Men and the Expression of Emotion Narges Horriat, Tyler Madsen, & Matthew Okida
A Professional Opinion on the Affection of Men
Men and the Expression of Emotion <ul><li>“We’re really not so different from girls,” an adolescent boy, Tim, said,  </li>...
<ul><li>Men are less capable than women in regards to:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>experiencing  emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
<ul><li>When it comes to key emotions of love, happiness, and sadness (in addition to more “situational emotions”) males e...
<ul><li>As cited in Smith: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Some researchers (e.g. Brody & Hall, 1993; Levant, 2001) have propposed tha...
<ul><li>The difference (discrepancy) in male tendency must lie in either: </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of Expression vs. Inexp...
Factors affecting male expression <ul><li>Gender Roles and Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quintero-Gonzalez & Koestner...
Factors affecting male expression <ul><li>Masculine Traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological Differences </li></ul></ul><ul...
Factors affecting male expression <ul><li>Masculine Traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological Differences </li></ul></ul><ul...
Interview with Dr. Karges-Bone
<ul><li>Gender Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains behavior by successes or failures to comply with rigid, societal shapin...
<ul><li>Masculine Trait </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on belief that men act on their natural sense of affectional expressio...
<ul><li>We view affection through a traditional, or, arguably, feminine lens. </li></ul><ul><li>- We can’t see male affect...
<ul><li>Traditionally “feminine” means of relation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tenderness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>affection ...
<ul><li>Affectional expectations are shaped by a feminine model for affectional display </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This places ...
<ul><li>The problem with men is not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emotional incapability… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of under...
Natural Male Tendencies in Affectional Expression  <ul><li>“ On the whole, boys tend to seek attachment less through askin...
Activity  <ul><li>“ For men, togetherness seems to be more of an activity than a state of being, as it is for women”  (Hoo...
Work  <ul><li> “ Some researchers of laboratory and field studies on helping have found, in general, that men are more hel...
Favors <ul><li>“ A [man] typically tries to make a connection by offering to help…” (Pollack, 1998, p. 66). </li></ul><ul>...
Protection <ul><li>“ Women are concerned with men’s emotional fidelity and their ability and willingness to commit to a lo...
Physicality <ul><li>“ Men tend to find backrubs/massages as more expressive of love than do women…To women, in general, a ...
Physicality <ul><li>“ In general women and men seem to differ in their definitions of intimacy. [While] women seem to beli...
Differences in Verbal Communication <ul><li>“ A man may be more likely to announce his level of commitment so that his par...
Differences in Verbal Communication <ul><li>“ Men were more likely to offer praise , whereas women were more likely to exp...
Our Aim <ul><li>Our study sought to uncover male trends in emotional communication, specifically affection, and determine ...
Our Conclusions <ul><li>Men are capable of complete emotional experience, understanding, relation and communication </li><...
References <ul><li>Baumeister, R., & Sommer, K. (1997). What do men want? Gender differences and two spheres of belongingn...
Questions, Comments, Praise
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Men and affection: The examination of gender roles and masculine traits as factors affecting male affectional expression and the identification of distinct male expressional styles

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Presentation by Narges Horriat, Tyler Madsen, and Matthew Okida

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Men and affection: The examination of gender roles and masculine traits as factors affecting male affectional expression and the identification of distinct male expressional styles

  1. 1. Men and the Expression of Emotion Narges Horriat, Tyler Madsen, & Matthew Okida
  2. 2. A Professional Opinion on the Affection of Men
  3. 3. Men and the Expression of Emotion <ul><li>“We’re really not so different from girls,” an adolescent boy, Tim, said, </li></ul><ul><li>“We just do things a little differently” </li></ul><ul><li>(Pollack, 65, 1998) </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Men are less capable than women in regards to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>experiencing emotion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>understanding emotion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>relating emotion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>communicating emotion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>Common Misconceptions Regarding Male Emotional Capability
  5. 5. <ul><li>When it comes to key emotions of love, happiness, and sadness (in addition to more “situational emotions”) males experience the same level of physiological reaction to emotional stimuli, but often choose inexpression, or expression by means which are not typically identified as traditional responses. </li></ul><ul><li>Men experience emotion just as intensely as women. </li></ul>Blier & Blier-Wilson (1989)
  6. 6. <ul><li>As cited in Smith: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Some researchers (e.g. Brody & Hall, 1993; Levant, 2001) have propposed that male infants are more emotional than female infants from birth until at least 6 to 12 months of age.” </li></ul>Male Infantile Emotion
