Capillary circulation


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Capillary circulation

  1. 1. Capillary Circulation - Dr. Chintan
  2. 2. Microcirculation The most purposeful function of the circulation occurs in the microcirculation: this is transport of nutrients to the tissues and removal of cell excreta. The walls of the capillaries are extremely thin, constructed of singlelayer, highly permeable endothelial cells. Therefore, water, cell nutrients, and cell excreta can all interchange quickly and easily between the tissues and the circulating blood. The peripheral circulation of the whole body has about 10 billion capillaries with a total surface area estimated to be 500 to 700 square meters (about one eighth the surface area of a football field). Indeed, it is rare that any single functional cell of the body is more than 20 to 30 micrometers away from a capillary.
  3. 3. structure Arteries – arterioles – metarterioles - capillaries Arterioles are highly muscular Precapillary sphincter The venules are larger than the arterioles and have a much weaker muscular coat. The pressure in the venules is much less than that in the arterioles, so that the venules still can contract considerably despite the weak muscle.
  4. 4. structure Unicellular layer of endothelial cells with very thin basement membrane Pores in membrane – intercellular cleft Plasmalemmal vesicles within cells Vesicular channels
  5. 5. Special pores Brain – tight junction – water, O2, CO2 Liver – wide open – even PP pass Kidney glomerulus – small oval windows – fenestrae – ionic substances but not PP
  6. 6. vasomotion Blood flow intermittent, not continuous Intermittent contraction of the metarterioles and precapillary sphincters and sometimes even the very small arterioles as well Concentration of oxygen in the tissues Frequency & duration of vasomotion ↑ when O2 utilization is more
  7. 7. function Exchange of Water, Nutrients and Other Substances Between the Blood and Interstitial Fluid Lipid-Soluble Substances Can Diffuse Directly Through the Cell Membranes of the Capillary Endothelium – O2, CO2 – faster transport rates Water-Soluble, Non-Lipid-Soluble Substances Diffuse Only Through Intercellular “Pores” in the Capillary Membrane – water, Na, Cl, Glucose Effect of Molecular Size on Passage Through the Pores – Albumin not pass except in Liver
  8. 8. function The “net” rate of diffusion of a substance through any membrane is proportional to the concentration difference of the substance between the two sides of the membrane. The greater the difference between the concentrations of any given substance on the two sides of the capillary membrane, the greater the net movement of the substance in one direction through the membrane. O2 – blood to tissues, CO2 – tissue to blood
  9. 9. Fluid filtration The hydrostatic pressure in the capillaries tends to force fluid and its dissolved substances through the capillary pores into the interstitial spaces. Osmotic pressure caused by the plasma proteins, called colloid osmotic pressure tends to cause fluid movement by osmosis from the interstitial spaces into the blood. This osmotic pressure exerted by the plasma proteins normally prevents significant loss of fluid volume from the blood into the interstitial spaces. Lymphatic system returns to the circulation the small amounts of excess protein and fluid that leak from the blood into the interstitial spaces.
  10. 10. Starling forces 1. The capillary pressure (Pc), which tends to force fluid outward through the capillary membrane. 2. The interstitial fluid pressure (Pif), which tends to force fluid inward through the capillary membrane when Pif is positive but outward when Pif is negative. 3. The capillary plasma colloid osmotic pressure ( p), which tends to cause osmosis of fluid inward through the capillary membrane. 4. The interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure ( if), which tends to cause osmosis of fluid outward through the capillary membrane. π π
  11. 11. Starling forces If the sum of these forces, the net filtration pressure, is positive, there will be a net fluid filtration across the capillaries. If the sum of the Starling forces is negative, there will be a net fluid absorption from the interstitial spaces into the capillaries. The net filtration pressure (NFP) is calculated as: NFP = (Pc + πif) – (Pif + πp)
  12. 12. Starling forces The rate of fluid filtration in a tissue is also determined by the number and size of the pores in each capillary as well as the number of capillaries in which blood is flowing. These factors are usually expressed together as the capillary filtration coefficient (Kf). The Kf is therefore a measure of the capacity of the capillary membranes to filter water for a given NFP and is usually expressed as ml / min / mmHg net filtration pressure. The rate of capillary fluid filtration is therefore determined as: Filtration = Kf х NFP
  13. 13. Capillary Hydrostatic Pressure Two experimental methods have been used to estimate the capillary hydrostatic pressure: (1)Direct micropipette Cannulation of the capillaries, which has given an average mean capillary pressure of about 25mm Hg (2)Indirect functional measurement of the capillary pressure, which has given a capillary pressure averaging about 17 mm Hg.
