Disaster management

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The slide includes 1.Introduction to Disaster, 2.Disaster Impact and Response, 3.Relief Phase of Disaster, 4.Disaster Mitigation, 5.Disaster Preparedness 6.Personal Protection in different types of Disaster, 7.Man-made Disasters, 8. Policies concerned with disaster management 9.Worst Disasters in India 10. Organizations concerned with disaster management.

A total of 130+ slides will give a detailed idea of the disaster and its management.

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  • Disaster management

    1. 1. DISASTERMANAGEMENT
    2. 2. Speakers :CHETAN – Introduction to DisasterManagement and Disaster ImpactSOUMYA – Disaster Relief, Response,Rehabilitation.CHETAN KUMAR – Mitigation, DisasterPreparedness, PoliciesDARSHAN – Personal protection indifferent types of EmergencyCHIDANAND – Manmade Disasters,Disasters in India, Organizations.
    3. 3. Introduction toDisasterManagementBy Chetan
    4. 4. Definition : A disaster can be defined as : “ Anyoccurrence that causes damage, ecologicaldisruption, loss of human life ordeterioration of health and health serviceson a scale sufficient to warrant anextraordinary response from outside theaffected community or area”. BY - World HealthOrganisation (WHO) “A disaster can be defined as an occurrenceeither nature or manmade that causes humansuffering and creates human needs thatvictims cannot alleviate without assistance”. BY -
    5. 5. When and Where it occurs ? Anytime and anywhere, not confined to anypart of the world. Some disasters can be predicted andwhereas some cannot be predicted. Warfare is a special category, because it iswell planned and damage is the intended goalof action.
    6. 6. Factors affecting Disaster :• Age• Immunization status• Degree of mobility• Emotional stabilityHost factors• Physical Factors• Chemical Factors• Biological Factors• Social Factors• Psychological FactorsEnvironmentalfactors
    7. 7. Effects of disaster : Population displacement Injury or Death Risk of epidemic of diseases Damage to infrastructure Psychological problems Food shortage Socioeconomic losses Shortage of drugs and medical supplies.
    8. 8. Types of Disasters :NaturalDisastersEarthquakeFloodsCyclonesTsunamiLandslideandAvalanchesManmadeDisastersChemicalDisasterNuclearDisasterBiologicalDisasterExamples• Natural disasters :Earthquakes, landslides,volcanic eruptions, floodsand cyclones• Man-made disasters :Stampedes, fires,transport accidents,industrial accidents, oilspills and nuclearexplosions/radiation. Warand deliberate attacksmay also be put in thiscategory.
    9. 9. Severity of the impact : The severity of the impact depends upon manyfactors :1. Predictability : Some of the disasters such ascyclones, floods can be predicted and thedegree of preparedness will be high.2. Type of Disaster : In Earthquakes, the mortalityis high because the people get crushed belowthe falling objects and collapsed buildings3. Density and population distribution.4. Opportunity of warning.5. Condition of the environment.
    10. 10.  The scale is a normalized function whosevariables are scope (S), topography (T), andrate of change (D), expressed as :Rohn Emergency Formula :E = EMERGENCY = f(S,T,D)Measuring the severity :
    11. 11. Morbidity and Mortality : Earthquakes : Unpredictable, People get crushed because theycannot escape and if it occurs in night, the people may even havefracture pelvis, thorax or spine because they are lying in bed Volcanic eruptions : Mudslides and glowing cloudsof ash.Bodies buried in volcanicash
    12. 12. Morbidity and Mortality (contd..): Floods : Collapsed dam or tidal waves. Droughts : Protein-calorie malnutrition and vitamindeficiencies (Particularly Vit.A) leading toXerophthalmia and blindness. Even dehydration anddiarrhoea may occur.
