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WELFARE OF EMUS DURING  THEIR TRANSPORT AND SLAUGHTER<br />5/9/2010<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />DEEPA     R...
Kingdom:	 	 AnimaliaPhylum: 		 Chordata<br />S.Phylum:	 	 Vertebrata<br />Class: 		 Aves<br />Order:               Struthi...
Emu -- Some Facts<br />Native --Australia. <br />Second-- largest extant bird in the world<br />Flightless <br />Height --...
Emu Industry in Canada<br />*Statistics Canada 2008<br />5/9/2010<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />
Slaughter yield from emus<br />Average carcass weight 35 kg <br />Dressed yield 53.75 % <br />Meat per carcass 12-14 kg  @...
   Several patents<br />	Cosmetics -moisturizing and therapeutic (AAFC,1999)<br />	Lowers cholesterol, dietary supplement<...
High prices of breeding stock Requirement of investment, maintenance and overhead  Markets for the oil, meat and other pro...
DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />
Handling<br />Loading<br />Unloading<br />Unfamiliar animals<br />Driving   & roads<br />Vehicle –<br />Temperature<br />V...
Reduction in  live weight and carcass yield<br />   Fasting + metabolic changes<br />Poor meat and fat quality<br />pH, te...
Objectives<br />Determine the current practices during  the 	transport  and  slaughter of emus. 	<br />	Determine the leve...
	Use of special diets to prevent the loss of<br />       	body mass during transit<br />	Efficacy of ACTH and CORT in the<...
A review of the current practices in the emu industry.<br />A survey of the processing plants.<br />A pilot study to test ...
5/9/2010<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />Design of Experiment<br />
PHYSIOLOGICAL                 ENDOCHRINOLOGICAL PARAMETERS 		     PARAMETERS<br />Body temperature –IR Radiography<br /> B...
Bio-chemical parameters<br /><ul><li>Blood uric acid
Lactate
Blood glucose
Albumin globulin levels
Blood pH
Stress proteins</li></ul>5/9/2010<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />
Behavioural parameters<br /><ul><li>  Observation- scoring
  Ease of movement
  Vocalisation
  Number  of falls  / slips
  Fighting / Aggression
  Lying down/ standing
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Emu project

