Determination of Race.
The cranium is the only reliable bone and, even then, can only tell
general category as below:
wider cheekbones, square shaped skull, rounded apertures, concave
width between eyes greatest
Narrow elongated skull, squared orbit, rounded nasal aperture, more
prominent ridges, wider nasal opening
Rounded skull, elongated nasal aperture, triangular palate.
Height of skull / length of skull x 100.
Europeans – 71.
Negros – 72.
Mongoloid – 75.
Height is measured from the tip of the
mastoid process to bregma.
• Length – glabella to occipital protuberance.
• Breadth of the nasal aperture/length of the
nasal aperture x 100.
• European – 46.
• Mongoloid – 50.
• Negros – 55.
• RACE DE E INAT
- Civilized societies > 1st molar largest and 3rd molar
- Primitive societies > reverse is true
- Mongolians may have three cusps in 1st premolars and
lower molars have three roots.
- Enamel pearls- Mongols.
- Carbelli’s cusps-whites.
- Taurodentism (bull tooth) tooth fused and bentmongoloids
- Shovel shaped upper central incisors in Mongols.
=congenital lack of third molar- mongoloids.
ADULT SEX CAN BE DETERMINED FROM SKELETON.
ACCORDING TO KROGMAN ACCURACY IN SEXING ADULT
SKELETAL REMAINS IS:-
•PEVIS + SKULL
•LONG BONES ALONE
Determination of Sex
2. Cranium second best
• Crests and ridges more
pronounced in males (A, B, C)
• Chin significantly more square
in males (E)
• Jaw (I, E), mastoid process
wide and robust in males
• Forehead slopes more in
• Males tend to have a more prominent brow ridge and slanting of
the frontal bone (forehead).
• A squared chin.
• Females tend to have a slightly more rounded jaw with a pointed
• The female brow ridge tends to be smoother and the frontal bone
•In males, the occipital protuberance is sometimes --but not
always-- more pronounced.
1500 to1550 ml
1350 to 1400 ml
SMALL OR ABSENT
HIGHER,NARROWER LOWER & BROADER
MUSCLE LINES &
SITES OF MUSCULAR
LARGER & LONGER
SMALLER & ROUNDED
LARGER & THICKER
GREATER BREADTH SMALLER BREADTH
LESS OBTUSE(<125) MORE OBTUSE
Chin more square in males, teeth larger in
Chin rounded in females;
SHORT AND OBLIQUE
FORMS OBTUSE ANGLE
(175°) WITH BODY .
THICK AND LONG
LESS OBTUSE ANGLE
OBTUSE ANGLE (140°)
WITH THE BODY.
110° to 120°)
WITH THE BODY.
OPENS NEAR LOWER
OPENS NEAR ALVEOLAR
BETWEEN UPPER &
(4) CONDYLOID AT A LOWER LEVEL
AT A LOWER LEVEL THAN
Determination of Age from Bones
• Ages 0-5: teeth are best – forensic
• Lat & occip, fontanalles - closes within 2
• Post. Fontanalles - closes 6-8 months.
• Ant. Fontanalles – closes 18 – 24 months.
• Mandible unites – 2nd year.
• Metopic suture at 3rd year.
• Condylar part of the occip. Bone fuses with squama
on 3rd year and with basi-occiput on 5th year.
• 25 yrs – sutures fuse in the inner side.
• 30-40 yrs – post. Half of sagital suture.
• 40-50 yrs – Ant. Half of sagital suture & lower half
of coronal suture fuses.
• 50-60 yrs – Middle half of sagital suture & lower
half of coronal suture fuses.
• 60 yrs – Sq.temporal fuses with other bones.
• Height of the skull = 1/8th of the stature.
• Tooth eruptions and secondary changes in
• Linear fractures.
• Diastatic fractures.
• Comminuted fractures.
• Fracture-a-la signature.
• Pond/indented fracture.
• Gutter fracture.
• Hinge fracture.
• Ring fracture.
• Countre-coup fracture.
• When there are more than two fracture lines
“the coarse of the later fracture is always
interrupted by the ‘pre-existing’ fracture line”.
Bewelling of skull..
• Is a funnel shaped wound with the funnel
opening out along the direction of the missile.
• It occurs due to the larger UNSUPPORTED
layer of bone, which gets punched out.
• Identification of bite marks on victims
• Comparison of bite marks with teeth of a
• Identification of unknown bodies through
• Age estimations of skeletal remains
• Victim identification through DNA analysis
Forensic Odontology – Age Determination
Neonatal Line – allows forensic
odontologists to determine if a
child was alive at birth
• Gustafson’s Method.
1. Obtain skull
• Determine demographic
(female, Caucasian, early 40s)
• Note unique features
(had lost all back teeth on upper
and lower jaw)
• Anything known about this
2. Add tissue depth markers
• Based on largely on sex and race
3. Begin to add common fat deposits and
4. Add muscle to average
depth for race
5. Add skin, nose, ears
6. Add features related to age and
race (wrinkles, eye and hair color)
7. Add clothing etc appropriate for the time
period, religious affiliations, etc
• Study cast made.
• Stable dental impression material.(poly
• Impression of suspects mouth is made.
• Mellot’s metal, is poured.
• Contact print is made.
• Tone line photography is obtained.
Dating of skull remains.
Skull suture patterns and vascular markings.
Palatal pattern prints for identification.