Scheduled Tribes empowerment in kerala


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Empowerment of Scheduled Tribes in Kerala

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Scheduled Tribes empowerment in kerala

  1. 1. EMPOWERMENT OF TRIBALS IN KERALA Dr. C. Pratheep and Prof. Jacob M. Abraham
  2. 2. STs in Kerala Scheduled Tribes form 8.2 percent of Indian population •1.14 percent of Kerala population. • Tribal Sub Plan ( TSP) is one of the major initiatives of the Central Government implemented through the Local Self Governments for the tribal empowerment. • The objective of this paper is to examine to what extent TSP has achieved its objectives of tribal empowerment in Kerala.
  3. 3. TRIBAL SUB PLAN (TSP ) IN KERALA • The Tribal Sub Plan programme was started in 1974-75 as a Central Assistance Programme. • The objectives of TSP are to help family based income-generation activities , employment- generation programmes, infrastructure development, and empowerment of Tribals.
  4. 4. Statement of the Problem • From time immemorial, Tribals are one of the most marginalized sections whatever may be the development indicators we adopt. • Tribal Sub Plan ( TSP) is one of the major initiatives of the Central Government implemented through the Local Self Governments for the tribal empowerment . • The objective of this paper is to examine to what extent TSP has achieved its objectives of tribal empowerment in Kerala in the light of a detailed analysis of the implementation of TSP in Noolpuzha Grama Panchayat of Wayanad District of Kerala for the last ten years.
  5. 5. Objectives of the Study: 1. To study the utilization pattern of Tribal Sub Plan in Noolpuzha Grama Panchayat. 2. To study the Tribal empowerment programmes in the implementation of TSP funds in the Noolpuzha Grama Panchayat. 3. To suggest sustainable tribal empowerment projects and programmes through TSP in the Tribal GPs.
  6. 6. Area of study • Kerala Government declared Noolpuzha and Edamalakudy as the Tribal Grama Panchayats in Kerala. • In the two tribal Grama Panchayats, the data regarding the Edamalakudy Grama Panchayat was not available since the Grama Panchayat was created recently. • The investigators selected Noolpuzha GP for this analytical study.
  7. 7. Expenditure Pattern of TSP in Noolpuzha Grama Panchayat ( Rs. in Lakhs)
  8. 8. Projects Implemented under TSP in Noolpuzha GP • Expenditure pattern of Noolpuzha GP from 2002-03 to 2011-12 shows that 0.87 percent has been spent for production sector, 97.30 percent of the total spent for the infrastructural development and the remaining 2.22 percent of the total for the other sectors. • This shows that service sector expenditures are significant in the TSP fund utilization during 2002-03 to 2011-12 . • Important projects implemented through the TSP fund are ST houses, ST goat rearing projects, ST house repair, colony development, school uniform distribution, school noon meal assistance, medicines for elder people, drinking water projects, comprehensive colony construction, I A Y contribution, community hall construction and repair, road construction and repair etc.
  9. 9. Items of Expenditure in 2012-13
  10. 10. Availability of TSP Funds in the Twelfth Five Year Plan in Noolpuzha GP
  11. 11. Critical Appraisal of the TSP Projects Tribal Empowerment • The development of tribal people could be achieved only through their empowerment. This should be the approach to any development programme especially for a group like scheduled tribes. • Tribal Grama Panchayats are providing services to the Scheduled Tribes and but they do not focus on their empowerment. Nor do they take efforts to develop them permanently. • The major projects implemented in TSP are giving construction of community halls, wells, electrical wirings etc.
  12. 12. Income Generation Activities • Distribution of plants to Scheduled Tribe women, financial aid to ayalkootams, integrated paddy development , coconut production help, grant to animal husbandry , distribution of rubber roller, goat rearing project and poultry development programme are some of the income generating activities implemented in Noolpuzha Grama Panchayat. • The income generating activities were few in number and were limited to agriculture oriented programmes. • No programme was carried out in the small scale industries or in the service sector employment generation. • Income generating programmes were missing in the implementation of TSP in the Grama Panchayats.
  13. 13. Infrastructure Development Activities • Facts and figures show that road construction and maintenance is the only activity implemented in the Grama Panchayats in the infrastructure sector under TSP. • There is no effort from the Grama Panchayats to increase non conventional energy sources like solar energy, bio gas etc. among the Scheduled Tribes.
  14. 14. Less Importance to Productive Sector • Noolpuzha Grama Panchayat and other Grama Panchayats in Kerala are giving less importance to the formulation and implementation of production sector. • Kerala Government has not issued any compartmental restricting instruction to the Grama Panchayats in the utilization of TSP fund. • This practice of attaching over importance to service sector and less importance to production sector should change in the utilization of TSP projects.
  15. 15. Policy Recommendations 1. Productive expenditure from the TSP utilization should be more than 30 percent as in the case of general sectors. 2. Since all the Scheduled tribes are not of the same economic conditions, the most backward tribes should get more importance in the TSP utilization. 3. Proper training should be provided to Plan formulators to identify empowerment programmes in TSP.
  16. 16. Policy Recommendations conti….. 4. Proper training should be given for Entrepreneurial skills motivation. 5. Marketing facilities for the tribal products should be developed. 6. Leadership qualities should be inculcated and developed in the tribal youths. 7. Health is wealth. More health related projects are required to be implemented in the TSP projects to improve the health condition of the Tribals.
  17. 17. Conclusion Tribal development programme should be capable enough to increase employment and income generating. The Tribal community should be able to stand on their own feet. But the existing practices in the Grama Panchayats are merely the construction of houses, community halls, roads and drinking water wells. Service and welfare measures are required to some extent but production sector development in the agriculture and industrial sector should not be neglected at the cost of services. Otherwise tribal people will continue to be the beneficiaries of welfare programmes for ever.