    13. 13. India’s Vulnerability to Disasters: 57% land is vulnerable to earthquakes. Of these, 12% is vulnerable to severeearthquakes. 68% land is vulnerable to drought. 12% land is vulnerable to floods. 8% land is vulnerable to cyclones. Apart from natural disasters, some cities in India are also vulnerable to chemical andindustrial disasters and man-made disasters. Northern mountain region prone to land slides, snow–storms , earthquakes Eastern coastal area prone to severe floods ,cyclones Western desert prone to draughts
    14. 14. India’s Vulnerability to Disasters:
    15. 15. Who will work ? Usually military force, police, BSF, volunteers from other region. Disaster management is a specialised training & is provided bylocal, state, federal and private organizations. Undergraduate and Graduate degrees in disaster management ora related field are provided. (Disaster Management Institute, Bhopal, M.P andDisaster Mitigation Institute, Ahmadabad, Gujarat). Certified Emergency Manager (CEM) the most important degree.The National Emergency Management Association and theInternational Association of Emergency Managers are two examplesof these professional organizations.
    16. 16. Principles of disastermanagement Comprehensive – disaster managersconsider and take into account all hazards, allphases, and all impacts relevant to disasters. Progressive – anticipate future disasters andtake preventive and preparatory measures Risk-driven – use sound risk managementprinciples (hazard identification, risk analysis,and impact analysis) in assigning priorities andresources. Integrated – ensure unity of effort among alllevels of government and all elements of acommunity.
    17. 17. Contd... Collaborative – create and sustain broad andsincere relationships among individuals andorganizations . Coordinated – synchronize the activities toachieve a common purpose. Flexible – use creative and innovativeapproaches in solving disaster challenges. Professional – value a science andknowledge-based approach for continuousimprovement.
    18. 18. International Organizations
    19. 19. International Organizations :
    20. 20. Organizations in INDIA :FOR INFORMATION ON DISASTERS DIAL TOLL FREE No.1070Log on to http://www.ndmindia.nic.in
    21. 21. Volunteers :They form an important non-professional supporting team in disastermanagement.
    22. 22. Phases of Management : Disaster Response Disaster Rehabilitation Disaster Reconstruction Disaster Mitigation Disaster PreparednessRecovery phase afterdisasterRisk reduction phasebefore a disaster
    23. 23. Impact & Response : Greatest need for emergency care is in 1st few hoursafter the impact. The management of mass casualties are divided into :Search and RescueFirst AidField careTriageTaggingIdentification of Dead
    24. 24. Search and Rescue & First-Aid: For search and rescue the team should be organised andwork as one. Even with a good team the search may be asmall fraction in major disasters. The immediate help is usually obtained from the uninjuredsurvivors.
    25. 25. Field care : The injured people are brought to nearest health careimmediately by available means of transport andpeople converge into health facilities. The hospitals must get ready to deal with mass inputof injured with new priorities for bed availability andsurgical services. Provision for food, shelter should be done. A centre to respond for the enquiries from patient’srelatives and friends. Priority is given to :a. victims identification andb. adequate mortuary space.
    26. 26. Triage : It consists of rapidly classifying the injured onthe basis of the severity of their injuries and theirlikelyhood of their survival with prompt medicalintervention. The principle of “First come, first serve” is NOTFOLLOWED. High priority is given to those whose immediate orlong term prognosis can be changed dramaticallywith simple intensive care. It is the only approach that can provide maximumbenefit to large population in a major disaster.
    27. 27. Colour coding in a Triage :Internationallyaccepted fourcolour codingsystem : Red – Highpriority treatmentor transfer. Yellow –Medium priority. Green –Ambulatorypatients. Black – Dead orMoriboundpatients.Triage should be carried outat the site of the disaster.Local health workers shouldbe taught the principles oftriage as a part of disastertraining.People with minor injuriesshould be treated in theirhomes to avoid socialdislocation and drain theresources which are neededby severely injured person.All persons should betagged with details – name,age, place of origin, triage,initial diagnosis and
    28. 28. Identification of Dead : Dead people care is most important in disaster managementbecause they impede the efficiency of rescue activities. Care of dead includes :1. Proper Respect.2. Removal of dead from the scene.3. Shifting to mortuary.4. Identification.5. Reception of bereaved relatives.#Cadavers must be removed from water sources as theymay cause outbreaks of gastroenteritis or food poisoning.#The health hazards from the cadavers are outbreaks ofcholera, typhoid, leptospirosis, anthrax, plague etc.
