Most common congenital heart defect. accounting for up to 40 %
of cardiac anomalies .
Chromosomal disorders associated with an increased incidence
of VSD , (Down syndrome), (Di George syndrome), (Turner
Familial forms , TBX5, GATA4, and NKX2.5 mutations .
Children from an adult with a VSD that is not associated with a
genetic disorder may have a risk of VSD as high as 3 % if the
father is affected and a 6 % risk if the mother is affected.
TYPE 1 : subarterial defect:
doubly commited, outlet),
TYPE 2 : perimembranous
septum ( outlet, trabecular
and inlet subtype), 80%
TYPE3 : inlet or
atrioventricular defect, <
TYPE 4 : muscular defects,
Conal,subpul, infundibular, supracristal, doubly commited ( 4 ) outlet
Aortic regurgitation (87% IN 20Y)
Prolapse of the anterior aortic valve leaflet. ( LCC,RCC
6 % of defects 30% in Asian
Spontaneous closure of this type of defect is uncommon
Doubly committed subarterial :
More common in Asian patients,
In the outlet septum,
Bordered by fibrous continuity of the aortic and pulmonary valves.
Synonyms: perimembranous, paramembranous,conoventricular
SUBTYPES : Inlet, trabecular, outlet, and confluent. (multiple areas of
Most common VSD, (80 % of defects)
Bordered by fibrous continuity between the leaflets of an AV valve and
an arterial valve.
AI (Prolapse of,RCC,NCC)
Synonyms: inlet, AV canal type, endocardial cushion
May be associated with AV canal defect.
Trisomy 21 syndrome.
5–8 % of VSDs .
Rim totally composed of septal muscle
Subclassified as inlet, trabecular, outlet, or confluent .
20 % of VSDs in infants
Spontaneous closure is common,.
CLASSIFICATION BY SIZE
LARGE Size is >75% of aortic annulus, flow
velocity less than 1 m/s, VSD resistance
index < 20 u/m2
MODERATE Size 33- 75% of aortic annulus, flow
velocity 1-4 m/s,
SMALL Size <33% of aortic annulus, flow
velocity > 4 m/s, VSD resistance index
more than 20 u/m2
According to borders of VSD.
PERIMEMBRANOUS Bordered directly by fibrous continuity
between leaflets of AV valves and arterial
DOUBLY COMMITTED Bordered by fibrous continuity between
leaflets of aortic and pulmonary valves
MUSCULAR Completely embedded in muscular
VAN PRAAGH CLASSIFICATION
4 TYPES .
The only difference from other classifications is that Van Praagh used
the term PARAMEMBRANOUS instead of perimembranous. He told
that these defects besides involving membranous septum involved the
tissue around them and are confluent with them.
This is direct LV to RA shunt.
Membranous septum has 2 parts – (a)
atrioventricular part , (b) ventricular part.
Defects through atrioventricular part leads to
shunting of blood from LV to RA directly (true
Defects in ventricular part leads to shunting of blood
from LV to RV and then through perforation in
septal leaflet goes to RA . It is indirect LV to RA
shunt ( false gerbode defect).
PRESENTATION OF DISEASE
spectrum of disease
Asymptomatic patient patients with
The variation in the spectrum of disease is due to the physiologic
consequences depending on:
a) size of VSD
b) pulmonary vascular resistance
As these variable changes with time the presentation and clinical
features changes resulting in different spectrum of disease.
The presentation and spectrum of disease can be easily understood by
following the ANATOMIC PHYSIOLOGIC CLASSIFICATION OF VSD.
ANATOMIC PHYSIOLOGIC CLASSIFICATION OF VSD: (
based on size of VSD and PVR):
A. TYPE 1 (RESTRICTIVE VSD)
B. TYPE 2 (MODERATELY RESTRICTIVE VSD)
C. TYPE 3 (NONRESTRICTIVE VSD)
D. TYPE 4 (VSD WITH REVERSAL OF SHUNT)
TYPE 1 ( RESTRICTIVE VSD):
Resistance that limits the left to right shunt resides at the level of VSD.