  14. 14. Interstitial Fluid Hydrostatic Pressure The methods most widely used have been (1) Direct cannulation of the tissues with a micropipette (2) Measurement of the pressure from implanted perforated capsules (3) Measurement of the pressure from a cotton wick inserted into the tissue Negative interstitial fluid pressure: - 3 mmHg Pumping by the Lymphatic System Is the Basic Cause of the Negative Interstitial Fluid Pressure
  15. 15. Plasma Colloid Osmotic Pressure Only those molecules or ions that fail to pass through the pores of a semipermeable membrane exert osmotic pressure. Because the proteins are the only dissolved constituents in the plasma and interstitial fluids that do not readily pass through the capillary pores, it is the proteins of the plasma and interstitial fluids that are responsible for the osmotic pressures on the two sides of the capillary membrane. To distinguish this osmotic pressure from that which occurs at the cell membrane, it is called either colloid osmotic pressure or oncotic pressure. The term “colloid” osmotic pressure is derived from the fact that a protein solution resembles a colloidal solution.
  16. 16. Normal values The colloid osmotic pressure of normal human plasma averages about 28 mm Hg; 19 mm of this is caused by molecular effects of the dissolved protein. 9 mm by the Donnan effect—that is, extra osmotic pressure caused by sodium, potassium and the other cations held in the plasma by the proteins. The plasma proteins are a mixture that contains albumin, with an average molecular weight of 69,000; globulins, 140,000; and fibrinogen, 400,000. Osmotic pressure is determined by the number of molecules dissolved in a fluid rather than by the mass of these molecules.
  17. 17. Normal values 80 per cent of the total colloid osmotic pressure of the plasma results from the albumin fraction, 20 per cent from the globulins, and almost none from the fibrinogen.
  18. 18. Interstitial Fluid Colloid Osmotic Pressure Although the size of the usual capillary pore is smaller than the molecular sizes of the plasma proteins, this is not true of all the pores. Therefore, small amounts of plasma proteins do leak through the pores into the interstitial spaces. The average protein concentration of the interstitial fluid is about 3 g/dl. Average interstitial fluid colloid osmotic pressure for this concentration of proteins is about 8 mm Hg.
  19. 19. Exchange of Fluid Through Membrane The average capillary pressure at the arterial ends of the capillaries is 15 to 25 mm Hg greater than at the venous ends. Because of this difference, fluid “filters” out of the capillaries at their arterial ends, but at their venous ends fluid is reabsorbed back into the capillaries.
  20. 20. Reabsorption pressure is considerably less than the filtration pressure at the capillary arterial ends, but the venous capillaries are more numerous and more permeable than the arterial capillaries, so that less reabsorption pressure is required to cause inward movement of fluid. The reabsorption pressure causes about 9/10th of the fluid that has filtered out of the arterial ends of the capillaries to be reabsorbed at the venous ends. The remaining 1/10th flows into the lymph vessels and returns to the circulating blood. In other capillaries, the balance of Starling forces is different and, for example, fluid moves out of almost the entire length of the capillaries in the renal glomeruli. On the other hand, fluid moves into the capillaries through almost their entire length in the intestines.
  21. 21. Edema Edema refers to the presence of excess fluid in the body tissues. In most instances, edema occurs mainly in the extracellular fluid compartment, but it can involve intracellular fluid as well.
  22. 22. Intracellular Edema (1) (2) Depression of the metabolic systems of the tissues Lack of adequate nutrition to the cells When blood flow to a tissue is decreased, the delivery of oxygen and nutrients is reduced. If the blood flow becomes too low to maintain normal tissue metabolism, the cell membrane ionic pumps become depressed - osmosis Sometimes this can increase intracellular volume of a tissue area to two to three times normal. Intracellular edema can also occur in inflamed tissues. Inflammation usually has a direct effect on the cell membranes to increase their permeability, allowing sodium and other ions to diffuse into the interior of the cell, with subsequent osmosis of water into the cells.
  23. 23. Extracellular Edema Extracellular fluid edema occurs when there is excess fluid accumulation in the extracellular spaces. There are two general causes of extracellular edema: (1) abnormal leakage of fluid from the plasma to the interstitial spaces across the capillaries, and (2) failure of the lymphatics to return fluid from the interstitium back into the blood. The most common clinical cause of interstitial fluid accumulation is excessive capillary fluid filtration. - Increased capillary hydrostatic pressure. - Decreased plasma colloid osmotic pressure.
  24. 24. Lymphatic Blockage Causes Edema When lymphatic blockage occurs, edema can become severe because plasma proteins that leak into the interstitium have no other way to be removed. The rise in protein concentration raises the colloid osmotic pressure of the interstitial fluid, which draws even more fluid out of the capillaries. Blockage of lymph flow can be severe with infections of the lymph nodes, such as occurs with infection by filaria nematodes. Blockage of the lymph vessels can occur in certain types of cancer or after surgery in which lymph vessels are removed or obstructed. For example, large numbers of lymph vessels are removed during radical mastectomy, impairing removal of fluid from the breast and arm areas and causing edema and swelling of the tissue spaces - temporary
  25. 25. Edema Caused by Heart Failure  In heart failure, the heart fails to pump blood normally from the veins into the arteries; this raises venous pressure and capillary pressure, causing increased capillary filtration.  In addition, the arterial pressure tends to fall, causing decreased excretion of salt and water by the kidneys, which increases blood volume and further raises capillary hydrostatic pressure to cause still more edema.  Also, diminished blood flow to the kidneys stimulates secretion of renin, causing increased formation of angiotensin II and increased secretion of aldosterone, both of which cause additional salt and water retention by the kidneys.