  7. 7. <ul><li>The difference (discrepancy) in male tendency must lie in either: </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of Expression vs. Inexpression </li></ul><ul><li>Or </li></ul><ul><li>Style of Expression </li></ul>Therefore
  8. 8. Factors affecting male expression <ul><li>Gender Roles and Expectations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quintero-Gonzalez & Koestner (2006) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotions equates to vulnerability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Baumeister and Sommer (1997) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Weakness leads to lack of respect </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gaines (1995) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Breaking gender role leads to isolation </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Factors affecting male expression <ul><li>Masculine Traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological Differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kring & Gordon (1998) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Men and women experience roughly the same emotions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Haier & Jung (2006) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Corpus Collosum size in men and women </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Factors affecting male expression <ul><li>Masculine Traits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Biological Differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Brizendine (2007) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grey matter vs. White matter </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buck et. al (1974) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internalized biofeedback </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Interview with Dr. Karges-Bone
  12. 12. <ul><li>Gender Role </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Explains behavior by successes or failures to comply with rigid, societal shaping regarding gender expectations in emotional display </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affectional display ISN’T occurring because… </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional expression is attributed to feminine ideology </li></ul></ul></ul>Gender Roles vs. Masculine Traits Ideology
  13. 13. <ul><li>Masculine Trait </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on belief that men act on their natural sense of affectional expression, a brand of emotional display mostly illegitimized by affectional expectations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Affectional display IS occurring, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>BUT… </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>… many of a man’s attempts to demonstrate affection are unidentified or misinterpreted, providing for the natural assumption that men are representatively less affectionate than women </li></ul></ul></ul>Gender Roles vs. Masculine Traits Ideology
  14. 14. <ul><li>We view affection through a traditional, or, arguably, feminine lens. </li></ul><ul><li>- We can’t see male affectional display, not because it isn’t happening, but because we are looking through the wrong lens… </li></ul>The Problem
  15. 15. <ul><li>Traditionally “feminine” means of relation: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tenderness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>affection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>emotional expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sensitivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>vulnerability about friendship </li></ul></ul>The Feminine Lens
  16. 16. <ul><li>Affectional expectations are shaped by a feminine model for affectional display </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This places men in a great dilemma: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Comply with affectional expectations, however unnatural, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>or resort to innate affectional tendencies, risking misunderstanding. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ The men—sometimes with good reason—did not trust the women to let go of their images of men and to accept male vulnerability.” </li></ul><ul><li>Bergman on male relational dread </li></ul>The Feminine Lens
  17. 17. <ul><li>The problem with men is not </li></ul><ul><ul><li>emotional incapability… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>lack of understanding… </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>or lack of expression… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The expression is present, but remains mostly unrecognized as affection because traditional affectional guidelines do not expect this brand of affection . </li></ul><ul><li>Ultimately, men are showing affection, we just aren’t seeing it because we are looking for it in the wrong way. </li></ul>The Feminine Lens
  18. 18. Natural Male Tendencies in Affectional Expression <ul><li>“ On the whole, boys tend to seek attachment less through asking for it directly and more by trying to bring it about indirectly or through action.” </li></ul><ul><li>(Pollack, 67) </li></ul><ul><li>“ Actions Speak louder than words” </li></ul>The Active versus Verbal Expression
  19. 19. Activity <ul><li>“ For men, togetherness seems to be more of an activity than a state of being, as it is for women” (Hook et al., 2003, p. 465). </li></ul><ul><li>“ Boys and men seem to feel that sharing activities and interests are just as important to experiencing intimacy as are self disclosures (ie the verbal expression of emotion)” (Hook et al., p. 465). </li></ul><ul><li>For males, indirect expression often implies a desire to share more in the experience of the situation and less in the exchange of emotional processing. </li></ul>Spending time, games, walks, shared activities of a common interest