Normal PA pressure and RVSP
LV pressure > RV pressure
1. Produces a significant pressure gradient between the left ventricle
and the right ventricle
2. Pulmonary-to-aortic systolic pressure ratio < 0.3
3. Small (≤1.4 : 1) shunt.
4. Less than 5mm, or defect size <=25% of annulus diameter
5. Normal PA and branches
6. Normal LV, LA size
TYPE 2 ( moderately restrictive VSD )
Higher than normal RV AND PA pressure but with low and variable
LV pressure > RV pressure
1. Qp/Qs of 1.4 to 2.2
2. pulmonary-to-aortic systolic pressure ratio less than 0.66.
3. Diameter of defect >25% <75% of annulus size or 5-10 mm
4. RVP,PAP normal or near normal
5. Mild to moderate PA,LA,LV dilation
TYPE 3( NON RESTRICTIVE VSD):
Large left to right shunt, identical LV to RV pressure
RV and LV behave as single chamber with direction of flow determined
by resistance in pulmonary and systemic circulation
PVR is high but subsystemic.
1. Qp/Qs > 2.2
2. pulmonary-to-aortic systolic pressure ratio greater than 0.66.
3. Defect diameter >75% of aortic diameter
4. PH in less than 2years
TYPE 4(VSD WITH REVERSAL OF SHUNT):
Identical RV and LV pressure
Suprasystemic PVR and reversal of shunt across VSD.
PAP/systolic pressure ratio of 1
Qp/Qs less than 1 : 1
Net right-to-left shunt and cyanosis.
Natural history of disease
1. A restrictive VSD may close spontaneously during childhood or may go
unnoticed as it hardly produces symptoms or may lead to infective
2. A perimembranous defect ,doubly committed VSD,
1. Progressive AR.
2. Subaortic and subpulmonary stenosis
3. Left ventricular to right atrial shunt
3. A moderately restrictive VSD
1. Left atrial and ventricular dilation due to volume overload. There is pressure overload on
RV to which they adapt.
2. Variable increase in pulmonary vascular resistance occurs with time and may lead to CHF
in adult life.
3. Infective endocarditis.
4. A large or nonrestrictive VSD
1. Ventricular volume overload early in life leading to CHF in childhood.
2. Progressive rise in pulmonary artery pressure
3. A fall in left-to-right shunting.
4. Finally the reversal of shunt
Spontaneous diminution in size
Occurs in both perimembranous and muscular types.
In this study 15.8% of defects < 3 mm remained patent in
comparison to 71.4% > 3mm at 1yr (Nir A et
al.PediatrCardiol1990; 11: 208–10.)
Isolated VSD ( 124 pts) -34% at 1 yr & 67% at 5 yr
Decreases substantially after 1 year of age.(Mehta AV et al.
TennMed 2000; 93: 136–8).
Rare in malaligned VSD and In outlet VSD closure only in 4%
80% of the patients with VSD seen at 1 month age, 60% of the infants
seen at 3 months age, 50% of the patients seen at 6 months of age, 25%
of those seen at 12 months have spontaneous closure.
Mechanism of closure
A.Closure of a perimembranous defect by adhesion of the tricuspid
leaflets to the defect margin and by formation of aneurysm of
B.Closure of a small muscular defect by a fibrous tissue plug.
C.Closure of a muscular defect by hypertrophied muscle bundles in
the right ventricle
D.Closure of a defect in subaorticlocation by adhesion of the
prolapsed aortic valve cusp
Right ventricular outflow tract obstruction
Incidence 3% to 7%.
Hypertrophy of malaligned infundibular septum
Hypertrophy of right ventricular muscle bundles
Prolapsing aortic valve leaflet
Obstruction of outflow tract by ventricular septal aneurysm.
Aortic valve prolapse
VSD with direct contact with the aortic valve are most prone to develop
1. the perimembranous defects
2. doubly committed juxtaarterial defects (RCC prolapse)
3. Some of muscular outlet defects
Characteristic deformity of aortic cusp-nadir of the cusp is elongated.
