Intro to paleo


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An introduction to the paleo diet and its health benefits. A short summary of research is presented as well as a description of blood sugar managment.
Best Nutritionist in Sarastoa, Cynthia Clark,

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Intro to paleo

  1. 1. Dr. Cynthia Clark, AP
  2. 2. Agenda Why Paleo? - Starting with Blood Sugar The Purpose of Eating Modern Paleo History Paleo Players Paleo Basics Studies Vegetarianism? Grains? If we can really affect our health in this way, why isn’t my doctor screaming this from the rooftops?
  3. 3. Starting with Blood Sugar Adults over 20: 35% are pre-diabetic Adults over 65: 77% are pre-diabetic or diabetic. (US centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Diabetes/High blood sugar is the #1 cause of: Blindness in adults Kidney failure Amputations One of the top reasons for Erectile Dysfunction
  4. 4. Starting with Blood SugarEvery 24 hours: 230 diabetics have a limb amputated 55 diabetics go blind 120 diabetics develop kidney failure
  5. 5. Starting with Blood Sugar:Normal Insulin release
  6. 6. Starting with Blood Sugar:Symptoms of Blood Sugar Problems Symptoms include:  Shaky/irritable without food  Abdominal weight gain  Sugar/carb cravings  Difficulty Losing Weight  Fatigue  Gas and bloating  Feel better after eating  Tired in afternoon  Difficulty concentrating,  Reflux/Sour poor focus Stomach/nausea  Sleepy after meals  Blurry Vision  Crave a small “sweet” after meals
  7. 7. Starting with Blood Sugar:What’s a Carbohydrate? Bread  Fruit Juices Cereal  Smoothies Crackers  Sodas** Bran  Energy Drinks Snack/Breakfast Bars  High Fructose Corn Syrup Oatmeal  Agave Nectar Baked Goods  Beer Pastries  Rice Cookies/Cakes  Potatoes, Yams, Corn Pasta  Beans Fruit  Corn/Popcorn
  8. 8. Starting with Blood Sugar:Carbohydrates and Insulin What does Insulin and Glucose Damage look like?  Diabetes1  Hypochlorhydria  Obesity  Leaky Gut  Infertility  Food Intolerances  Heart Disease2  Dysbiosis  Stroke3  Insomnia  Hypertension4  Sleep Apnea51 Moore MA, et al. Implications of the hyperinsulinemia – diabetes – cancer link for preventive efforts. Eur J Cancer Prev 1998; 7:89-1072 Depres JP, et al. Hyperinsulinemia as an independent risk factor for ischemic heart disease. N Eng J Med 1996; 334: 952-9573 Potter can Loon, et al. The cardiovascular risk factor plasminogen activator inhinitor Type I is related to insulin resistnace. Metabolism 1993; 42: 945-949.4 Tedde R, Sechi LA, Marigliao A, Palo A, Scano L. Anti-hypertensive effect of insulin production in diabetic hypertensive patients. Am J Hypertens 1989;2:163-170AND Zavaroni I, Massa S., Dall’aglio E., et al. Prevalence of hyperinsulinemia in patients with high blood pressure. J Int Med 1992; 231:235-240.5 Tiihonen M., Partinen M, Narvanen S. The severity of obstructive sleep apnea associated with insulin resistance. J Sleep Res 1992; 2:56-61
  9. 9. Starting with Blood Sugar:Carbohydrates and Insulin What does Insulin and Glucose Damage look like? Fatigue/Adrenal Exhaustion  Neuropathy Alzheimer’s  Depression Dementia  Anxiety Blindness  Joint Pain Renal Failure  Cancer1 Amputations  PCOS21 Stoll B. Essential Fatty Acids, insulin resistance, and breast cancer risk. Nutri Cancer 1998;31:72-77AND Weiderpass E, et al. Diabetes mellitus and risk of large bowel cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst 1997;89:600-6612 Arthur lS, Selvakumar MS. Hyperinsulinemia in polycystic ovary disease. J Reprod Med 1999;44, 783-787
  10. 10. What’s the purpose of eating? We eat to gain energy. Therefore it makes sense that we benefit the most from eating the foods from which we gain the most energy. We therefore look for the most nutrient-dense foods, designed specifically for humans. Animals do this by instinct, and once upon a time, humans did, too. Today, due to the wide availability of food and a hormonal dis-evolution brought on by nutritional deficiency, our food choices are often determined more by our stress level, our comfort zone, and our willingness to feed ourselves, than how nutrient-dense our meal is.
