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Lec 9 level 4-de (biological buffer)


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Lec 9 level 4-de (biological buffer)

  1. 1. Dental Biochemistry 2 – (Lec. 9) Biological Buffer 1
  2. 2. ACIDS AND BASES• Definition• According to the definition proposed by Bronsted, acids are substances that are capable of donating protons and bases are those that accept protons.• For example: HCI ↔ H++CI- HCO-3 + H+ ↔ H2C03 2
  3. 3. • Acidity of a solution and pH:• The acidity of a solution is measured by noting the hydrogen ion concentration in the solution.• pH = log 1/[H+]• Thus, the pH value is inversely proportional to the acidity. Lower the pH, higher the acidity or hydrogen ion concentration while higher the pH, the acidity is lower. The pH 7 indicates the neutral pH. 3
  4. 4. BUFFERS1. Definition• Buffers are solutions which can resist changes in pH when acid or alkali is added.2. Composition of a bufferBuffers are 2 types:a, Mixtures of weak acids with their salt with a strong base orb, Mixtures of weak bases with their salt with a strong acid.• A few examples are given below:i. Bicarbonate bufferii. Acetate bufferiii. Phosphate buffer. 4
  5. 5. • Buffer CapacityThe buffering capacity of a buffer isdefined as the ability of the buffer toresist changes in pH when an acid or baseis added. 5
  6. 6. How do Buffers Act?• i. Buffer solutions consist of mixtures of a weak acid or base and its salt.• ii. To take an example, when hydrochloric acid is added to the acetate buffer, the salt reacts with the acid forming the weak acid, acetic acid and its salt. Similarly when a base is added, the acid reacts with it forming salt and water. Thus changes in the pH are minimized.• CH3-COOH + NaOH ↔ CH3-COONa + H20• CH3-COONa + HCI ↔ CH3-COOH + NaCl 6
  7. 7. Acid-Base balance• Normal pH:• The pH of plasma is 7.4 in normal life, the variation of plasma pH is very small. The pH of plasma is maintained within a narrow range of 7.38 to 7.42. The pH of the interstitial fluid is generally 0.5 units blow that of the plasma.• Acidosis:• If the pH is blow 7.38, it is called acidosis. Life is threatened when pH is lowered below 7.25. Death occurs when pH is below 7.• Alkalosis:• When the pH is more than 7.42, it is alkalosis. It is very dangerous if pH is increased above 7.55. Death occurs when the pH is above 7.6. 7
  8. 8. Volatile and Fixed Acids• i. During the normal metabolism, the acids produced may be volatile acid like carbonic acid or nonvolatile (fixed) acids like lactate, keto acids, sulfuric acid and phosphoric acid.• ii. The carbonic acid, being volatile, is eliminated as CO2 by the lungs. The fixed acids are buffered and later on the H+ are excreted by the kidney. 8
  9. 9. Mechanisms of regulation of pH• Buffers of body fluids.• Respiratory system.• Renal excretion. 9
  10. 10. 1- Buffers of the body fluids:• Buffers are the first line of defense against acid load. The buffers are effective as long as the acid load is not excessive, and the alkali reserve is not exhausted. 10
  11. 11. A- Bicarbonate buffer system:• The most important buffer system in the plasma is the bicarbonate-carbonic acid system (NaHCO3/H2CO3). It accounts for 65% of buffering capacity in plasma and 40% of buffering action in the whole body.• The base constituent, bicarbonate (HCO3-), is regulated by the kidney (metabolic component).• While the acid part, carbonic acid (H2CO3), is under respiratory regulation (respiratory component). 11
  12. 12. • The normal bicarbonate level of plasma is 24 mmol/liter.• The ratio of HCO3- to H2CO3 at pH 7.4 is 20 under normal conditions.• The bicarbonate carbonic acid buffer system is the most important for the following reasons:• Presence of bicarbonate in relatively high concentrations.• The components are under physiological control, CO2 by lung and bicarbonate by kidneys.• 12
  13. 13. B- Alkali reserve:• Bicarbonate represents the alkali reserve and it has to be sufficiently high to meet the acid load. If it was too low, all the HCO3- would have been exhausted within a very short time; and buffering will not be effective. So, under physiological circumstances, the ratio of 20 (a high alkali reserve) ensure high buffering efficiency against acids. 13
  14. 14. C- Phosphate buffer system:• It is mainly intracellular buffer. Its concentration in plasma is very low.• The phosphate buffer system is found to be effective at a wide pH range, because it has more than one ionizable group.• In the body, Na2HPO4/NaH2PO4 is an effective buffer system. 14
  15. 15. D- Buffers act quickly, but notpermanently:• Buffers can respond immediately to addition of acid or base, but they do not serve to eliminate the acid from the body.• They are also unable to replenish the alkali reserve of the body.• For the final elimination of acids, the respiratory and renal regulations are very essential. 15
  16. 16. 2- Respiratory regulation of pH• It is the second line of defense• This is achieved by changing the pCO2.• The CO2 diffuses from the cells into the extracellular fluid and reaches the lungs through the blood.• When there is a fall in pH of plasma (acidosis), the respiratory rate is stimulated resulting in hyperventilation.• This would eliminate more CO2, thus lowering H2CO3 level.• However, this cannot continue for long. The respiratory system responds to any change in pH immediately, but cannot proceed to completion. 16
  17. 17. 3- Renal regulation of pH• Kidneys excrete urine (pH around 6) with a pH lower than that of extracellular fluid (pH= 7.4). This is called acidification of urine. The pH of the urine may vary from as low as 4.5 to as high as 9.8, depending on the amount of acid excreted.The major kidney mechanisms for regulation of pHare:• Excretion of H+.• Reabsorption of bicarbonate.• Excretion of titratable acid (net acid excretion).• Excretion of NH4+ (ammonium ion). 17
  18. 18. Classification of Acid-Base Disturbances1. Acidosis (fall in pH)Where acids accumulate or base is lost, it is acidosis.a. Respiratory acidosis: Primary excess of carbonic acidb. Metabolic acidosis: Primary deficiency of bicarbonate.2. Alkalosis (rise in pH)A loss of acid or accumulation of base is alkalosisa. Respiratory alkalosis: Primary deficiency of carbonicacid.b. Metabolic alkalosis: Primary excess of bicarbonate3. Mixed Responsesi. In mixed disturbances, both HCO3 and H2C03 levels arealtered. 18
  19. 19. ELECTROLYTE AND WATER BALANCE• The maintenance of extracellular fluid volume and pH are closely interrelated.• Body is composed of about 60-70% water.• Osmolality of the intra-and extracellular fluid is the same, but there is marked difference in the solute content. 19
  20. 20. Intake and Output of Water• During oxidation of food stuffs, 1 g carbohydrate produces 0.6 ml of water, 1 g protein releases 0.4 ml water and 1 g fat generates 1.1 ml of water. Intake of 1000 kcal produces 125 ml water• The major factors controlling the intake are thirst and the rate of metabolism.• The renal function is the major factor controlling the rate of output.• The rate of loss through skin is influenced by the weather. 20