RCC (60-70%) ,NCC (10-15%) , both in 10-20%
Non-coronary cusp prolapse in perimembranous type
Left coronary cusp prolapse extremely rare
Presentation is rare before 2 yrs and after 10yrs. It peaks between 5 to 9
Aortic valve proplapse
the perimembranus defects tends to decrease following closure by
prolapsed aortic leaflet and volume overload on LV is due to AR only.
The subarterial defects donot usually decrease in size thus the volume
overload on LV is sum of shunt volume and AR.
Infective endocarditis in VSD
18.7 per 10000 person-years in non operated cases
Occurs at the rate of 0.15 – 0.3 % per year.
Its [revalance is more in males that to of age more than 20 years.
Operated VSD 7.3 per 10000 person-years(Gersony WM et
al.Circulation1993; 87(Suppl. I):I-121–I-126.)
Higher in small defect.
Patients with a proven episode of endocarditis are considered at
increased risk for recurrent infection so surgical closure may be
Arrhythmias in VSD
Patients with VSD have a high incidence of arrhythmia
A. Ventricular tachycardias in 5.7%
B. Sudden death is 4.0%
C. SVT, mostly AF, is also prevalent
Age and pulmonary artery pressure are the best predictors of
The odds ratio of serious arrhythmias increases
A.1.51 for every 10-year increase in age
B.1.49 for 10mm Hg increase in mean PA pressure
(Wolfe RR et al. Circulation. 1993;87:I89-101)
Improvement in symptoms of VSD
Closing defect -soft S2, high frequency & shorter murmur
Increasing PVR : S2 loud & narrow split
Infundibular hypertrophy & resulting decreased L to R shunt
: S2 decreases in intensity ,crescendo-decrescendo systolic
murmur in the ULSB
Pulmonary vascular disease
Patients with large VSD are at increased risk of
developing progressively increasing pulmonary
vascular resistance owing to high pulmonary artery
pressure and flow leading to permanent changes in
Once developed these changes seldom regress.
A pathological classification of pulmonary artery
disease is given by Heath and Edwards.
Heath and Edwards classification of PVD
GRADE 1 Medial hypertrophy without intimal
GRADE2 Medial hypertrophy with intimal
GRADE3 Medial hypertrophy with intimal
GRADE4 Generalised vascular dilatation, areas of
vascular occlusion by intimal fibrosis
GRADE5 Other dilatation , plexiform lesions like
cavernous and angiomatoid lesions
GRADE6 Necrotising arteritis with grade 5
CHF IN VSD
Rare in small VSD as size limits the L-R shunt
After birth decline in PVR to adult level by 7to 10 days: In large VSDs,
the rate of this process is delayed.
Small VSD the shunt is small & remain asymptomatic.
Moderate sized VSD symptoms by 1to 6 months.
Large VSD congestive heart failure in first few weeks
Risk for recurrent pulmonary infection high
If survives without therapy -pulmonary vascular disease develop in the
first few years of life
Symptoms “get better” as Qp/Qs returns to 1:1
Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction
Subvalvar stenosis is more common than valvar type
and is due to displacement of infundibular septum
into LV side (posterior), discrete fibromuscular bar
lying caudal or downstream to VSD.
9 % of patients with large VSD die with in 1 yr due to CHF which may
develop with in 2-3 months of life.
Death in large VSD may also result from recurrent pulmonary
infections secondary to pulmonary edema and pulmonary congestion.
After age of 1 yr few death may occur upto second decade of life and
these patients may succumb to complications of eisenmenger syndrome
like hemoptysis, polycyathemia, cerebral abscess and infarction, right
sided heart failure.