    29. 29. Disaster Relief ,Response andRehabilitationBy : Soumya
    30. 30. DISASTER MANAGEMENT CYCLE
    31. 31. Relief phase : This phase begins when assistance from outside area starts reaching thedisaster site. The relief supplies are determined by two factors :a. The type of disaster b. Availability of local supplies.
    32. 32. Relief phase : Important needs are :1. Critical health supply and casualties.2. Food, blanket, clothing, shelter, sanitary engineering.3. Measures to prevent outbreak of communicablediseases.4. Donations(Funds)5. Transportation, Storage and distribution of food,medicines, vitamins.6. The four distinct components in Relief phase are :Acquisition of supplies, Transportation, Storageand Distribution.
    33. 33. Disaster response• Epidemiological surveillance• Nutrition• vaccination
    34. 34. Surveillance/early warning system : Rapid detection of cases of epidemic-prone diseases isessential to ensure rapid control. A surveillance/early warningsystem should be quickly established to detect outbreaks andmonitor priority endemic diseases. • Priority diseases to be included in the surveillance system. Insome situations, the threats may include rare diseases such asviral haemorrhagic fevers, plague or tularaemia.
    35. 35. Communicable diseases :The potential risk of communicablediseases are influenced by six types ofadverse changes. These are : changes in pre existent levels ofdisease; ecological changes population displacement population density disruption public utilities; and interruption of basic public healthservices.
    36. 36. Changes in pre existent levelsof disease• Usually the risk of a communicabledisease in a Community affected bydisaster is proportional to the endemiclevel.• There is generally no risk of a givendisease when the organism causes it isnot present beforehand• Relief workers can conceivablyintroduce communicable disease intoareas affected by disaster.
    37. 37. Ecological changes caused bythe disaster• Natural disasters, particularly droughts,floods and hurricanes, frequently produce ecologicalchanges in environment which increaseor reduce the risk of communicable disease.• Vector borne and water-borne diseasesare the most significantly affected.
    38. 38. Population displacement• Movement of populations away from the areas affected by a disaster canaffect the relative risk from communicable diseases.• If the population moves nearby, the existing facilitiessome distance, the chances increase that thedisplaced population will encounter diseasesnot prevalent in their own community, to whichthey are less susceptible .
    39. 39. POPULATION DENSITY Because of the destruction of houses, natural disasters almost invariablycontribute to increased population density.• Survivors of severe disaster seek shelter, food and water in less affectedareas.• When the damage is less severe,crowding may occur in public placeslike school and churches..
    40. 40. Disruption of publicutilities• Electricity, water, sewage disposal andother public utilities may be interruptedafter a disaster.• Insufficient water for washing hands &bathing also promotes the spread ofdiseases transmitted by contact.
    41. 41. Interruption of basic public healthservices• The interruption of basic public health serviceslike vaccination, ambulatory treatment oftuberculosis and programs for the control ofmalaria and vectors are frequent, after disaster ina developing country.• The risk of transmission increases proportionallyto the extent and the duration of the disrupt.
    42. 42. Principals of preventing andcontrolling communicable diseases1)Implement as soon as possibleall public health measures,to reduce the risk of disease transmission;2)Organize a reliable reporting systemto identify outbreaks andinitiate suitable control measures;3)Investigate all reports ofdisease outbreaks immediately.
    43. 43. Preventive measures incommunicable diseases: 1)Ensure safe water, sanitation 2) Primary health-care services . The immediate impact of communicablediseases can be mitigated with the following interventions: • Ensure early diagnosis and treatment ofdiarrhoeal diseases and ARI,malaria. • Ensure availability of drugs included in theinteragency emergency health kit.
    44. 44. DisasterPress/MediaPoliticsPublicHealth AuthoritiesMass Vaccination Programme•Requires large number of workers•Supervision of sterilization is impossible•Leads to false sense of securityabout diseases.•Then to neglect of effective controlmeasures.VACCINATION :
    45. 45. Newer typhoid and choleravaccines : WHO does not recommend in routine endemicareas. They have increased efficacy Since they are multidose vaccines complianceis generally poor.
