><li>undirect (including reflective) </li></ul><ul><li>selective; </li></ul><ul><li>circulating and irreversible; </li></ul><ul><li>basic and side; </li></ul><ul><li>excitant and repressing; </li></ul><ul><li>(if the physiology level of function of organism rises under act of medications, the type of action is talked about a stimulant ; </li></ul><ul><li>if a function is loosened under act of medications normalized – about restorative the type of action ) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Mechanism of action of medications <ul><li>1.Operating is on specific receptors: </li></ul><ul><li>cholinergic (М1, М2, М3, N); </li></ul><ul><li>adrenergic (alfa and beta; dopaminic – D1 and D2); </li></ul><ul><li>GABA; </li></ul><ul><li>opiate ; </li></ul><ul><li>adenosine or purinergic (А1 and А2); </li></ul><ul><li>histamine (Н1, Н2, Н3); </li></ul><ul><li>serotonin (5НТ1а, 5НТ1в, 5НТ1с, 5НТ1 D , 5НТ2, 5НТ3); </li></ul><ul><li>receptors of steroides and peptide hormones. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Operating on activity of enzymes </li></ul><ul><li>3.The physical and chemical operating is on the membranes of mews </li></ul><ul><li>4.Direct chemical co-operation </li></ul><ul><li>5. Drug acts as a substrate agent </li></ul>
  8. 8. Receptors <ul><li>I nteractions alter the function of the pertinent component and thereby initiate the biochemical and physiological changes that are characteristic of the response to the drug . </li></ul><ul><li>The term receptor denotes the component of the organism with which the chemical agent is presumed to interact. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Receptors <ul><li>proteins form the most important class of drug receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Examples include the receptors for hormones, growth factors, transcription factors, and neurotransmitters; the enzymes of crucial metabolic or regulatory pathways ( e.g., dihydrofolate reductase, acetylcholinesterase, and cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases); proteins involved in transport processes ( e.g., Na + ,K + -ATPase); secreted glycoproteins ( e.g., Wnts); and structural proteins ( e.g., tubulin). </li></ul><ul><li>Thus nucleic acids are important drug receptors, particularly for cancer chemotherapeutic agents </li></ul>
  10. 10. Receptors <ul><li>The regulatory actions of a receptor may be exerted directly on its cellular target(s), effector protein(s) , or may be conveyed by intermediary cellular signaling molecules called transducers . The receptor, its cellular target, and any intermediary molecules are referred to as a receptor-effector system or signal-transduction pathway . Frequently, the proximal cellular effector protein is not the ultimate physiological target but rather is an enzyme or transport protein that creates, moves, or degrades a small metabolite ( e.g., a cyclic nucleotide or inositol-trisphosphate) or ion ( e.g., Ca 2+ ) known as a second messenger . </li></ul>
  11. 11. Receptors <ul><li>Receptors for physiological regulatory molecules can be assigned to a relatively few functional families whose members share both common mechanisms of action and similar molecular structures : </li></ul><ul><li>Receptors as Enzymes: Receptor Protein Kinases and Guanylyl Cyclases. </li></ul><ul><li>Protease-Activated Receptor Signaling. </li></ul><ul><li>Ion Channels. </li></ul><ul><li>G Protein-Coupled Receptors. </li></ul><ul><li>Transcription Factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Actions of Drugs Not Mediated by Receptors </li></ul>
  12. 12. Receptors
  13. 13. Pharmacokinetics <ul><li>F undamental tenet of clinical pharmacokinetics is that a relationship exists between the pharmacological effects of a drug and an accessible concentration of the drug ( e.g., in blood or plasma). </li></ul><ul><li>This relationship has been documented for many drugs and is of benefit in the therapeutic management of patients. </li></ul><ul><li>The physiological and pathophysiological variables that dictate adjustment of dosage in individual patients often do so as a result of modification of pharmacokinetic parameters. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Pharmacokinetics <ul><li>The phases of pharmacokinetics include: </li></ul><ul><li>absorption ; </li></ul><ul><li>distribution ; </li></ul><ul><li>metabolism (biotransformation); </li></ul><ul><li>excretion (elimination). </li></ul>
  15. 15. Interrelationship of pharmacokinetical proccesses
  16. 16. Pharmacokinetic curve
  17. 17. Bioavailability <ul><li>Absorption is the movement of a drug from its site of administration into the central compartment and the extent to which this occurs. </li></ul><ul><li>The clinician is concerned primarily with bioavailability rather than absorption. </li></ul><ul><li>Bioavailability is a term used to indicate the fractional extent to which a dose of drug reaches its site of action or a biological fluid from which the drug has access to its site of action. </li></ul><ul><li>If the metabolic or excretory capacity of the liver for the drug is large, bioavailability will be reduced substantially ( the first-pass effect ). </li></ul><ul><li>This decrease in availability is a function of the anatomical site from which absorption takes place; other anatomical, physiological, and pathological factors can influence bioavailability, and the choice of the route of drug administration must be based on an understanding of these conditions. </li></ul>
  18. 19. The ways of absorbtion and excretion