Patients with small VSD die infrequently as a result of infective
HISTORY AND PRESENTATION
1. RESTRICTIVE VSD:
I. May remain asymptomatic.
II. Systolic murmur heard incidentally during examination by doctor
III. Infective endocarditis: restrictive VSD is a risk factor for IE but it
rarely occurs before the occurance of secondary teeth. Tricuspid valve
septal leaflet is site of infection in most cases as it is the site where
IV. Longevity of patient is near normal.
HIRTORY AND PRESENTATION
2. MODERATELY RESTRICTIVE VSD:
I. Escapes detection in early neonatal period as shunt is delayed due to
delay in fall of PVR.
II. CHF occurs after few months in infancy when PVR falls.
III. Infant cough and fatigue after feeding, sweats excessively and
become restless when recumbent, sleeps poorly.
IV. Parents detects a thrill when they hold the infant against their chest
or by noticing a hyperactive precordium.
V. spontaneous improvement is seen due to closure or reduction in size
of VSD or by increase in Pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in
reduced shunt .
HISTORY AND PRESENTATION
3. NONRESTRICTIVE VSD:
I. Present in early infancy with CHF and it seldom reduces in size.
II. Poor growth and development, laboured breathing, frequent episodes
of URTI, difficult feeding and excessive diaphoresis.
III. Dyspnoea and irritability are most pronounced when the infant is
supine and get improved when infant is held upright.
IV. Feeding patterns are typical: a hungary infant awakes from fretful
sleep and feeds vigorously only to stop due to dyspnoea, then falls to
sleep to be awaken due to hunger due to effort exhaustion .
V. Improvement in symptoms is always due to rise in PVR.
VI. When the PVR become suprasystemic the reversal of shunt occurs
presenting with cyanosis. It is known as Eisenmenger complex.
HISTORY AND PRSENTATION
FEATURES OF EISENMENGER SYNDROME:
I. ERYTHROCYTOSIS: due to chronic hypoxia stimulated rise in
II. Intracranial venous thrombosis: due to high vicousity of blood.
III. Platelet counts are in lower range
IV. Clotting factors especially Wonvillebrand factor are deficient leading to
pulmonary haemorrhage, increased traumatic bleeding, menorrhagia,
easy brusing, gingival bleeding.
V. Increased incidence of calcium bilirubinate gall stones.
VI. Paradoxical embolism leading to TIA .
VII. Clubbing : systemic venous megakaryotypes are released into arterial
circulation and get impacted in digits and subperiosteum . They release
PDGF leading to synthesis of connective tissue.
VIII. Sudden death due to massive intrapulmonary haemorrhage , rupture of
dilated hypertensive pulmonary trunk
IX. Cerebral abscess may result in seizure disorder.
POOR GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT
CACHEXIA IN INFANTS DUE TO CATABOLIC EFFECTS OF CHF.
CYANOSIS DUE TO REVERSAL OF SHUNT
HARRISONS GROOVES ARE DUE TO THORACIC RETRACTINS
CAUSED BY CHRONIC DYSPNOEA.
IN RESTRICTIVE VSD: Normal arterial pulse is seen.
MODERATELY RESTRICTIVE VSD: the arterial pulse is brisk because
of vigorous ejection from volume loaded LV.
NONRESTRICTIVE VSD : nonrestrictive VSD with large left to right
shunt and congestive heart failure are associated with diminished
arterial pulse and pulsus alternance.
EISENMENGER SYNDROME: arterial pulse is normal because the
systemic output is maintained.
JUGULAR VENOUS PULSE
Moderate and non restrictive VSD with congestive heart failure are
associated with raised JVP with increase in A and V waves.
In eisenmenger syndrome the JVP is nearly normal with exceptional
large A wave. Large A wave is exceptional as RVSP is never more than
systemic level so RV requires little support from its atrium.
Restrictive VSD: only harsh thrill maximum in left 3rd or 4th
intercoastal space at sternal border is only sign. In case the VSD is
subarterial which directs the flow directly into pulmonary trunk the
thrill is maximum in left 1st or 2nd intercoastal space with radiation
upward and left into the neck.
Moderately restrictive VSD: hyperdynamic left ventricular apex is
palpable, dilated pulmonary trunk is palpable in left 2nd intercoastal
space, thrill of VSD is present.