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Emu project

  1. 1. WELFARE OF EMUS DURING THEIR TRANSPORT AND SLAUGHTER<br />5/9/2010<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />
  2. 2. Kingdom: AnimaliaPhylum: Chordata<br />S.Phylum: Vertebrata<br />Class: Aves<br />Order: Struthioniformes / Casuariiformes<br />Family: Casuariidae/ Dromaiidae<br />Genus: Dromaius<br />Species: D. novaehollandiae<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION <br />
  3. 3. Emu -- Some Facts<br />Native --Australia. <br />Second-- largest extant bird in the world<br />Flightless <br />Height -- 6 feet<br />Weight – 40-45 kilos<br />5/9/2010<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />
  4. 4. Emu Industry in Canada<br />*Statistics Canada 2008<br />5/9/2010<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />
  5. 5. Slaughter yield from emus<br />Average carcass weight 35 kg <br />Dressed yield 53.75 % <br />Meat per carcass 12-14 kg @ $15-20.00/kg<br />Fat 5-6 kilos @ $90.00 per kilo. <br />Hide -0.7m2<br />Feather -0.8 kg<br />
  6. 6. Several patents<br /> Cosmetics -moisturizing and therapeutic (AAFC,1999)<br /> Lowers cholesterol, dietary supplement<br /> Dermatological conditions, epitasis and migraine<br /> Anti-inflammatory (Yoganathan et al., 2003) <br /> Wound healing (Qiu et al., 2005). <br /> Antioxidant properties (Bennett et al., 2008).<br /> Recovery from Chemotherapy (Lindsay et al., 2010). <br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />Properties of Emu oil<br />
  7. 7. High prices of breeding stock Requirement of investment, maintenance and overhead Markets for the oil, meat and other products Develop industry related specialities <br /> Maintains as a hobby or secondary source of income.Lack of market opportunities<br /> Processing facilities <br /> Transporting birds to slaughter – stress & weight loss<br />RESEARCH<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />Challenges<br />
  8. 8. DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />
  9. 9. Handling<br />Loading<br />Unloading<br />Unfamiliar animals<br />Driving & roads<br />Vehicle –<br />Temperature<br />Ventilation<br />Noxious gases<br />Darkness<br />Provision for water<br />Resting<br />Handling at abattoirs<br />Stocking density<br />Novel environment<br />Distance<br />Stunning<br />Slaughter techniques<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />STRESSORS<br />
  10. 10. Reduction in live weight and carcass yield<br /> Fasting + metabolic changes<br />Poor meat and fat quality<br />pH, texture, colour, glycogen, moisture, tenderness and palatability<br />Poor animal well- being/ welfare<br />Corticosterone , catecholamines<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />Why should we reduce stress<br />
  11. 11. Objectives<br />Determine the current practices during the transport and slaughter of emus. <br /> Determine the level of welfare measures adopted during the transportation and slaughter of emus.<br /> Determine the extent of stress experienced by emus during transport and slaughter.<br />5/9/2010<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />
  12. 12. Use of special diets to prevent the loss of<br /> body mass during transit<br /> Efficacy of ACTH and CORT in the<br /> alleviation of adverse effects of stress in emus.<br /> Recommendations for improving the <br /> welfare of emus during transport & slaughter<br />5/9/2010<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />Objectives- cont’d<br />
  13. 13. A review of the current practices in the emu industry.<br />A survey of the processing plants.<br />A pilot study to test the efficacy of ACTH and DEX.<br />A major transportation study comparing the effect of synthetic diets and hormone therapies.<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br /> Project plan<br />
  14. 14. 5/9/2010<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />Design of Experiment<br />
  15. 15. PHYSIOLOGICAL ENDOCHRINOLOGICAL PARAMETERS PARAMETERS<br />Body temperature –IR Radiography<br /> Blood pressure<br /> Heart rate <br /> Haematology- Hb, RBC, WBC, DC, PCV<br />AVT <br />ACTH <br />Corticostreone <br />Excretion of dexamethasone,<br />ACTH and metabolites<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />
  16. 16. Bio-chemical parameters<br /><ul><li>Blood uric acid
  17. 17. Lactate
  18. 18. Blood glucose
  19. 19. Albumin globulin levels
  20. 20. Blood pH
  21. 21. Stress proteins</li></ul>5/9/2010<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />
  22. 22. Behavioural parameters<br /><ul><li> Observation- scoring
  23. 23. Ease of movement
  24. 24. Vocalisation
  25. 25. Number of falls / slips
  26. 26. Fighting / Aggression
  27. 27. Lying down/ standing
  28. 28. Huddling</li></ul>5/9/2010<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />
  29. 29. Production parameters<br /><ul><li> Carcass yield
  30. 30. Meat quality
  31. 31. Fat yield and quality
  32. 32. Changes in body mass
  33. 33. Blood splashes
  34. 34. Bruises</li></ul>5/9/2010<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />
  35. 35. Other Observations<br />Inside the truck<br /><ul><li>Ambient temperature,
  36. 36. Relative humidity
  37. 37. Vapour density and
  38. 38. Air composition (carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulphide, and ammonia levels)</li></ul>5/9/2010<br />
  39. 39. CHALLENGES <br />Farms to be covered<br />Sample size<br />Sample collection <br />Hormones ( dosage)<br />Special diet <br />(inclusion level)<br />Laboratory tests<br />Emu producers<br />Information <br />Behaviour<br />Processing plants<br />Score card<br />Non-invasive techniques<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />
  40. 40. Behavioural patterns of emus in an experimental farm<br /><ul><li>Objective Desktoppilot studyemu behvrEmu ethogram.docx
  41. 41. Current Status
  42. 42. Sample
  43. 43. Focal animal / One-Zero sampling
  44. 44. Use of soft wares ??
  45. 45. Spread sheet prepared ..Desktoppilot studyNew Microsoft Office Excel Worksheet.xlsx</li></ul>5/9/2010<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />
  46. 46. 1. Pre–transportation challenging of the birds with ACTH, Dexamethasone, ACTH and Dexamethasone in combination would reduce the transportation stress in emus.<br />2 . Administration of Special Diets would result in reduced transportation stress and weight loss in emus.<br />3. Adopting of welfare measures during transport would improve the economics of emu production.<br />5/9/2010<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />Hypothesis<br />
  47. 47. Surveys<br /><ul><li>Review of the management of emus </li></ul> during their transport and slaughter. Deepa MenonCorrected questionnaire 5th May.docx<br /><ul><li> Questionnaire
  48. 48. Sample ???
  49. 49. Score card for evaluation of the</li></ul> processing plants / abattoirs<br />5/9/2010<br />DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />
  50. 50. DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />
  51. 51. DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />Statistics Canada Census of Farms 1996<br />
  52. 52. DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />Slaughter in federally and provincially registered establishments<br />
  53. 53. DEEPA RAJU MENON<br />FACULTY OF LAND AND FOOD SYSTEMS<br />

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