  20. 20. Work <ul><li> “ Some researchers of laboratory and field studies on helping have found, in general, that men are more helpful than women” (Baurmesiter & Sommer, 1997). </li></ul><ul><li>“… Though sometimes we may focus only on the task that’s being accomplished, we should be aware that behind the labor theres often the devotion of a [man] engaged in what’s truly an act of selfless generosity, an act of love” (Pollack, 1998, 71) </li></ul>Hard, menial, dutiful tasks
  21. 21. Favors <ul><li>“ A [man] typically tries to make a connection by offering to help…” (Pollack, 1998, p. 66). </li></ul><ul><li>As we mentioned earlier, it is a more indirect way of expressing love through little things. They are actions manifested in doing something for the other </li></ul>Simple things that are not expected but also not usually seen as expressive of love
  22. 22. Protection <ul><li>“ Women are concerned with men’s emotional fidelity and their ability and willingness to commit to a long-term relationship, as they want assurance that their partner will invest resources in them and their offspring on a long-term basis ” (Quintero-Gonzalez & Koestner, 2006) </li></ul>Form of caring, looking out for the interest of the other
  23. 23. Physicality <ul><li>“ Men tend to find backrubs/massages as more expressive of love than do women…To women, in general, a massage is not as expressive of love as it is to men. Therefore, the feelings of love that a man desires to convey to his partner through a massage might not be received with the same intensity as he had intended…” (Gulledge et al., p. 239). </li></ul>Includes sexual forms, differences between men and women
  24. 24. Physicality <ul><li>“ In general women and men seem to differ in their definitions of intimacy. [While] women seem to believe that intimacy means love, affection and the expression of warm feelings, </li></ul><ul><li>men believe it to mean sexual </li></ul><ul><li>behavior and physical </li></ul><ul><li>closeness” </li></ul><ul><li>(Hook et al., 2003, p. 464). </li></ul>Male view of intimacy largely defined as sexual
  25. 25. Differences in Verbal Communication <ul><li>“ A man may be more likely to announce his level of commitment so that his partner can trust that he will invest resources in her and the relationship, whereas a woman may be more likely to declare her fidelity, perhaps to assure her Valentine that he has no reason for jealousy. This gender pattern would result in men highlighting commitment relatively more than fidelity , whereas women would show the reverse pattern. It remains to be seen whether the specific relationship status influences reports of commitment and fidelity” (Quintero-Gonzalez & Koestner, 2006). </li></ul>Though not primary form, still used yet again used differently
  26. 26. Differences in Verbal Communication <ul><li>“ Men were more likely to offer praise , whereas women were more likely to express love. These differences may be a result of socio-cultural factors, such as gender role socialization, which operates as a regulator of men’s and women’s emotional expressivity. Our findings suggest that, when expressing romantic feelings, men are more likely to do it by telling their partner “you are wonderful, great, amazing” (words related to praise) rather than saying “I love you,” whereas women are more likely to do it by saying “I love you.” This pattern appears to reflect men’s discomfort in expressing vulnerable emotions such as love, opting instead to express praise, which is thought to reflect pride” (Quintero-Gonzalez & Koestner, 2006). </li></ul>Though not primary form, still used yet again used differently
  27. 27. Our Aim <ul><li>Our study sought to uncover male trends in emotional communication, specifically affection, and determine if there are any significant variances between the masculine expression of affection and the traditional, feministic modes of affectional display. </li></ul>
  28. 28. Our Conclusions <ul><li>Men are capable of complete emotional experience, understanding, relation and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Male affection often goes by unrecognized because its natural form does not fit with traditional expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Men love more through action than word </li></ul>
  29. 29. References <ul><li>Baumeister, R., & Sommer, K. (1997). What do men want? Gender differences and two spheres of belongingness: Comment on Cross and Madson (1997). Psychological Bulletin , 122 (1), 38-44. </li></ul><ul><li>Bergman, S. J. (1995). Men’s psychological development: A relational perspective. In R. F. Levant & W. S. Pollack (Eds.), A new psychology of men (pp.68-90). New York: Basic Books. </li></ul><ul><li>Blier, M., & Blier-Wilson, L. (1989). Gender differences in self-rated emotional expressiveness. Sex Roles , 21 (3), 287-295. </li></ul><ul><li>Gallois, C., & Callan, V. (1986). Decoding emotional messages: Influence of ethnicity, sex, message type, and channel. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 755-762. </li></ul><ul><li>Gulledge, A., Gulledge, M., & Stahmann, R. (2003). Romantic physical affection types and relationship satisfaction. American Journal of Family Therapy , 31 , 233-242. </li></ul><ul><li>Hook, M., Gerstein, L., Detterich, L., & Gridley, B. (2003). How Close Are We? Measuring Intimacy and Examining Gender Differences. Journal of Counseling & Development , 81 (4), 462-472. </li></ul><ul><li>Kring, A., & Gordon, A. (1998). Sex differences in emotion: Expression, experience, and physiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 74 (3), 686-703. </li></ul><ul><li>Pollack, W. S. (1998). Real Boys: Rescuing our sons from the myths of boyhood. New York: Henry Holt and Company. </li></ul><ul><li>Quintero Gonzalez, A., & Koestner, R. (2006). What Valentine Announcements Reveal about the Romantic Emotions of Men and Women. Sex Roles , 55 (11-12), 767-773. </li></ul><ul><li>Simpson, J. (1990). Influence of attachment styles on romantic relationships. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 59 (5), 971-980. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Questions, Comments, Praise

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