Nonrestrictive VSD: hyperdynamic volume overloaded left ventricle
is palpable, dilated pulmonary trunk is palpable, palpable pulmonary
component of second heart sound in addition to characterstic thrill.
Eisenmenger syndrome: only dilated hypertensive pulmonary
trunk with palpable pulmonary component of second heart sound is
I. MURMUR: soft, highly localized, high frequency, early systolic in
very restrictive defect to holosystolic in restrictive VSD . Early
systolic timing is due to fact that small perimembranous and
muscular defects tends to close in late systole. The early systolic
murmur teds to be longer during premature ventricular beat as
reduced contractility cannot close the defect. It is maximum in left 3rd
or 4th ICS at sternal border. Grade 4/6 or louder in intensity.
II. When the chordae tendinae of tricuspid valve bridge the defect the
murmur have muscal overtones assuming the pitch of aeolian harp.
Moderately restrictive VSD:
I. Loud harsh holosystolic murmurs when the PVR is below the
systemic levels. The shape of murmur is cresendo or
II. When the shunt is subarterial the murmur is heard in 1st or 2nd left
intercostal space with radiation upwards and to left.
III. When VSD is spontaneously closes the holosystolic murmur becomes
early systolic before disappearing .
IV. Septal aneurysm when present leads to late systolic accentuation of
holosystolic murmur due to stretching of aneurysmal pouch and may
lead to mid systolic clicks and may give rise to midsystolic murmur in
2nd left intercostal space due to RVOTO caused by septal aneurysm.
V. Middiastolic murmur at apex: increased flow through mitral vave.
VI. Third heart sound in case of Left heart failure.
I. As the PVR increase and reaches the systemic levels the holosystolic
murmur softens and shortens, it becomes early systolic and shape
changes to decresendo before disappearing altogether as shunt is
II. Second heart sound increase in intensity as pulmonary component
becomes loud. As the PVR increase the splitting decreases .
III. Other signs are similar to moderately restrictive VSD.
I. Second heart sound becomes single as both pulmonary and aortic
valves closes simultaneously.
II. Auscultatory signs of pulmonary hypertention persists:
Pulmonary ejection sound due to flow in dilated hypertensive
pulmonary trunk. It also produces a soft midsystolic murmur.
High frequency mid diastolic graham steel murmur of pulmonary
I. Near normalECG
II. RSR pattern in V1
III. Increased incidences of conduction disturbances and rhythm
disturbances especially AF, PAT,CHB , atrial flutter, junctional
rhythm are seen when septal aneurysm is present with
perimembranous conduction defects.
Moderately restrictive VSD:
I. Broad notched left atrial P waves in lead 1 and 2.
II. QRS axis is normal. VSD with left axis deviation are seen in
association with AV septal defects and with septal aneurysms.
III. Volume overload of LV is seen as tall R waves and tall T waves in
leads 2,3 and aVF. Tall R waves are also seen in V5 and V 6.
I. Right atrial or combind atrial P wave abnormality in lead 2 and V1
II. QRS axis shift moderately towards right.
III. Biventricular hypertrophy : large R wave in V1, large R wave in
V5,V6, tall T waves in V5 V6.
I. P wave is normal in young patients.
II. Right axis deviation is moderate
III. Tall R waves in V1
IV. Prominent S waves in left precordial leads.
ECG of moderately
Showing left axis
Notched left atrial p
waves in lead 1,2
ECG of non restrictive
Peaked rt atrial p waves
are seen in v1-v4
RVH – prominent R
waves in rt precordial
leads and prominent S
waves in v4, v5
LVH: prominent R waves
and tall T waves in lt
ECG of VSD with
Normal p waves
RVH: tall R waves in v1
Showing pure pressure
load of RV.
I. Near normal chest X ray
II. Defects which are previously large but later reduces shows signs of
initial larger shunts like enlarged LV and dilated pulmonary truck
MODERATELY RESTRICTIVE VSD:
I. When PVR is low there is increased pulmonary vascularity with
II. Lungs are hyperinflated with flat hemidiaphragm
III. Right atrial dilatation with development of congestive heart failure.
IV. Enlarged pulmonary artery and branches shows the magnitude and
chronicity of pulmonary blood flow.
