A brief talk on
HIV / AIDS
Dr. Jagannath Dinda
Chief Medical Officer of Health
What is HIV / AIDS
• “Human Immunodeficiency Virus”
• A specific type of virus (a retrovirus)
• HIV invades the helper T cells to replicate itself.
• No Cure
• Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome
• HIV is the virus that causes AIDS
• Disease limits the body’s ability to fight infection
• A person with AIDS has a very weak immune system
• No Cure
HIV include lentiviredae group of virus with a diameter of
about 120 nm, around 60 times smaller than a red blood cell .
HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper
T Cell (specifically CD4+ T cells), macrophages, and dendritic cells.
Lentiviruses are transmitted as single-stranded, positive-
sense, enveloped RNA viruses.
HIV is a retrovirus including reverse transcriptase enzyme
• Once HIV infection occurred in persons , it affects the
TH cell and other immunity providing component ,
leads to suppress the immunity that makes the other
opportunistic infection cause death within
approximately 5 to 10 yrs.
• Two life cycle of retroviruses are virulent or lytic cycle
causes death within 2-5 yrs and avirulent/profage
cycle or lysogenic cycle cause the carrier of this virus.
Who are the sufferer
The virus can be spread (transmitted):
• Through sexual contact including oral, vaginal, and
• Through blood via blood transfusions or needle
• From mother to child - a pregnant woman can
transmit the virus to her foetus through their shared blood
circulation, or a nursing mother can transmit it to her baby in
her breast milk
When dose not spread
• Casual contact such as hugging
• Participation in sports
• Touching items that were touched by a person infected with the
• Total tested people in West Bengal are 3207631
and sera positive are 50734 (up to 31st October
• Total tested people are 170038 and sera positive
patients are 477 (up to 31st October 2012)
Manifestation of HIV
Primary symptoms to detect HIV infection of a patient
After entry of Human Immunodeficiency
Virus into the host it causes :
• Flue like symptoms after 5-6 weeks
• Rash may occurred Send for HIV test
• Antibody production is started after 6 weeks , it called
window period .
• Window Period is dangerous for spreading the disease.
Symptoms of HIV/AIDS
People with AIDS have had their immune system damaged by
HIV and are very susceptible to these opportunistic infections.
Common symptoms are:
• Sweats (particularly at night)
• Swollen lymph glands
• Weight loss
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/Enzyme
Radio Immunoprecipitation Assay/Indirect
Fluorescent Antibody Assay (RIP/IFA)
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
Western Blot Confirmatory test
Opportunistic Infection Treatment
• Issued in an event where antiretroviral
drugs are not available
Four ways to protect yourself?
• Monogamous Relationship
• Protected Sex
• Sterile needles
• It is the only 100 % effective method of
not acquiring HIV/AIDS.
• Refraining from sexual contact: oral,
anal, or vaginal.
• Refraining from intravenous drug use
• A mutually monogamous (only one sex partner)
relationship with a person who is not infected
• HIV testing before intercourse is necessary to
prove your partner is not infected
• Use condoms (female or male) every time you
have sex (vaginal or anal)
• Always use latex or polyurethane condom (not a
natural skin condom)
• Always use a latex barrier during oral sex
When Using A Condom
• Make sure the package is not expired
• Make sure to check the package for damages
• Do not open the package with your teeth for risk
• Never use the condom more than once
• Use water-based rather than oil-based condoms
• If a needle/syringe or cooker is shared, it
must be disinfected:
– Fill the syringe with undiluted bleach and wait at
least 30 seconds.
– thoroughly rinse with water
– Do this between each person’s use
• Use sterile needle
• Use plastic use &
Fight together against the AIDS
Protected Sex , Chose Single Sex Partners
Your should known about the background of your Sex
Support the HIV-AIDS people
Test your self to prevent HIV spreading
You are the people who can save your child from HIV
Take steps at present to rectify the future