Livestock Keepers’ Rights
Livestock keeping communities <ul><ul><li>70% of the world’s poor keep livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200-640  milli...
What is their significance?? National Economy Source of Income & Food  Assets  Uniquely adapted Heat Tolerance Disease Res...
How unique are they?? Tswana   Lesotho Nguni
  Loss of Animal Genetic Resources FAO, 2007 Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources Domestic Animal D...
Industrial production systems <ul><ul><li>One third of pigs  </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Threats to Pastoralists Improved breeds  Production &  breeding systems Changing market demands Loss of grazing grounds  P...
Lost Jobs,  No income Marginalization, Poor living standards Narrow breed diversity Urbanization Environmental Impact Cons...
  Conserve traditional production systems  Access to natural resources  Sense of custodianship  Access to appropriate serv...
<ul><ul><ul><li>World Food Sovereignty Forum 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarified in further meetings </li><...
LIFE  NETWORK  INDIA <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation of local breeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prot...
     Bundle of Rights <ul><ul><li>1  Creators of breeds and custodians of An GRFA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Traditional...
Commission on AGR for Food & Agriculture  at Rome, 2009-  Global Plan of Action  <ul><li>Training & technical support for ...
Support Livestock Keepers’ Rights by signing at http://www.genecampaign.org/appeal/index.php
<ul><li>IS OUR GENETIC BASE CRUMBLING ? </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>WHY SHOULD WE BE CONCERNED ? </li></ul><ul>...
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Livestock Keepers Rights

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  • This is well documented for India, where cattle played such a crucial role in the rural economy. Specialized cattle breeders supplied farmers with good draft and milk animals. The most important pastoral group in this respect are probably the Rebari from Rajasthan and Gujarat, who created such famous breeds as the Gir, Kankrej and Sanchore. The Rebari also breed camels and sheep. The famous Sahiwal breed, named after the Sahiwal district of Punjab province in Pakistan, was originally kept by nomadic herders called Junglies, who owned large herds and managed them on available pastures.
  • Pastoralists are people whose economy is based on livestock-raising on common property resources. Pastoralists inhabit areas not suitable for crop cultivation: deserts, steppes, and mountainous zones. In Asia, they are especially prevalent in Mongolia, western China, the Himalayas, Tibet ,Pakistan western India, Afghanistan and Iran. In Africa, they live in the Sahara, the Sahel and the Horn of Africa. In South America, the highlands of Peru, Bolivia, northern Chile and Argentina support many herders. Custodians of the world’s rich animal genetic resources. Lack rights to appropriate development support. “innovative” solutions to world hunger and poverty
  • Sanga cattle domesticated 10.000 years ago in NE Africa (ILRI) In Southern Africa, the livestock sector contributes 38% of GDP  Sheep, goat, pig and poultry almost 100 % indigenous Cattle: 50-99% indigenous breeds Nguni cattle, Lesotho pony, Tswana sheep, Boer goat diseases, pastoralists and smallholder farmers have developed an array of strategies ranging from the use of hardy, well-adapted breeds to sophisticated herd movements and grazing strategies. Their livestock are thus a means of extracting value from uncultivable land and generating food without competing for cereals (Hoffmann et al., 2008). This not only contributes considerably to food security in marginal areas but also provides products and services to the wider society. Seasonal movements optimize the use of scarce vegetation. Limiting the duration of grazing to short periods and certain times of the year allows vegetation to regrow and prevents overgrazing. Pastoral societies often have special decision-making structures to organize their herd movements and to coordinate with neighbouring pastoral groups (see e.g. Homann, 2005). However, these traditional mechanisms are disturbed when social and agricultural development restricts herd movements (Hoffmann, 2004). Another strategy to optimize land use is daily movement of the animals to take advantage of diverse grazing sites such as hedgerows, field borders, fallow fields and crop residues (Bayer, 1990). Grazing several
  • From the householder who keeps a few chickens in her backyard, to the pastoralist who treks his herds vast distances over barren hills and plains, animals serve people in many ways: they provide meat, milk, eggs, skins and hides; draught power;; they bring cash and prestige; they act as savings, fertilizer, cement and fuel.
  • Modern agriculture relies on a few high-performance animal breeds. These breeds grow quickly, high producers... but they rely on good-quality feed and a constant flow of medicines to keep them healthy. And the gene pool of high-performance breeds is becoming ever shallower: intensive selection, artificial insemination and other breeding techniques have squeezed most of the diversity from these breeds, and herds are becoming more and more uniform. FAO monitors the status of the world’s animal genetic resources
  • Traditional breeds provide the genetic diversity that modern agriculture needs to ensure stability. They are vital building blocks for future livestock breeding. Conserving them is important, not only for the communities that keep them, but also for the future of modern agriculture. Boorola gene (Bengal Sheep) Possibility of patenting and exclusive exploitation of unique genetic characteristics
  • From the householder who keeps a few chickens in her backyard, to the pastoralist who treks his herds vast distances over barren hills and plains, animals serve people in many ways: they provide meat, milk, eggs, skins and hides; draught power;; they bring cash and prestige; they act as savings, fertilizer, cement and fuel.
  • The breeds kept by pastoralists and small-scale livestock keepers often help conserve wildlife,and frequently there is a history of co-evolution between wild species and local livestock. Such relationships between domestic and wild biodiversity have rarely been studied in detail. But evicting livestock from wildlife reserves may lead to an exodus of predators, or result in habitat changes that make it unattractive for wildlife. In the Kumbalgarh Wildlife Sanctuary in Rajasthan, India, for example, leopards and wolves (for which the sanctuary was established) prey almost exclusively on the sheep and goats pastured there (Robbins and Changani, 2005). In the Gir Forest National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary in neighbouring Gujarat, Asia’s last remaining lions depend on livestock for part of their diet. Expelling pastoralists from the sanctuary has induced the lions also to leave (Casimir, 2001). And in the Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary in eastern Rajasthan, a ban on grazing by buffaloes led to the disappearance of Siberian cranes that need an open grazed environment for nesting (Lewis, 2003).
  • COMMISSION ON GENETIC RESOURCES FOR FOOD ANDAGRICULTUREINTERGOVERNMENTAL TECHNICAL WORKING GROUPON ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES FOR FOOD AND AGRICULTURE OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS AND PASTORALISTS TO THE DEVELOPMENT, USE ANDCONSERVATION OF ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCESTECHNICAL WORKING GROUP ON ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES FOR FOOD AND Session Rome, 28-30 January 2009 CONTRIBUTIONS OF SMALLHOLDER FARMERS AND PASTORALISTS TO THE DEVELOPMENT, USE AND CONSERVATION OF ANIMAL GENETIC RESOURCES
  • Kachakatty Sheep, Pullikulum Cattle, MalaimaduCattle, and Vembur Sheep. In Rajasthan, Lokhit Pashu Palak Sansthan
  • Access to appropriate animal health and extension services, as well as to markets for niche products, payment for agro-ecosystem services and favourable policies are further incentives that encourage and enable livestock keepers to continue keeping their breeds. As the owners and keepers of valuable breeds, smallholder far Global Plan of Action for Animal Genetic Resources, propose specific measures to reverse the ongoing trends of erosion and underutilization of animal genetic resources. The implementation of the Strategic Priorities for Action will make a significant contribution to international efforts to promote food security and sustainable development, alleviate poverty, in line with the Millennium Development Goals and other international commitments.mers and livestock keepers should be included in decisions about research and development and conservation measures for their breeds and environments.
  • a disease outbreak could suddenly wipe out entire national herds, ruining a country’s farm economy, destroying rural communities, and leaving consumers hungry – and angry.
  • Livestock Keepers Rights