V. Left atrial enlargement is seen in lateral view.
VI. Ascending aorta is not enlarged as left to right shunt is intracardiac.
I. Radiologic features of enlargement of all four chamber when
associated with heart failure in infancy.
II. X ray resembles that of moderately restrictive VSD
III. Exceptionally there is aneurysmal enlargement of pulmonary artery
IV. As the PVR increases the congested heart failure is ameliorated and
size of heart decreases but enlargement of pulmonary trunk and
I. The lung fields are oligamic
II. Right atrial, left atrial, left ventricular sizes are normal
III. Hypertrophied but non dilated right ventricle occupies the apex
IV. Cardiac size is normal
V. Pulmonary artery and branches are dilated.
TTE, TEE with colour flow imaging and doppler gives presize location
and physiologic characters of VSD. Gradient across the VSD can be
Small multiple defects in septum, septal aneurysm, type of ventricular
septal defects can be seen.
Left ventricular function, RVSP,PASP can be seen.
Associated anomelies like AV septal defects, PDA can be seen.
Assessment of all the valves especially aortic valve can be done.
Associated right and left ventricular outflow tract obstruction can be
The sensitivity of echocardiography is maximum for inlet and outlet
defects (100%), slightly less for perimembranous defects(80-90%), and
least for trabecular defects.
Typically apical and parasternal views are used to look for different
types of ventricular septal defects.
The membranous septum is closely related to the aortic valve. In the
apical and subcostal “five-chamber”views, it is seen in the LV outflow
tract just under the aortic valve (see Fig. 12-11, C3 ).
In the parasternal short-axis view at the level of aortic valve, it is seen
adjacent to the tricuspid valve (see Fig. 12-11, B1 ).
These are the best views to confirm the membranous VSD. The
membranous VSD is not visible in the standard parasternal long-axis
The inlet septum is best imaged in the apical or subcostal four-chamber
view beneath the AV valves (see Fig. 12-11, C2 and D1 ).
It can also be seen equally well in the parasternal short-axis view in the
posterior interventricular septum at the levels between the mitral valve
and the papillary muscle (see Fig. 12-11, B2 ).
The infundibular (or outlet) septum lies inferior to the semilunar
valves. The subpulmonary, supracristal infundibular VSD lies under the
pulmonary valve (see Fig. 12-11, A2 and D3 ), and the subaortic
infracristal VSD (TOF type, also called conoventricular VSD) lies under
the aortic valve (see Fig. 12-11, A2 and D2 ).
From the RV side, if the outlet septum lies inferior to the pulmonary
valve, it is supracristal. The infracristal VSD lies much closer to the
aortic valve but away from the pulmonary valve (see Fig. 12-11, A1 and
C3 ), and the supracristal is closer to the pulmonary valve (see Fig. 12-
11, A2, D3, and E1 ).
The trabecular septum is the largest portion of the ventricular septum
and extends from the membranous septum to the cardiac apex.
Four types of trabecular VSD are (1) anterior, (2) midmuscular, (3)
apical, and (4) posterior.
Echo views that show the locations of different types of trabecular
VSDs are shown in Figure 12-11 .
The apical VSD occurs near the cardiac apex (see Fig. 12-11, A1, A2, C2,
C3, D1, and D2 ).
The entire ventricular septum seen at the papillary muscle level is the
trabecular septum (see Fig. 12-11, B3 and E2 ).
Not done routinely
Indicated in cases where echocardiography is doubtfully or uncertain
In cases where there is suspecision of high pulmonary vascular
resistance and to make decision of whether to operate or not.
In cases where device closure of VSD is planned.
In cases of elderly patients to look for coronary artery status.
