EFFICACY OF LACTULOSE IN THE TREATMENT OF IMPACTION IN ASIAN ELEPHANTS
Impaction is a condition when the undigested food materials cause a blockage in the intestine. The condition is very painf...
 
<ul><li>Peculiarities </li></ul><ul><li>Simple stomached  </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly long small intestine.  </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of appetite.  </li></ul><ul><li>Body posture suggests discomfort  </li></ul><ul><...
<ul><li>Causes of Impaction   </li></ul><ul><li>Elephants swallow food without chewing, if they have been starving for a w...
<ul><li>TREATMENT  </li></ul><ul><li>Analgesics,  </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-spasmodic,  </li></ul><ul><li>Antihistamines,  </...
<ul><li>Lactulose </li></ul><ul><li>It is a synthetic sugar.  </li></ul><ul><li>It is a disaccharide formed from one molec...
CURED - 4 - + - ++ 9 CURED ++ 1  - - - ++ 8 CURED - < 1 -  -  - +++ 7 CURED +++ 5 + + + +++ 6 CURED +++ 1 - + + + 5 CURED ...
+ + + HERBAL STOMACHIC + + + + + B – COMPLEX  + + + + + NSAID + +  + + + + + + + LACTULOSE + + + CALCIUM  BOROGLUCONATE + ...
<ul><li>DOSAGE </li></ul><ul><li>LACTULOSE  600- 900ML  DAILY ORALLY  AS TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>ONSET OF ACTION  </li...
Dr DEEPA G . MENON Asst. Professor, Veterinary Faculty, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Kerala Agricult...
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Efficacy of Lactulose in the treatment of impaction in elephants

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Efficacy of Lactulose in the treatment of impaction in elephants

  1. 1. EFFICACY OF LACTULOSE IN THE TREATMENT OF IMPACTION IN ASIAN ELEPHANTS
  2. 2. Impaction is a condition when the undigested food materials cause a blockage in the intestine. The condition is very painful and uncomfortable to the elephant. If not detected and treated at the early stages, impaction will lead to the elephant's death.
  3. 4. <ul><li>Peculiarities </li></ul><ul><li>Simple stomached </li></ul><ul><li>Fairly long small intestine. </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion occurs mostly in the caecum </li></ul><ul><li>Cellulose is broken down by bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Starches, proteins & soluble polysaccharides are digested in the colon. </li></ul><ul><li>Dry matter digestibility is lower </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>Symptoms: </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of appetite. </li></ul><ul><li>Body posture suggests discomfort </li></ul><ul><li>Lies down and gets up frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Eyes remain closed most of the time </li></ul><ul><li>Brisket is cold to touch. </li></ul><ul><li>Dung may be absent /smaller sized </li></ul><ul><li>Abdomen may be bloated </li></ul><ul><li>Dull appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of interest in drinking water </li></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>Causes of Impaction </li></ul><ul><li>Elephants swallow food without chewing, if they have been starving for a while. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of adequate drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of rest </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive consumption of grains or seeds </li></ul><ul><li>A sudden change in diet </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive eating of mud </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>Analgesics, </li></ul><ul><li>Anti-spasmodic, </li></ul><ul><li>Antihistamines, </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics, </li></ul><ul><li>Drugs acting on smooth </li></ul><ul><li>muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Parasympathetic stimulants </li></ul><ul><li>Electrolytes </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid paraffin </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Lactulose </li></ul><ul><li>It is a synthetic sugar. </li></ul><ul><li>It is a disaccharide formed from one molecule each of fructose and galactose </li></ul><ul><li>It softens dung. </li></ul><ul><li>It is metabolized to short chain fatty acids, which favor the formation of nonabsorbable NH4+ from NH3, trapping NH3 in the colon and effectively reducing plasma NH3 concentrations. </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce ammonia level in the blood. </li></ul>
  8. 9. CURED - 4 - + - ++ 9 CURED ++ 1 - - - ++ 8 CURED - < 1 - - - +++ 7 CURED +++ 5 + + + +++ 6 CURED +++ 1 - + + + 5 CURED - 4 - - +++ +++ 4 CURED +++ <1 + - +++ +++ 3 CURED + 2 + + +++ + 2 X +++ 5 + ++ - +++ 1 RESULT ABDOMINAL PAIN DAYS PRIOR TO TREATMENT PASSING DUNG BLOATING OF ABDOMEN DRINKING WATER ANOREXIA CASE NO
  9. 10. + + + HERBAL STOMACHIC + + + + + B – COMPLEX + + + + + NSAID + + + + + + + + + LACTULOSE + + + CALCIUM BOROGLUCONATE + + + + + + + DICYCLOMINE + + + + CHLOR PHENERAMINE MALEATE + + + NORMAL SALINE + + + + + + + + + DEXTROSE- 5 % 9 8 7 6* 5 4* 3 2 1* MEDICINES
  10. 11. <ul><li>DOSAGE </li></ul><ul><li>LACTULOSE 600- 900ML DAILY ORALLY AS TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>ONSET OF ACTION </li></ul><ul><li>24-48 HRS AFTER TREATMENT </li></ul><ul><li>PROPHYLACTIC DOSE – 450 ML </li></ul>
  11. 12. Dr DEEPA G . MENON Asst. Professor, Veterinary Faculty, College of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Mannuthy, Kerala Agricultural University, Thrissur, Kerala, India Dr MENON RAJU. MADHAVAN Veterinary Surgeon, Animal Husbandry Department, Govt. of Kerala, India. [email_address] THANKING YOU

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