  19. 20. DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS <ul><li>Following absorption or systemic administration into the bloodstream, a drug distributes into interstitial and intracellular fluids. </li></ul><ul><li>This process reflects a number of physiological factors and the particular physicochemical properties of the individual drug. Cardiac output, regional blood flow, capillary permeability, and tissue volume determine the rate of delivery and potential amount of drug distributed into tissues. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 phases of distribution: </li></ul><ul><li>First(initial) – liver, kidney, brain, and other well-perfused organs receive most of the drug. </li></ul><ul><li>Second – delivery to muscle, most viscera, skin, and fat is slower. </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>This second distribution phase may require minutes to several hours before the concentration of drug in tissue is in equilibrium with that in blood. The second phase also involves a far larger fraction of body mass than does the initial phase and generally accounts for most of the extravascularly distributed drug. With exceptions such as the brain, diffusion of drug into the interstitial fluid occurs rapidly because of the highly permeable nature of the capillary endothelial membrane. Thus, tissue distribution is determined by the partitioning of drug between blood and the particular tissue. Lipid solubility and transmembrane pH gradients are important determinants of such uptake for drugs that are either weak acids or bases. </li></ul>
  20. 21. DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS <ul><li>Volume is a second fundamental parameter that is useful in considering processes of drug disposition. The volume of distribution ( V ) relates the amount of drug in the body to the concentration of drug ( C ) in the blood or plasma depending on the fluid measured. This volume does not necessarily refer to an identifiable physiological volume but rather to the fluid volume that would be required to contain all the drug in the body at the same concentration measured in the blood or plasma: </li></ul>
  21. 22. DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS <ul><li>A drug's volume of distribution therefore reflects the extent to which it is present in extravascular tissues and not in the plasma. </li></ul><ul><li>Many drugs exhibit volumes of distribution far in excess of these values. </li></ul><ul><li>The volume of distribution may vary widely depending on the relative degrees of binding to high-affinity receptor sites, plasma and tissue proteins, the partition coefficient of the drug in fat, and accumulation in poorly perfused tissues. </li></ul>
  22. 23. DISTRIBUTION OF DRUGS <ul><li>Several volume terms are used commonly to describe drug distribution, and they have been derived in a number of ways. </li></ul><ul><li>The Volume of Distribution connected with dose in equition: </li></ul><ul><li>where k is the rate constant for elimination that reflects the fraction of drug removed from the compartment per unit of time. </li></ul><ul><li>This rate constant is inversely related to the half-life of the drug ( k = 0.693/ t 1/2 ). </li></ul>
  23. 24. Protein binding <ul><li>Many drugs circulate in the bloodstream bound to plasma proteins. </li></ul><ul><li>Albumin is a major carrier for acidic drugs; a 1 -acid glycoprotein binds basic drugs. </li></ul><ul><li>Nonspecific binding to other plasma proteins generally occurs to a much smaller extent. </li></ul><ul><li>The binding is usually reversible; covalent binding of reactive drugs such as alkylating agents occurs occasionally. </li></ul>
  24. 25. Protein binding <ul><li>The fraction of total drug in plasma that is bound is determined by the drug concentration, the affinity of binding sites for the drug, and the number of binding sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Mass-action relationships determine the unbound and bound concentrations. </li></ul><ul><li>At low concentrations of drug (less than the plasma protein binding dissociation constant), the fraction bound is a function of the concentration of binding sites and the dissociation constant. </li></ul><ul><li>At high drug concentrations (greater than the dissociation constant), the fraction bound is a function of the number of binding sites and the drug concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>For most drugs, the therapeutic range of plasma concentrations is limited; thus the extent of binding and the unbound fraction are relatively constant. </li></ul>
  25. 26. Protein binding <ul><li>Because binding of drugs to plasma proteins such as albumin is nonselective, and because the number of binding sites is relatively large (high capacity), many drugs with similar physicochemical characteristics can compete with each other and with endogenous substances for these binding sites, resulting in noticeable displacement of one drug by another. </li></ul><ul><li>Importantly, binding of a drug to plasma proteins limits its concentration in tissues and at its site of action because only unbound drug is in equilibrium across membranes. Accordingly, after distribution equilibrium is achieved, the concentration of active, unbound drug in intracellular water is the same as that in plasma except when carrier-mediated transport is involved. </li></ul>
  26. 27. Tissue Binding <ul><li>Many drugs accumulate in tissues at higher concentrations than those in the extracellular fluids and blood. Such accumulation may be a result of active transport or, more commonly, binding. </li></ul><ul><li>Tissue binding of drugs usually occurs with cellular constituents such as proteins, phospholipids, or nuclear proteins and generally is reversible. </li></ul><ul><li>A large fraction of drug in the body may be bound in this fashion and serve as a reservoir that prolongs drug action in that same tissue or at a distant site reached through the circulation. </li></ul>
  27. 28. Clearance <ul><li>Clearance is the most important concept to consider when designing a rational regimen for long-term drug administration. </li></ul><ul><li>The clinician usually wants to maintain steady-state concentrations of a drug within a therapeutic window associated with therapeutic efficacy and a minimum of toxicity for a given agent. Assuming complete bioavailability, the steady-state concentration of drug in the body will be achieved when the rate of drug elimination equals the rate of drug administration. Thus: </li></ul><ul><li>where CL is clearance of drug from the systemic circulation and C ss is the steady-state concentration of drug. If the desired steady-state concentration of drug in plasma or blood is known, the rate of clearance of drug by the patient will dictate the rate at which the drug should be administered. </li></ul>