    1. 1. Livestock Keepers’ Rights
    2. 2. Livestock keeping communities <ul><ul><li>70% of the world’s poor keep livestock </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>200-640 million smallholder livestock keepers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>120 -190 million pastoralists </li></ul></ul><ul><li>(FAO, 2007) </li></ul>Africa Asia South America
    3. 3. What is their significance?? National Economy Source of Income & Food Assets Uniquely adapted Heat Tolerance Disease Resistance Ability to Forage Utilise marginal areas Agro-ecosystem services Mini-habitats Conservation of wildlife Connecting ecosystems Water-holding capacity Preventing forest fires Maintaining soil fertility
    4. 4. How unique are they?? Tswana Lesotho Nguni
    5. 5.   Loss of Animal Genetic Resources FAO, 2007 Report on the State of the World’s Animal Genetic Resources Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) (UNEP)
    6. 6. Industrial production systems <ul><ul><li>One third of pigs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>50% of eggs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two third of milk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>75% of broilers </li></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Threats to Pastoralists Improved breeds Production & breeding systems Changing market demands Loss of grazing grounds Poor access to water Animal health regulations Changing lifestyles .
    8. 8. Lost Jobs, No income Marginalization, Poor living standards Narrow breed diversity Urbanization Environmental Impact Consequences Declaration On Livestock Keepers' Rights By LIFE, INDIA
    9. 9.   Conserve traditional production systems Access to natural resources  Sense of custodianship  Access to appropriate services  Institutional support  Economic incentives  Supportive policies
    10. 10. <ul><ul><ul><li>World Food Sovereignty Forum 2002 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clarified in further meetings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Karen Commitment Kenya 2003 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bellagio Briefs Italy 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Regional Pastoralists Gathering in Ethiopia 2006 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>LIFE- Network Meeting in India 2007 </li></ul></ul></ul>Milestones
    11. 11. LIFE NETWORK INDIA <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conservation of local breeds </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection from privatization & misappropriation of indigenous AGR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Training & Education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Micro-credit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sharing knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable management of water , </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> forest / grazing land </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Form breeders’ associations for animals </li></ul></ul>
    12. 12.     Bundle of Rights <ul><ul><li>1 Creators of breeds and custodians of An GRFA </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2 Traditional breeds to conservation the eco-system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 Recognition as collective property, products of indigenous knowledge and cultural expression. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4 To make breeding decisions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5 To participate in policy making processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 Support for training and capacity-building </li></ul></ul>
    13. 13. Commission on AGR for Food & Agriculture at Rome, 2009- Global Plan of Action <ul><li>Training & technical support for breeding activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Integrate agro-ecosystem approaches in national agricultural and environmental policies </li></ul><ul><li>Plan programmes of relevance to </li></ul><ul><li>Identify Populations at Risk , Minimize Inbreeding </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gene Bank Strategy, Disease Control, Ownership, Access and Use of Genetic Resources and Inventory & Live Animal Conservation </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Support Livestock Keepers’ Rights by signing at http://www.genecampaign.org/appeal/index.php
    15. 15. <ul><li>IS OUR GENETIC BASE CRUMBLING ? </li></ul><ul><li>   </li></ul><ul><li>WHY SHOULD WE BE CONCERNED ? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT ARE WE DOING NOW TO HELP ? </li></ul><ul><li>WHAT NEEDS TO BE DONE ? </li></ul>

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