OSPE REVISION PATHOLOGY BDS 2ND YEAR / 3RD YEAR MBBS

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OSPE REVISION PATHOLOGY BDS 2ND YEAR / 3RD YEAR MBBS

  1. 1. BDS 2ND YEAR OSPE SLIDES 2011 DR EJAZ WARIS Associate Professor Histopathology FMHC
  2. 2. Chocolate agar Chocolate agar (CHOC) - is a non-selective, enriched growth medium. It is a variant of the blood agar plate. It contains red blood cells, which have been lysed by heating very slowly to 56 °C. Chocolate agar is used for growing fastidious (fussy) respiratory bacteria, such as Haemophilus influenzae. These bacteria need growth factors, like NAD and hematin, which are inside erythrocytes; thus, a prerequisite to growth is lysis of the red blood cells
  3. 3.  A nutrient culture medium that is enriched with whole blood and used for the growth of certain strains of bacteria. Contains mammalian blood (usually sheep or horse), typically at a concentration of 5–10%. BAP are an enriched, differential media used to isolate fastidious organisms and detect hemolytic activity. β-hemolytic activity will show complete lysis of red blood cells surrounding colony, while α-hemolysis will only partially lyse hemoglobin and will appear green. γ- hemolysis (or non-hemolytic) is the term referring to a lack of hemolytic activity.
  4. 4. micropipetteA pipette used to measure very small volumes of liquids.
  5. 5.  Elisa microtitre plate
  6. 6.  Salmonellashigella agar plate with h2s producing colonies
  7. 7.  The Lowenstein-Jensen medium, popularly known as LJ medium, is a growth medium specially used for culture of Mycobacterium, notably Mycobacterium tuberculosis. When grown on LJ medium, M. tuberculosis appears as brown, granule-like colonies. The media must be incubated for a significant length of time, usually four weeks, due to the slow doubling time of M. tuberculosis compared with other bacteria (15-20 hours).
  8. 8.  Cysteine Lactose Electrolyte Deficient agar (CLED)  CLED agar is used to isolate and differentiate urinary tract bacteria, since it inhibits Proteus species swarming and can differentiate between lactose fermenters and non- fermenters.
  9. 9. MacConkey agar (MAC)A selective and differential media used to differentiate between Gram negative bacteria while inhibiting the growth of Gram positive bacteria. The addition of bile salts and crystal violet to the agar inhibits the growth of most Gram positive bacteria, making MacConkey agar selective. Lactose and neutral red are added to differentiate the lactose fermenters, which form pink colonies, from lactose nonfermenters that form clear colonies.
  10. 10.  Sabouraud agar is used to culture fungi and has a low pH that inhibits the growth of most bacteria; also contains the antibiotic gentamicin to specifically inhibit the growth of Gram-negative bacteria.
  11. 11.  TripleSugar Iron medium is a differential medium that can distinguish between a number of Gram-negative enteric bacteria based on their physiological ability (or lack thereof) to: a. metabolize lactose and/or sucrose b. conduct fermentation to produce acid c. produce gas during fermentation d. generate H2S.
  12. 12.  The medium contains 1.0% each of sucrose and lactose and 0.1% glucose. If only glucose is fermented, acid produced in the butt will turn it yellow, but insufficient acid products are formed to affect the methyl red in the slant. However, if either sucrose or lactose are fermented, sufficient fermentation products will be formed to turn both the butt and the slant yellow. If gas is formed during the fermentation, it will show in the butt either as bubbles or as cracking of the agar. If no fermentation occurs (as for an obligate aerobe), the slant and butt will remain red.

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