    46. 46. Tetanus : Significant cases of tetanus are not noted. So, generally tetanus vaccination is notrequired in disaster areas. Best protection is maintenance of high level ofimmunity in general population before disasteroccurs. If TT immunization was received more than5yrs ago in a injured patient then booster doseis given, if unimmunized then it is given asdirected by physician.
    47. 47. Measles and Hepatitis A vaccines:• Mass measlesimmunization together withvitamin A supplementation areimmediate health priorities.The priority age groups are 6months to 5 years, and up to15yr.•Hepatitis A vaccine isgenerally not recommended toprevent outbreaks in thedisaster area.
    48. 48. NUTRITION Disaster affects nutritional status of the population byaffecting one or more components of food chain. Infants, children, pregnant women, nursing mothers andsick persons are most commonly affected ones. STEPS FOR ENSURING FOOD RELIEF PROGRAMWILL BE EFFECTIVE: 1)Assessing the food supplies after the disaster 2)Gauging the nutritional needs of the affected population 3)Calculating daily food rations and need for large population 4)Monitoring the nutritional status of affected people
    49. 49. Relief v/s rehabilitation :• Relief and rehabilitation come immediately after thedisaster.• The basic difference between them is that relief relatesto the immediate days and weeks after the disaster whenattempts are made to provide basic needs to the victims.• Rehabilitation relates to the work undertaken in thefollowing weeks and months, for the restoration of basicservices to enable the population to return to normalcy.
    50. 50. Rehabilitation phaseStarts from the moment disaster strikes and endswith restoration of normality.• Water supply• Food safety• Basic sanitation and personal hygiene• Vector control
    51. 51. WATER SUPPLY Survey of all public water supplies to be made Priority of ensuring water quality is by chlorination. Increase the residual chlorine level to about 0.2 to 0.5mg/litre. Existing and new water resources require the following:1)Restrict access to people and animals.2)Ensure excreta disposal at a safe distance from water source3)Prohibit water washing methods4)Upgrade wells to ensure they are not contaminated.5)Estimate maximum yield of wells. Incase of emergency ,waterhas to be trucked to disaster site or camps.
    52. 52. Food supply Poor hygiene is the major cause of food bornediseases in disaster areas. Where feeding programmes are used, kitchensanitation is of utmost importance. Personal hygiene should be monitored in individualsinvolved in food preparation.
    53. 53. Basic sanitation andpersonal hygiene Many communicable diseases spreadthrough fecal contaminationof drinking water and food. Hence every effort should me madeto ensure sanitary disposal of excreta. Emergency toilet facilities should bemade available wherever they are destroyed. Washing, cleaning and bathing facilitiesshould be provided to displaced persons.
    54. 54. Vector control Control programme for vector borne diseasesshould be intensified in the emergency andrehabilitation period. Of special concern are1)Dengue fever2)Malaria3)Leptospirosis4)Rat bite fever5)Plague.Flood water provides ample breedingopportunities for mosquitoes.
    55. 55. Disaster mitigationEmergency Preparednessand PoliciesBy Chetankumar
    56. 56. Disaster mitigation
    57. 57. Disaster mitigation Mitigation is a key to national preparedness. This includes an assessment of possible risksto personal/family health and to personalproperty. For instance, in a flood plain, home ownersmight not be aware of a property being exposedto a hazard until trouble strikes. Specialists canbe hired to conduct risk identification andassessment surveys.
    58. 58. Contd… Mitigation involves Structural and Non-structural measures taken to limit the impact ofdisasters. Structural mitigation are actions that changethe characteristics of a building or itssurrounding, examples include shelters,window shutters, clearing forest around thehouse. Non-structural mitigation on personal levelmainly takes the form of insurance or simplymoving house to a safer area.
    59. 59. DEFINITIONDisaster preparedness is “a programme oflong term development activities whose goalsare to strengthen the overall capacity andcapability of a country to manage efficiently alltypes of emergency it should bring about anorderly transition from through recovery, andback to sustained development “
    60. 60.  THE OBJECTIVETo ensure that appropriate systems, proceduresand resources are in place to provide prompteffective assistance to disaster victims ,thusfacilitating relief measures and rehabilitation ofservices .
