EMPOWERMENT OF TRIBALS IN
Dr. C. Pratheep and
Prof. Jacob M. Abraham
STs in Kerala
Scheduled Tribes form 8.2 percent of Indian
•1.14 percent of Kerala population.
• Tribal Sub Plan ( TSP) is one of the major
initiatives of the Central Government
implemented through the Local Self Governments
for the tribal empowerment.
• The objective of this paper is to examine to
what extent TSP has achieved its objectives of
tribal empowerment in Kerala.
TRIBAL SUB PLAN (TSP ) IN KERALA
• The Tribal Sub Plan programme was started
in 1974-75 as a Central Assistance
• The objectives of TSP are to help family
based income-generation activities ,
employment- generation programmes,
infrastructure development, and
empowerment of Tribals.
Statement of the Problem
• From time immemorial, Tribals are one of the most
marginalized sections whatever may be the development
indicators we adopt.
• Tribal Sub Plan ( TSP) is one of the major initiatives of the
Central Government implemented through the Local Self
Governments for the tribal empowerment .
• The objective of this paper is to examine to what extent
TSP has achieved its objectives of tribal empowerment in
Kerala in the light of a detailed analysis of the
implementation of TSP in Noolpuzha Grama Panchayat of
Wayanad District of Kerala for the last ten years.
Objectives of the Study:
1. To study the utilization pattern of Tribal Sub
Plan in Noolpuzha Grama Panchayat.
2. To study the Tribal empowerment
programmes in the implementation of TSP
funds in the Noolpuzha Grama Panchayat.
3. To suggest sustainable tribal empowerment
projects and programmes through TSP in the
Area of study
• Kerala Government declared Noolpuzha and
Edamalakudy as the Tribal Grama Panchayats in Kerala.
• In the two tribal Grama Panchayats, the data
regarding the Edamalakudy Grama Panchayat was not
available since the Grama Panchayat was created
• The investigators selected Noolpuzha GP for this
Expenditure Pattern of TSP in
Noolpuzha Grama Panchayat
( Rs. in Lakhs)
Projects Implemented under TSP in
• Expenditure pattern of Noolpuzha GP from 2002-03 to 2011-12
shows that 0.87 percent has been spent for production sector,
97.30 percent of the total spent for the infrastructural development
and the remaining 2.22 percent of the total for the other sectors.
• This shows that service sector expenditures are significant in the
TSP fund utilization during 2002-03 to 2011-12 .
• Important projects implemented through the TSP fund are ST
houses, ST goat rearing projects, ST house repair, colony
development, school uniform distribution, school noon meal
assistance, medicines for elder people, drinking water projects,
comprehensive colony construction, I A Y contribution, community
hall construction and repair, road construction and repair etc.
Availability of TSP Funds in the Twelfth
Five Year Plan in Noolpuzha GP
Critical Appraisal of the TSP Projects
• The development of tribal people could be achieved only through
their empowerment. This should be the approach to any
development programme especially for a group like scheduled
• Tribal Grama Panchayats are providing services to the Scheduled
Tribes and but they do not focus on their empowerment. Nor do
they take efforts to develop them permanently.
• The major projects implemented in TSP are giving construction of
community halls, wells, electrical wirings etc.
Income Generation Activities
• Distribution of plants to Scheduled Tribe women, financial aid to
ayalkootams, integrated paddy development , coconut production
help, grant to animal husbandry , distribution of rubber roller, goat
rearing project and poultry development programme are some of
the income generating activities implemented in Noolpuzha Grama
• The income generating activities were few in number and were
limited to agriculture oriented programmes.
• No programme was carried out in the small scale industries or in the
service sector employment generation.
• Income generating programmes were missing in the implementation
of TSP in the Grama Panchayats.
Infrastructure Development Activities
• Facts and figures show that road construction
and maintenance is the only activity
implemented in the Grama Panchayats in the
infrastructure sector under TSP.
• There is no effort from the Grama Panchayats
to increase non conventional energy sources
like solar energy, bio gas etc. among the
Less Importance to Productive Sector
• Noolpuzha Grama Panchayat and other Grama
Panchayats in Kerala are giving less importance to the
formulation and implementation of production sector.
• Kerala Government has not issued any compartmental
restricting instruction to the Grama Panchayats in the
utilization of TSP fund.
• This practice of attaching over importance to service
sector and less importance to production sector should
change in the utilization of TSP projects.
1. Productive expenditure from the TSP utilization
should be more than 30 percent as in the case of
2. Since all the Scheduled tribes are not of the
same economic conditions, the most backward
tribes should get more importance in the TSP
3. Proper training should be provided to Plan
formulators to identify empowerment
programmes in TSP.
Policy Recommendations conti…..
4. Proper training should be given for
Entrepreneurial skills motivation.
5. Marketing facilities for the tribal products
should be developed.
6. Leadership qualities should be inculcated and
developed in the tribal youths.
7. Health is wealth. More health related projects
are required to be implemented in the TSP
projects to improve the health condition of the
Tribal development programme should be capable
enough to increase employment and income
generating. The Tribal community should be able to
stand on their own feet. But the existing practices in
the Grama Panchayats are merely the construction of
houses, community halls, roads and drinking water
wells. Service and welfare measures are required to
some extent but production sector development in the
agriculture and industrial sector should not be
neglected at the cost of services. Otherwise tribal
people will continue to be the beneficiaries of welfare
programmes for ever.