Quantification of left to right shunts by measuring the ratio of
pulmonary blood flow versus the systemic blood flow can be calculated
Qp/Qs can be a very useful tool in making decisions about
the need for repair of a shunt
Qp/Qs of 1–1.5 – observation is generally recommended.
Qp/Qs ratio of 1.5–2.0 – significant enough that closure (either surgically or
percutaneously) should be considered if the risk of the procedure is low
Qp/Qs ratio of greater than 2 – closure (either surgically or percutaneously)
should be undertaken unless there are specific contraindications
Pulmonary circulation is characterized by high flow, low pressure
and low resistance system
Normal pulmonary systolic pressures are 18-25 mm Hg, end
diastolic pressure ranges from 6-10 mm Hg and mean
pulmonary arterial pressures of 10-16 mm Hg
Pulmonary hypertension is define as mean pulmonary artery
pressure (MPAP) >25 mm Hg at rest or > 30mmHg on exercise
or systolic pulmonary artery pressure >30 mm Hg
Pulmonary artery pressure increase in response to increase on
LA pressures, pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output
Expressed in Woods unit (1WU=1mm Hg/L = 80
Normal value is < 3 WU or 150 – 250 dynes/sec/cm3
PVR is one sixth SVR
Factors increases PVR
Increased sympathetic tone
local release of serotonin
Mechanical obstruction by multiple pulmonary emboli
Precapillary pulmonary edema
Lung compression (pleural effusion, increased intrathoracic
pressure via respirator)
Factors that decreases PVR:
Inhaled nitric oxide
High doses of calcium channel blockers
Pulmonary vasoreactivity can be checked with the help of
Inhaled nitric oxide
Criteria for Positive Responders
Positive response is define as:
20% fall in pulmonary artery pressure and PVR or
decrease in mean pulmonary artery pressure of 10 mm
Hg to an absolute value of less than 40 mm Hg without in
decrease in cardiac output
These are the patient who are most benefited from
corrective procedure and calcium channels blockers
The ratio between pulmonary vascular resistance and
systemic vascular resistance (resistance ratio) can be used
as a criterion for operability in dealing with congenital
Normally, this ratio is <0.25
Values of 0.25 to 0.50 indicate moderate pulmonary vascular disease
Values greater than 0.75 indicate severe pulmonary vascular disease
When the PVR/SVR resistance ratio equals 1.0 or more, surgical
correction of the congenital defect is considered contraindicated
because of the severity of the pulmonary vascular disease
Angiographic assessment of VSD
Best done by using biplane technique.
Interrelationship of LV, PA, RV and Aortic root is
3 views – 40 degree RAO, 40 degree Cr-LAO, 50
degree LAO view.
Perimembranous VSD: LAO view shows VSD just
below parietal band
Doubly committed VSD: RAO view shows defect
below the aortic and pulmonary valves.
Inlet VSD: LAO view shows defect between two AV
Muscular VSD: appreciated in LAO view.
features ASD VSD PDA
Diagnostics of noncyanotic heart disease
X RAY Cardiomegaly with
enlargement of the RA and
right ventricle (RV) may be
A prominent pulmonary
artery (PA) segment and
increased pulmonary vascular
markings are seen
when the shunt is significant.
Cardiomegaly of varying
degrees is present and
involves the LA, left ventricle
Cardiomegaly of varying
degrees occurs in moderate-to
large-shunt PDA with
enlargement of the
LA, LV, and ascending
aorta. Pulmonary vascular
markings are increased.
ECG Right axis deviation of +90 to
+180 degrees and mild right
right bundle branch block
(RBBB) with an rsR' pattern
in V1 are typical findings. In
about 50% of the
patients with sinus venosus
ASD, the P axis is less than 30
With a moderate VSD, left
(LVH) and occasional left
(LAH) may be seen.
With a large defect, the ECG
hypertrophy (BVH) with or
If pulmonary vascular
obstructive disease develops,
the ECG shows RVH only
A normal ECG or LVH is
seen with small to
moderate PDA. BVH is seen
with large PDA. If
develops, RVH is
Treatment and results
DR GAURAV GOYAL……………………..