  11. 11. Modern Paleo History Boyd Eaton published the now-classic scientific paper “Paleolithic Nutrition: A Consideration of Its Nature and Current Implications” in the New England Journal of Medicine in 1985. One of the surprising points that he made in a subsequent paper was that cereal grains were rarely or never consumed by pre-agricultural hunter-gatherers.
  12. 12. Modern Paleo History The idea of disease prevention by nutrition has been around for several decades; the first known book of this type is Weston A. Price’s “Nutrition and Physical Degeneration, A Comparison of Primitive and modern Diets and Their Effects” published in 1939. Dr. Price traveled the world, recording his observations of diet and health about various tribal populations including Amazon Indians, Alaskan Eskimos, Australian Aborigines, Canadian Indians, Polynesians, and African tribal populations. He noted that whenever modern diets were adopted, their health declined. He also noted at that time the Europeans were using sunbathing to treat tuberculosis.
  13. 13. Paleo Players
  14. 14. Paleo Basics The Paleolithic era began 2.6 million years ago, and they hunted, and gathered for their food. Although 10,000 years ago seems far away historically, only about 333 generations have passed since the advent of agriculture. Genetically, we have barely changed from the Paleolithic era. If you follow the 85/15 rule – if you are 85% compliant with your diet most of the time, significant improvements in your health can occur.
  15. 15. Study 1 In 2007, Dr. Lindeberg and associates placed 29 patients with Type II Diabetes and heart disease on either a Paleo diet or a Mediterranean diet based on whole grains, low-fat dairy products, vegetables, fruits, fish oils, and margarines. Note: Paleo encourages a greater consumption of meat and fish, while discouraging grains, dairy, and margarine. After 12 weeks blood glucose tolerance, a risk factor for heart disease, improved in both groups but was better in the Paleo dieters. The Paleo diet was shown to be more satiating on a calorie-by-calorie basis because it caused greater changes in leptin, a hormone that regulates appetite and body weight.
  16. 16. Study 2 In 2008, Dr. Osterdahl and coworkers put 14 healthy subjects on a Paleo diet. After only 3 weeks, the subjects lost weight, reduced their waist size, and experienced significant reductions in blood pressure and plasminogen activator inhibitor, a substance in blood that promotes clotting and accelerates artery clogging.
  17. 17. Study 3 In 2009, Dr. Frasetto and coworkers put 9 inactive subjects on a Paleo diet for just 10 days. Their diet was exactly matched in calories with the subjects’ usual diet. While on the Paleo diet, participants experienced improvements in blood pressure, arterial function, insulin, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides. This occurred in every single subject, in only 9 days.
  18. 18. Study 4 In 2009, Dr. Lindeberg and colleagues compared the effects of a Paleo diet to a Type II diabetes diet. The Diabetes diet was intended to reduce total fat by increasing whole-grain bread and cereals, low-fat dairy products, fruits, and vegetables, while restricting animal foods. By contrast, the Paleo diet was lower in cereals, dairy, potatoes, beans, and baked goods but higher in fruits, vegetables, meat, and eggs. All 13 diabetes patients first followed one diet for 3 months, then crossed over and followed the other diet for 3 months. Compared to the diabetes diet, the Paleo diet resulted in improved weight loss, waist size, blood pressure, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, blood glucose, and HgA1c.
  19. 19. How did the low-fat revolution start?In 1953, scientist Ancel Keys proposed the correlation on the left, choosing 7countries to demonstrate that saturated fat affects cholesterol. The true graph ison the right, showing no such correlation at all. The graph that launched it all…
  20. 20. Saturated Fats Study: Dr. Any Sinclair at the Deakin Univeristy in Australia in 1990 fed 10 adults a low-fat lean beef-based diet for 5 weeks, with constant caloric intake. Total blood cholesterol fell significantly within one week, but rose as fat drippings were added back in during weeks 4 and 5. Conclusion: it is the beef fat, not the beef itself, that is associated with elevations in cholesterol concentrations. BUT the fat drippings actually improved the total cholesterol/HDL (good cholesterol) ratio. Four types of Saturated Fats:  Lauric Acid  Myristic Acid  Palmitic Acid  Stearic Acid The second two raise saturated fat levels, the first does so slightly, and stearic acid doesn’t at all.
  21. 21. Saturated fat and CAD 2010 Meta-Analysis showed that when carbs were used to replace saturated fats, carbs increased the risk for heart disease by increasing blood triglycerides and lowering HDL cholesterol levels. When compared to carbs, saturated fats were shown to be neutral and neither increased nor decreased the risk for heart disease. And when individual saturated fatty acids were compared to carbs, it was demonstrated that lauric acid, myristic acid, and stearic acid actually lowered the total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio. Conclusion: No overall effect of saturated fatty acid consumption on coronary heart disease events.
