Teaching And Learning From Texts Vacca Ch1


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Using trade books to teach content; compares textbooks and tradebooks,

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Teaching And Learning From Texts Vacca Ch1

  1. 1. Dr. Mahoney Resources from Vacca and Vacca
  2. 2. Reading matters <ul><li>Using reading to learn is what content reading is about </li></ul><ul><li>How to learn not often taught </li></ul><ul><li>Students don’t read; teachers revert to lecture </li></ul>
  3. 3. Posing questions <ul><li>1. Why does “assigning and telling” stifle active learning and deny students responsibility? </li></ul><ul><li>2. How are literacy and learning related? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What is content literacy? </li></ul><ul><li>4. How does diversity affect classroom interactions? </li></ul><ul><li>5. How can students ‘think with text?’ </li></ul><ul><li>6. What is ‘reader response’ and ‘schema theory,’ and how does it influence comprehension and learning? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Teachers, Students and Text <ul><li>Emphasis on content knowledge; more difficult to teach than to know </li></ul><ul><li>Textbooks are the main teaching tools </li></ul><ul><li>Views of texts - Canons, authoritative sources of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Shift from teaching ‘from’ text to teaching ‘with’ text </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Implies readers bring contributions </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Beyond Assigning and Telling <ul><li>Traditional teaching – recitation – assign, question, evaluate response </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher is active participant; students passive </li></ul><ul><li>Teacher assigns – students didn’t read – teacher imparts content </li></ul><ul><li>Your text stuggests burden of learn should shift from teacher to students </li></ul>
  6. 6. Today’s students <ul><li>Diverse students struggle with learning from texts </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little support for struggling students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>May be placed in ‘slower’ classes with watered down content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Linguistic variations influence literacy learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Difference perceived as deficit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Successful teachers allow use of dialect rather than continually correcting </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In Language Arts classes, students study standard English </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Challenges in using texts <ul><li>Heavy concept load; heavy vocabulary load – challenge for non-standard English speakers and ELL students </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to read on grade level </li></ul><ul><li>Alienated from school </li></ul><ul><li>“ Hideout” in classrooms – avoid reading, avoid eye contact with teacher, disrupt when asked content questions, forget to bring textbook, seek help from friends – perpetuates cycle of failure; lack knowledge of strategies </li></ul>
  8. 8. Effective readers <ul><li>Know how to approach the text </li></ul><ul><li>Make plans for reading </li></ul><ul><li>Locate and summarize main ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Organize content </li></ul><ul><li>Know how to ‘get out of jams’ when reading </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ineffective or struggling readers <ul><li>Lack knowledge of control of strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Lack knowledge of when to use specific strategies </li></ul><ul><li>Fail to identify purpose for reading and writing </li></ul><ul><li>Remain passive and disengaged </li></ul><ul><li>Sense of helplessness and poor self-image </li></ul><ul><li>Lack confidence in ability to discern meaning </li></ul>
  10. 10. Content literacy <ul><li>The ability to use reading and writing to learn subject matter </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy – the ability to read and write a language </li></ul><ul><li>Functional literacy – literacy needed to survive in society </li></ul><ul><li>Illiteracy – inability to read and write </li></ul><ul><li>Aliteracy – choosing not to read and write </li></ul><ul><li>Literacy is situational – workplace literacy, family literacy, etc </li></ul>
  11. 11. To be literate in content classrooms <ul><li>1. Students must use reading and writing to explore and construct meaning from texts, other learners, and teachers </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers must help students use reading and writing as learning tools, to think about content. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading – thinking with printed symbols </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Think to discover, organize, retrieve, elaborate on information and ideas </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Thinking with text <ul><li>Reading – a conversation between text and reader; the mind is questioning (cognitive questioning), dialoguing with the author </li></ul><ul><li>Theories about the reading process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reader Response Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schema Theory </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Reader Response Theory <ul><li>Rosenblatt – thought and feeling components of literacy interpretation – text demands affective interpretation </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional implication – create active learning environment in which students respond personally an critically to what is read </li></ul><ul><li>Stances – efferent, aesthetic, critical – readers shift between these stances as they read </li></ul><ul><li>Instructional implications – use of journals in which students record responses to text </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reader Response Questions <ul><li>1. What aspect of the text interested you the most? </li></ul><ul><li>2. What are your feelings and attitudes about this aspect of the text? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What experiences have you had that help others understand why you feel the way you do? </li></ul><ul><li>Responses help readers make personal connections to the text. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Schema Theory <ul><li>Schema – technical term to describe how people organize and store information in the mind </li></ul><ul><li>Schema activation – mechanism for accessing knowledge and matching to text information </li></ul>
  16. 16. How schemata influence learning <ul><li>1. Provide a framework for seeking and selecting relevant information </li></ul><ul><li>2. Help organize text information – integrate new information with old, facilitates retention and recall; poorly organized text makes this difficult </li></ul><ul><li>3. Help readers elaborate information – make judgments, evaluate, gain insight </li></ul>
  17. 17. Teacher’s role – Instructional Scaffolding <ul><li>Provide “necessary support” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand the gaps between learners prior knowledge and the assumptions texts make about students’ knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provide organizational strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning active learning environments </li></ul></ul>