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The Eye


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The Eye

  1. 1. EYE - Dr. Chintan
  2. 2. Cause Myopia Hypermetropia Axial Eyeball length more Eyeball length less Curvatural Lens, Cornea more convex Lens, Cornea more flatter Positional Lens anterior Lens posterior Index Refractive index more Refractive index less Missel. Spasm of accommodation Aphakia
  3. 3. LASIK -
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  5. 5. Mechanism of “Accommodation” - In children, the refractive power of the lens of the eye can be increased voluntarily from 20 diopters to about 34 diopters; this in an “accommodation” of 14 diopters - The shape of the lens is changed from that of a moderately convex lens to that of a very convex lens - In a young person, the lens is composed of a strong elastic capsule filled with viscous, proteinaceous, transparent fluid - When the lens is in a relaxed state with no tension on its capsule, it assumes an almost spherical shape, owing mainly to the elastic retraction of the lens capsule
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  7. 7. Accommodation - Suspensory ligaments are constantly tensed by their attachments at the anterior border of the choroid and retina. - The tension on the ligaments causes the lens to remain relatively flat under normal conditions of the eye - Ciliary muscle - meridional fibers and circular fibers - when they contract - releasing the ligaments’ tension on the lens
  8. 8. Accommodation - The ciliary muscle is controlled almost entirely by parasympathetic nerve signals transmitted to the eye through the third cranial nerve from the third nerve nucleus in the brain stem - Presbyopia - lens grows larger and thicker and becomes far less elastic, partly because of progressive denaturation of the lens proteins – weak ciliary muscle - The power of accommodation decreases from about 14 diopters in a child to less than 2 diopters by the time a person reaches 45 to 50 years; it then decreases to essentially 0 diopters at age 70 years - no longer accommodate for both near and far vision - bifocal glasses
  9. 9. Lens - Contact lens - abnormally shaped cornea - bulging cornea — keratoconus - the lens turns with the eye and gives a broader field of clear vision than glasses do - Cataracts - older people – opacity in lens - Denaturation of proteins – coagulation of proteins – normal transparent protein fibers replaced - Rx - surgical removal of the lens
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  11. 11. Visual Acuity - Maximum at fovea centralis – maximum number of cones - Depth perception – binocular vision - Far vision - Near vision - Color vision - VEP
  12. 12. Intraocular Fluid - aqueous humor, which lies in front of the lens - vitreous humor, which is between the posterior surface of the lens and the retina - The aqueous humor is a freely flowing fluid - vitreous body, is a gelatinous mass held together by a fine fibrillar network composed primarily of greatly elongated proteoglycan molecules
  13. 13. Intraocular Fluid - Aqueous humor is continually being formed and reabsorbed. The balance between formation and reabsorption of aqueous humor regulates the total volume and pressure of the intraocular fluid - Aqueous humor is formed in the eye at an average rate of 2 to 3 microliters each minute - secreted by the ciliary processes - projecting from the ciliary body into the space behind the iris - Aqueous humor is formed almost entirely as an active secretion by the epithelium of the ciliary processes - active transport of Na ions + Cl + HCO3 + water + nutrients
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  15. 15. Outflow of Aqueous Humor - After aqueous humor is formed by the ciliary processes - anterior to the lens - through the pupil - the anterior chamber of the eye, ant. to iris - the angle between the cornea and the iris - meshwork of trabeculae - canal of Schlemm - extraocular veins
  16. 16. IOP - The average normal intraocular pressure is about 15 mm Hg, with a range from 12 to 20 mm Hg - Tonometry - The rate of fluid flow into the canal increases markedly as the pressure rises. - At about 15 mm Hg in the normal eye, the amount of fluid leaving the eye by way of the canal of Schlemm usually averages 2.5 micro l/min and equals the inflow of fluid from the ciliary body
  17. 17. IOP When large amounts of debris are present in the aqueous humor, as occurs after hemorrhage into the eye or during intraocular infection, the debris is likely to accumulate in the trabecular spaces leading from the anterior chamber to the canal of Schlemm; this debris can prevent adequate reabsorption of fluid from the anterior chamber, sometimes causing glaucoma
  18. 18. IOP - on the surfaces of the trabecular plates are large numbers of phagocytic cells - Immediately outside the canal of Schlemm is a layer of interstitial gel that contains large numbers of reticuloendothelial cells that have an extremely high capacity for engulfing debris and digesting it into small molecular substances that can then be absorbed. - The surface of the iris and other surfaces of the eye behind the iris are covered with an epithelium that is capable of phagocytizing proteins and small particles from the aqueous humor
  19. 19. Glaucoma - Principal Cause of Blindness - IOP becomes pathologically high, sometimes rising acutely to 60 to 70 mm Hg - Pressures above 25 to 30 mm Hg can cause loss of vision when maintained for long periods - Extremely high pressures can cause blindness within days or even hours
  20. 20. Glaucoma - As the pressure rises, the axons of the optic nerve are compressed where they leave the eyeball at the optic disc. - This compression block axonal flow of cytoplasm from the retinal neuronal cell bodies into the optic nerve fibers leading to the brain - The result is lack of appropriate nutrition of the fibers, which eventually causes death of the involved fibers. - compression of the retinal artery, which enters the eyeball at the optic disc, also adds to the neuronal damage by reducing nutrition to the retina.