  22. 22. So can I eat bacon & hot dogs? Processed meats are synthetic mixtures of meat and fat combined artificially at the meatpacker’s or the buther’s whim with no regard for the true fatty acid profile of the wild animal carcasses our hunter-gatherer ancestors ate. They’re also full of preservatives and nitrates, which are converted into cancer-causing nitrosamines. Then they add HFCS, salt, wheat, grains, and other additives with adverse effects. While red meat consumption is not associated with either heart disease or type 2 diabetes, processed meats resulted in a 42 percent greater risk for heart disease, and a 19 percent greater risk for diabetes.
  23. 23. Sources of Sat. Fat % of Sources of Sat. Fat % of Total Total Sat. FatNON-PALEO FOODS Sat. Fat PALEO FOODSMilk, cheese, butter, and dairy 20 Beef 13.2Processed foods w/ grains & beef 9.8 Pork 8.8(burritos, tacos, spaghetti) Poultry 6.0Bread, cereals, rice, pasta, tortilla 9.5 Eggs 3.2cihps, potato chips Seafood 1.8Desserts (ice cream, cakes) 8.6 Total 33.0Processed foods with grains & 6.9cheese (pizza, macaroni &cheese) If you stick to the basicBeverages, misc. 3.7 principles of the Paleo diet,French fries, hash browns 3.3 consumption of saturated fats within the range 10-15% of yourSalad Dressings 3 daily calories will not increaseMargarine 1.2 your risk for heart disease.Total 66.0
  24. 24. Vegetarianism – B12?What Does Vitamin B12 Do in Your Body? Helps to form myelin, which is a fatty cover that insulates your nerves. Helps to produce energy from metabolism of fat and protein. Helps to produce hemoglobin, which is the component of your red blood cells that carrys oxygen to your cells. This is why a vitamin B12 deficiency can cause fatigue. Reduces your homocysteine level, which lowers your risk of stroke, heart disease, cancer, Parkinsons, Alzheimers disease, and many degenerative diseases. Regulates growth, maintenance, and reproduction of all of your cells Vitamin B-12 gives you: * Increased energy * Restored mental clarity, and help with memory loss * Reduced daily stress and irritability * And many other great health benefitsYou can’t get B12 from plants.
  25. 25. Vegetarianism? The 2003 study by Dr. Hermann and colleagues of 95 vegetarians revealed 77% of lacto/ovo vegetarians were deficient in B12, and 92% of vegans were. This has potentially disastrous effects for pregnant women, who may experience spontaneous abortions, weak labor, premature and low birth weight deliveries, birth defects, and preeclampsia (maternal high BP and damage to the liver, kidneys, and blood vessels). When we are B12 deficient, homocysteine levels rise. It is a toxin for almost every cell in our bodies, AND---
  26. 26. Vegetarianism? Meta-analyses in the last 10 years have confirmed that homocysteine is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and heart attacks. A 2008 study by Dr. Humphrey and associates shows that for each 5 micromol/L rise in blood homocysteine level, the risk for cardiovascular disease events increased by approximately 20%. Examine India, where 31% of the 1.17 billion population are strict vegetarians. The incidence of heart disease is much higher than anywhere else in the world, and it is developed at a much earlier age.
  27. 27. Vegetarianism and Heart Disease
  28. 28. Vegetarianism & Fertility? Dr. Pirke at the University of Trier in Germany randomly divided 18 young women into either vegetarian or non-vegetarian groups. After 6 weeks, 7 of the 9 vegetarians stopped ovulating, whereas only 1 meat-eater did. Another common nutritional deficiency in vegetarians is zinc. This is because the phytates in grains, beans, and soy bind to it and prevent it from being absorbed. Zinc deficiencies are tied to sperm function. Calcium, iron, and Vitamin D are affected similarly by phytates. Vegetarian diets are low in iodine and taurine. Vegetarian sources of B6 aren’t sufficiently bioavailable. Plant foods contain the portion of omega 3’s that are ALA, but are lacking in DHA and EPA, which are the long-chain omega 3 fatty acids.
