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  1. 1. Cognitive Development: Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s Theories Chapter 3
  2. 2. Constructivism <ul><li>Construct your own knowledge and add to what you already know </li></ul><ul><li>Basis for many current reforms in education </li></ul><ul><li>Piaget </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children act like “little scientists” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They constantly try to make sense of their world </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provided a framework for understanding how children think </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patterns of development </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Jean Piaget
  4. 4. Piaget <ul><li>Children act like “little scientists” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They constantly try to make sense of their world </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provided a framework for understanding how children think </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of development </li></ul><ul><li>Stage theorist </li></ul>
  5. 5. Piaget <ul><li>Research focused on children’s development of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scientific </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematical concepts </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stage theorist </li></ul><ul><li>Stages of development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensorimotor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preoperations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concrete operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal operations </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Schemes for organizing the world <ul><li>Sets of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental operations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concepts </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Three types of knowledge: <ul><li>Physical knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Logico-mathematical knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Social knowledge </li></ul>
  8. 8. Intellectual development guided by: <ul><li>Organization </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptation </li></ul><ul><li>Assimilation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Making new information to fit existing schemes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Accommodation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing existing schemata </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Piaget’s four factors for cognitive development: <ul><li>Maturation of inherited physical structures </li></ul><ul><li>Physical experiences with the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Social transmission of information and knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibration </li></ul>
  10. 11. Object permanence <ul><li>Knowledge that objects continue to exist even when they can no longer be seen or manipulated </li></ul>
  11. 12. Preoperational <ul><li>Preschool children lack the ability to do some logical operations that older children can do </li></ul><ul><li>Children can use symbols </li></ul><ul><li>Children begin to use numbers as a tool for thinking </li></ul>
  12. 13. Metacognition <ul><li>Thinking about thinking </li></ul>
  13. 14. Egocentrism. <ul><li>Perceiving and interpreting the world in terms of self </li></ul>
  14. 15. Centration <ul><li>Young children tend to focus or center their attention on only one aspect of a stimulus </li></ul>
  15. 16. In the concrete operational stage: <ul><li>Thinking appears to be less rigid </li></ul><ul><li>Child understands that operations can be mentally reversed or negated </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to order objects in a logical progression </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to classify objects </li></ul><ul><li>Understand conservation </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to draw logical inference based on the relationship between two statements </li></ul>
  16. 17. Neo-Piagetians <ul><li>Have attempted to add greater specificity to developmental changes, while maintaining the basic assumptions of Piaget’s theory </li></ul>
  17. 18. Piaget’s work <ul><li>Concerns the purposes and goals of education </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is constructed from the child’s own physical and mental activities </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of play in children’s development </li></ul>
  18. 19. Lev Vygotsky
  19. 20. Vygotsky’s theory <ul><li>Stresses relations between the individual and society </li></ul><ul><li>Children are born with elementary mental abilities such as perception, attention, and memory </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive development related to qualitative changes in children’s thinking processes </li></ul><ul><li>Language is an important psychological tool influencing children’s cognitive development </li></ul>
  20. 21. Zone of Proximal Development <ul><li>What they can do  ZPD  what they can do w/ assistance </li></ul><ul><li>Interactions with adults and peers move them to a higher level of functioning </li></ul>
  21. 22. Vygotsky <ul><li>Knowledge construction not an individual process </li></ul><ul><li>Culture vital to shaping cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledgeable peers or adults at heart of cognitive development </li></ul><ul><li>Learning precedes development </li></ul><ul><li>Less emphasis on physical maturation or innate biological processes </li></ul>
  22. 23. Egocentric speech <ul><li>Movement from being regulated by others to being regulated by own thinking processes </li></ul>
  23. 24. Vygotsky & Piaget <ul><li>Children are not passive receivers of knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Play and activity are paramount for cognitive development </li></ul>