  26. 26. Edema Caused by Heart Failure  In patients with left-sided heart failure, blood is pumped into the lungs normally by the right side of the heart but cannot escape easily from the pulmonary veins to the left side of the heart because this part of the heart has been greatly weakened.  Consequently, all the pulmonary vascular pressures, including pulmonary capillary pressure, rise far above normal, causing serious and life-threatening pulmonary edema.  When untreated, fluid accumulation in the lungs can rapidly progress, causing death within a few hours.  Right sided heart failure – systemic edema
  27. 27. Edema Caused by Decreased Kidney Excretion of Salt and Water  Most sodium chloride added to the blood remains in the extracellular compartment, and only small amounts enter the cells.  Therefore, in kidney diseases that compromise urinary excretion of salt and water, large amounts of sodium chloride and water are added to the extracellular fluid.  Most of this salt and water leaks from the blood into the interstitial spaces, but some remains in the blood.  The main effects of this are to cause  (1) widespread increases in interstitial fluid volume (extracellular edema)  (2) hypertension
  28. 28. Edema Caused by Decreased Plasma Proteins  One of the most important causes of decreased plasma protein concentration is loss of proteins in the urine in certain kidney diseases, a condition referred to as nephrotic syndrome.  Multiple types of renal diseases can damage the membranes of the renal glomeruli, causing the membranes to become leaky to the plasma proteins and often allowing large quantities of these proteins to pass into the urine.  When this loss exceeds the ability of the body to synthesize proteins, a reduction in plasma protein concentration occurs.  Serious generalized edema occurs when the plasma protein concentration falls below 2.5 g/100 ml.
  29. 29. Edema Caused by Decreased Plasma Proteins  Cirrhosis of the liver is another condition that causes a reduction in plasma protein concentration.  Cirrhosis means development of large amounts of fibrous tissue among the liver parenchymal cells. One result is failure of these cells to produce sufficient plasma proteins.  The liver fibrosis sometimes compresses the abdominal portal venous drainage vessels as they pass through the liver before emptying back into the general circulation.  Blockage of this portal venous outflow raises capillary hydrostatic pressure throughout the gastrointestinal area and further increases filtration of fluid out of the plasma into the intraabdominal areas.  When this occurs, the combined effects of decreased plasma protein concentration and high portal capillary pressures cause transudation of large amounts of fluid and protein into the abdominal cavity, a condition referred to as ascites.
  30. 30. I. Increased capillary pressure A. Excessive kidney retention of salt and water 1. Acute or chronic kidney failure 2. Mineralocorticoid excess B. High venous pressure and venous constriction 1. Heart failure 2. Venous obstruction 3. Failure of venous pumps (a) Paralysis of muscles (b) Immobilization of parts of the body (c) Failure of venous valves C. Decreased arteriolar resistance 1. Excessive body heat 2. Insufficiency of sympathetic nervous system 3. Vasodilator drugs
  31. 31. II. Decreased plasma proteins A. Loss of proteins in urine (nephrotic syndrome) B. Loss of protein from shed skin areas 1. Burns 2. Wounds C. Failure to produce proteins 1. Liver disease (e.g., cirrhosis) 2. Serious protein or caloric malnutrition
  32. 32. III. Increased capillary permeability A. Immune reactions that cause release of histamine and other immune products B. Toxins C. Bacterial infections D. Vitamin deficiency, especially vitamin C E. Prolonged ischemia F. Burns
  33. 33. IV. Blockage of lymph return A. Cancer B. Infections (e.g., filaria nematodes) C. Surgery D. Congenital absence or abnormality of lymphatic vessels
  34. 34. Pitting – nonpitting edema  Most of the extra fluid that accumulates is “free fluid” because it pushes the brush pile of proteoglycan filaments apart.  Therefore, the fluid can flow freely through the tissue spaces because it is not in gel form.  When this occurs, the edema is said to be pitting edema because one can press the thumb against the tissue area and push the fluid out of the area.  When the thumb is removed, a pit is left in the skin for a few seconds until the fluid flows back from the surrounding tissues.  Nonpitting edema, which occurs when the tissue cells swell instead of the interstitium or when the fluid in the interstitium becomes clotted with fibrinogen so that it cannot move freely within the tissue spaces.
  35. 35. Safety factor  1. The safety factor caused by low tissue compliance in the negative pressure range is about 3 mm Hg.  2. The safety factor caused by increased lymph flow is about 7 mm Hg.  3. The safety factor caused by wash-down of proteins from the interstitial spaces is about 7 mm Hg.  Therefore, the total safety factor against edema is about 17 mm Hg.  This means that the capillary pressure in a peripheral tissue could theoretically rise by 17 mm Hg, or approximately double the normal value, before marked edema would occur.
  36. 36. Edema Fluid in the Potential Spaces Effusion Pericardial effusion Plural effusion Abdominal cavity, peritoneal cavity – ascites Synovial cavities, including both the joint cavities and the bursa – synovial effusion, bursitis
  37. 37. Thank you…