  21. 21. Glaucoma - the abnormally high pressure results from increased resistance to fluid outflow through the trabecular spaces into the canal of Schlemm at the iridocorneal junction - in acute eye inflammation, WBC and tissue debris can block these trabecular spaces and cause an acute increase in IOP - In chronic conditions, especially in older individuals, fibrous occlusion of the trabecular spaces - Rx – medical (Drops), surgical
  22. 22. Pigment Layer of the Retina - The black pigment melanin in the pigment layer prevents light reflection throughout the globe of the eyeball - important for clear vision - its absence in albinos - people who are hereditarily lacking in melanin pigment in all parts of their bodies - When an albino enters a bright room, light that impinges on the retina is reflected in all directions inside the eyeball by the unpigmented surfaces of the retina - A single discrete spot of light that would normally excite only a few rods or cones is reflected everywhere and excites many receptors - visual acuity of albinos
  23. 23. Retina - The pigment layer also stores large quantities of vitamin A - this vitamin A is exchanged back and forth through the cell membranes of the outer segments of the rods and cones - Inner layers of retina – central retinal artery - outer segments of the rods and cones, depend mainly on diffusion from the choroid blood vessels for their nutrition, oxygen - Retinal Detachment
  24. 24. Photochemistry of Vision - Both rods and cones contain chemicals that decompose on exposure to light and, in the process, excite the nerve fibers leading from the eye. - The light-sensitive chemical in the rods is called rhodopsin (visual purple: scotopsin + 11-cis retinal); the light sensitive chemicals in the cones, called cone pigments or color pigments. - Rhodopsin-Retinal Visual Cycle
  25. 25. Night Blindness & Vitamin A - Night blindness occurs in any person with severe vitamin A deficiency - the amounts of retinal and rhodopsin that can be formed are severely depressed. - The amount of light available at night is too little to permit adequate vision - For night blindness to occur, a person usually must remain on a vitamin A–deficient diet for months, because large quantities of vitamin A are normally stored in the liver - Once night blindness develops, it can sometimes be reversed in less than 1 hour by IV injection of vitamin A
  26. 26. Photochemistry of Color Vision - photopsins in the cones are slightly different from the scotopsin of the rods - color pigments are called - blue-sensitive pigment - cyanolabe, - green-sensitive pigment - chlorolabe, and - red-sensitive pigment - erythrolabe - light wavelengths of 445, 535 & 570 nanometers
  27. 27. Colour Blindness - Normal vision – trichromatic - Abnormal – dichromatic, monochromatic - Triatanomaly – defective blue Colour - Protanomaly - defective red Colour - Deutranomaly - defective green Colour - Triatanopia – complete blindness for blue - Protanopia - complete blindness for red - Deutranopia - complete blindness for green - Ishihara chart, edridge green lantern test, Holmgren wool test
  28. 28. Colour Blindness - Most common – red green - genetic disorder that occurs almost exclusively in males - color blindness almost never occurs in females because at least one of the two X chromosomes almost always has a normal gene for each type of cone. - Because the male has only one X chromosome, a missing gene can lead to color blindness - Because the X chromosome in the male is always inherited from the mother - color blindness is passed from mother to son, and the mother is said to be a color blindness carrier
  29. 29. Light Adaptation - If a person has been in bright light for hours, large portions of the photochemicals in both the rods and the cones will have been reduced to retinal and opsins. - much of the retinal of both the rods and the cones will have been converted into vitamin A. - Because of these two effects, the sensitivity of the eye to light is correspondingly reduced. This is called light adaptation