  28. 29. Clearance <ul><li>Principles of drug clearance are similar to those of renal physiology, where, for example, creatinine clearance is defined as the rate of elimination of creatinine in the urine relative to its concentration in plasma. </li></ul><ul><li>At the simplest level, clearance of a drug is its rate of elimination by all routes normalized to the concentration of drug C in some biological fluid where measurement can be made: </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, when clearance is constant, the rate of drug elimination is directly proportional to drug concentration. </li></ul>
  29. 30. Clearance <ul><li>Clearance can be defined further as blood clearance ( CL b ), plasma clearance ( CL p ), or clearance based on the concentration of unbound drug ( CL u ), depending on the measurement made ( C b , C p , or C u ). </li></ul><ul><li>Clearance of drug by several organs is additive. </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of drug may occur as a result of processes that occur in the GI tract, kidney, liver, and other organs. Division of the rate of elimination by each organ by a concentration of drug ( e.g., plasma concentration) will yield the respective clearance by that organ. </li></ul>
  30. 31. Clearance and Half-life <ul><li>For a single dose of a drug with complete bioavailability and first-order kinetics of elimination, systemic clearance may be determined from mass balance: </li></ul><ul><li>where AUC is the total area under the curve that describes the measured concentration of drug in the systemic circulation as a function of time (from zero to infinity) </li></ul><ul><li>The half-life ( t 1/2 ) is the time it takes for the plasma concentration or the amount of drug in the body to be reduced by 50%. For the simplest case, the one-compartment model, half-life may be determined readily by inspection and used to make decisions about drug dosage. </li></ul><ul><li>The relevance of a particular half-life may be defined in terms of the fraction of the clearance and volume of distribution that is related to each half-life and whether plasma concentrations or amounts of drug in the body are best related to measures of response. </li></ul>
  31. 32. Clearance and Half-life <ul><li>A useful approximate relationship between the clinically relevant half-life, clearance, and volume of distribution at steady state is given by </li></ul><ul><li>Clearance is the measure of the body's ability to eliminate a drug; thus, as clearance decreases, owing to a disease process, for example, half-life would be expected to increase. However, this reciprocal relationship is valid only when the disease does not change the volume of distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Although it can be a poor index of drug elimination from the body per se , half-life does provide a good indication of the time required to reach steady state after a dosage regimen is initiated or changed, the time for a drug to be removed from the body, and a means to estimate the appropriate dosing interval </li></ul>
  32. 33. METABOLISM OF DRUGS <ul><li>The metabolism of drugs and other xenobiotics into more hydrophilic metabolites is essential for their elimination from the body, as well as for termination of their biological and pharmacological activity. </li></ul><ul><li>In general, biotransformation reactions generate more polar, inactive metabolites that are readily excreted from the body. </li></ul><ul><li>However, in some cases, metabolites with potent biological activity or toxic properties are generated. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the enzyme systems that transform drugs to inactive metabolites also generate biologically active metabolites of endogenous compounds, as in steroid biosynthesis. </li></ul>
  33. 34. METABOLISM OF DRUGS <ul><li>Drug metabolism or biotransformation reactions are classified as either phase I functionalization reactions or phase II biosynthetic (conjugation) reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Phase I reactions introduce or expose a functional group on the parent compound such as occurs in hydrolysis reactions. Phase I reactions generally result in the loss of pharmacological activity, although there are examples of retention or enhancement of activity. In rare instances, metabolism is associated with an altered pharmacological activity. </li></ul><ul><li>If not excreted rapidly into the urine, the products of phase I biotransformation reactions then can react with endogenous compounds to form a highly water-soluble conjugate. </li></ul>
  34. 35. METABOLISM OF DRUGS <ul><li>Phase II conjugation reactions lead to the formation of a covalent linkage between a functional group on the parent compound or phase I metabolite and endogenously derived glucuronic acid, sulfate, glutathione, amino acids, or acetate. These highly polar conjugates generally are inactive and are excreted rapidly in the urine and feces. </li></ul><ul><li>The enzyme systems involved in the biotransformation of drugs are localized primarily in the liver, although every tissue examined has some metabolic activity. Other organs with significant metabolic capacity include the GI tract, kidneys, and lungs. </li></ul>
  35. 36. METABOLISM OF DRUGS <ul><li>The enzyme systems involved in phase I reactions are located primarily in the endoplasmic reticulum, whereas the phase II conjugation enzyme systems are mainly cytosolic. </li></ul><ul><li>Often, drugs biotransformed through a phase I reaction in the endoplasmic reticulum are conjugated at this same site or in the cytosolic fraction of the same cell in a sequential fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>These biotransforming reactions are carried out by cytochrome P450 isoforms (CYPs) and by a variety of transferases. </li></ul>
  36. 37. Thank You