  29. 29. Grains We’re going to compare the nutrients most lacking in the US diet with these seven food groups:  Whole Grains  Milk  Fruits  Vegetables  Seafood  Lean Meat  Nuts/Seeds
  30. 30. Vit B12 Vit B3Food Rank Nutrient (ug) Food Rank Nutrient (mg)Seafood 7 7.42 Lean Meet 7 4.73Lean meat 6 0.63 Seafood 6 3.19Whole milk 5 0.58 Veggies 5 2.73Veggies 4 0 Whole Grains 4 1.12Fruits 4 0 Fruits 3 0.89Whole Grains 4 0 Nuts/Seeds 2 0.35Nuts/Seeds 4 0 Whole Milk 1 0.14 Phosphorous Vit B2 Food Rank Nutrient (mg) Food Rank Nutrient (mg) Seafood 7 219 Veggies 7 0.33 Veggies 6 157 Whole Milk 6 0.26 Whole Milk 5 152 Lean Meats 5 0.14 Lean meat 4 151 Seafoods 4 0.09 Whole grain 3 190 Fruits 3 0.09 Nuts/seeds 2 80 Whole Grains 2 0.05 Fruits 1 33 Nuts/seeds 1 0.04
  31. 31. Vit B1 FolateFood Rank Nutrient Food Rank NutrientVeggies 7 0.26 Veggies 7 208.3Lean meats 6 0.18 Fruits 6 25Whole Grains 5 0.12 Nuts/Seeds 5 11Nuts/Seeds 4 0.12 Seafoods 4 10.8Fruits 3 0.11 Whole Grains 3 10.3Seafoods 2 0.08 Whole Milk 2 8.1Whole Milk 1 0.06 Lean Meats 1 3.8 Vit C Vit B6Food Rank Nutrient Food Rank NutrientFruits 7 221.3 Veggies 7 0.42Veggies 6 93.6 Lean meats 6 0.32Whole Milk 5 74.2 Fruits 5 0.2Seafood 4 1.9 Seafoods 4 0.19Whole Grains 3 1.53 Whole Grains 3 0.09Nuts/Seeds 2 0.4 Nuts/seeds 2 0.08Lean Meats 1 0.1 Whole Milk 1 0.07
  32. 32. Vit A MagnesiumFood Rank Nutrient Food Rank NutrientVeggies 7 687 Vegetables 7 54.5Fruits 6 94 Seafoods 6 36.1Whole Milk 5 50 Nuts/seeds 5 35.8Seafoods 4 32 Whole grains 4 32.6Nuts/seeds 3 2 Fruits 3 24.6Whole Grains 2 2 Whole milk 2 21.9Lean meats 1 1 Lean meats 1 18 Calcium ZincFood Rank Nutrient Food Rank NutrientWhole milk 7 194.3 Seafoods 7 7.6Vegetables 6 116.8 Lean meats 6 1.9Seafoods 5 43.1 Vegetables 5 1.04Fruits 4 43 Whole grains 4 0.67Nuts/seeds 3 17.5 Whole milk 3 0.62Whole grains 2 7.6 nuts/seeds 2 0.6Lean meats 1 6.1 Fruits 1 0.25
  33. 33. What about fiber?Nonstarchy vegetables Fruits Whole-grain cereals Refined cereals 0 50 100 150 200
  34. 34. Grains – the Whole story It may look like whole grains are good sources of Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, and Zinc. Not true. All whole grains contain phytate which binds these materials and makes them unavailable. The more whole grains you eat, the more deficient you will become in these grains. Increases Vit D elimination from the body. Bottom line: don’t eat grains such as wehat, rye, barley, oats, corn, rice, sorghum, and millet.
  35. 35. What about pseudo-grains? Amaranth, quinoa (grain seeds), chia seeds?  These have only moderately toxic antinutrients that probably have minimal adverse health effects if we eat them occassionally, in limited quantites, or for short periods. In the wild, plans produce seeds for only a few months of the year.
  36. 36. Foods Foods, in the order of preference of our paleolithic ancestors:  Large animals  Medium-size animals  Small animals, birds, and fish  Roots and tubers  Fruit  Honey  Nuts and seeds  Grass seeds (cereals)
  37. 37. What to eat? Lean meats and fish Vegetables, including:  Roots except potatoes and casava. Sweet potatoes, yams, beets, carrots, turnips.  Avoid beans, soy, and peanuts  If you have an autoimmune disorder or allergies, limit the nightshades: eggplant, peppers, and tomatoes.
  38. 38. Sample Day Breakfast: Organic eggs with olive oil & parsley, grapefruit, and herbal tea. Snack: Sliced lean beef, fresh seasonal fruit Lunch: Caesar Salad with chicken (olive oil & lemon), herbal tea Snack: apple slices, raw walnuts Dinner: Tomato & avocado slices; Grilled skinless turkey breast; steamed broccoli, carrots, and artichoke; bowl of fresh blueberries and almonds. 1 glass mineral water or white wine (remember the 85/15 rule!)
  39. 39. Remember Your body has an amazing capacity to heal itself. This capacity is augmented through your nutrition, which is an powerful game-changer in your future health.