  30. 30. Dark Adaptation - if a person remains in darkness for a long time, the retinal and opsins in the rods and cones are converted back into the light-sensitive pigments. - vitamin A is converted back into retinal to give still more light-sensitive pigments, - the final limit being determined by the amount of opsins in the rods and cones to combine with the retinal - This is called dark adaptation
  31. 31. Dark Adaptation - the sensitivity of the retina is very low on first entering the darkness, but within 1 minute, the sensitivity has already increased 10-fold - At the end of 20 minutes, the sensitivity has increased about 6000-fold, and at the end of 40 minutes, about 25,000-fold - all the chemical events of vision, including adaptation, occur about four times as rapidly in cones as in rods - Despite rapid adaptation, the cones cease adapting after only a few minutes, while the slowly adapting rods continue to adapt for many minutes and even hours
  32. 32. Light and Dark Adaptation - change in pupillary size - Entering dark – mydriasis - Entering light – miosis - Adaptation 30-fold within a fraction of a second - Neural Adaptation
  33. 33. Visual Pathways Retina ↓ Optic nerve ↓ Optic chiasm ↓ Optic tract ↓ LGB ↓ Optic Radiation ↓ Visual cortex
  34. 34. Visual Pathways - (1) from the optic tracts to the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, to control circadian rhythms that synchronize various physiologic changes of the body with night and day; - (2) into the pretectal nuclei in the midbrain, to elicit reflex movements of the eyes to focus on objects of importance and to activate the pupillary light reflex; - (3) into the superior colliculus, to control rapid directional movements of the two eyes
  35. 35. Visual Pathways - LGB - Layers II, III, and V receive signals from the lateral half- temporal fibers of the ipsilateral retina, - layers I, IV, and VI receive signals from the medial half- nasal fibers of the retina of the opposite eye - Layers I and II - magnocellular layers - large neurons – input large type Y retinal ganglion cells - rapidly conducting pathway - color blind, transmitting only black and white information. - Layers III through VI - parvocellular layers - large numbers of small to medium sized neurons - type X retinal ganglion cells that transmit color - moderate velocity of conduction
  36. 36. Autonomic Control - The parasympathetic preganglionic fibers arise in the Edinger Westphal nucleus - the visceral nucleus portion of the third cranial nerve - third nerve to the ciliary ganglion - lies immediately behind the eye - here, the preganglionic fibers synapse with postganglionic parasympathetic neurons, which in turn send fibers through ciliary nerves into the eyeball. - These nerves excite - (1) the ciliary muscle that controls focusing of the eye lens - (2) the sphincter of the iris that constricts the pupil
  37. 37. Autonomic Control - The sympathetic innervation of the eye originates in the intermediolateral horn cells of the first thoracic segment of the spinal cord. - Sympathetic fibers enter the sympathetic chain and pass upward to the superior cervical ganglion, where they synapse with postganglionic neurons. - Postganglionic sympathetic fibers from these then spread along the surfaces of the carotid artery and successively smaller arteries until they reach the eye - innervate the radial fibers of the iris
  38. 38. Autonomic Control - Accommodation reflex - Convergence, pupillary constriction, ant. Surface of lens becomes more convex - Pathway - Light reflex - Direct, Indirect (consensual) - Constriction of pupil - Pathway
  39. 39. Autonomic Control - A pupil that fails to respond to light but does respond to accommodation (an Argyll Robertson pupil) — syphilis - Horner’s syndrome –cervical sympathetic chain - Miosis - Ptosis - Enopthalmos - Anhydrosis - Persistent vasodilation
  40. 40. Thank You…