    61. 61. Tasks to be followed in emergencypreparedness1)Evaluate the risk of the country orparticular region to disaster.India is vulnerable, in varying degrees, to alarge number of natural as well as man-madedisasters. 58.6 per cent of the landmass is proneto earthquakes of moderate to very high intensity;over 40 million hectares (12 per cent of land) isprone to floods and river erosion.
    62. 62. 2) Adopt standards and regulationFollowing according to NDMA guidelinesOf the 7,516 km long coastline, close to 5,700 km isprone to cyclones and tsunamis; 68 per cent of thecultivable area is vulnerable to drought and hillyareas are at risk from landslides and avalanches.Vulnerability to disasters/ emergencies of Chemical,Biological, Radiological and Nuclear (CBRN) originalso existscontd…
    63. 63. 3)Organize communication ,information andwarning system.Warning system is any system of biological ortechnical nature deployed by an individual or groupto inform of a future danger. Its purpose is to enablethe deployer of the warning system to prepare forthe danger and act accordingly to mitigate or avoidit.
    64. 64. 4)Ensure coordination end responsemechanism.These mechanisms include the "cluster approach",which groups agencies with a shared operationalinterest, e.g. health, water and sanitation. Thisapproach helps to avoid gaps and duplications. Italso helps to ensure there is a clear leadorganization in each sector
    65. 65. 5)Resource availability.Ensuring that resource mobilization and financingare handled in a common way, such as through aFlash Appeal or the Central Emergency ResponseFund.
    66. 66. 6)Develop public education programmesIf the public is to respond quickly and effectively to anemergency involving toxic chemical agents, peoplemust be made aware of the risk from chemical agentsand the necessary protective actions well before anemergency occurs. A carefully planned publiceducation program is needed to provide peoplepotentially at risk with the knowledge required to takelife-saving actions.
    67. 67. 7)Coordinate information with newsmedia.The media is an undeniable important player inthe disaster management matrix especially inthe area of risk reduction advocacy, disastermitigation preparedness and response.
    68. 68. A disaster drill is an exercise in which people simulate thecircumstances of a disaster so that they have an opportunityto practice their responses.8) DISASTER DRILL
    69. 69.  Efficacy of plans and Standard OperatingProcedures (SOPs) can be tested throughmock drillsContd . . .
    70. 70. Exercises have 3 main purposes: to validate plans (validation) to develop staff competencies and give thempractice in carrying out their roles in the plans(training) to test well-established procedures (testing)
    71. 71. There are 3 main types ofexercise: Discussion-based Table top Live
    72. 72. COMMUNITYPREPAREDNESS Community members resources organizations,and andadministration should be the cornerstone of anemergency programme
    73. 73. REASONS FOR COMMUNITYPREPAREDNESS Members of the community are the most to tolose from being vulnerable to disasters and themost to gain to gain from effective andappropriate emergency preparednessprogramme. Those who respond first to an emergency comefrom within the community .When transport andcommunication are disrupted ,an externalemergency may not arrive for days.
    74. 74.  Resources are most easily pooled at communitylevel and every community posses capabilities.Failure to explore these capabilities is poorresource management . Sustained development is best achieved byallowing emergency affected communities todesign ,manage and implement internal andexternal assistance programme.cont…
    75. 75. An example of reduced damage due topreparedness On 12 November, 1970 a major cyclone hit the coastal belt ofBangladesh at 223 km/hr. with a storm surge of six to ninemeters height, killing an estimated 500,000 people. Due to the Cyclone Preparedness Program, the April 1991cyclone with wind speed of 225 km/hr. killed only 138,000 peopleeven though the coastal population had doubled by that time. In May 1994, in a similar cyclone with a wind speed of 250km/hr. only 127 people lost their lives. In May 1997, in a cyclone with wind speed of 200 km/hr. only111 people lost their lives.
    76. 76. POLICY DEVELOPMENT
    77. 77. POLICY DEVELOPMENTIt is “the formal statement of a course ofaction”.Policy is strategic in nature and performs thefollowing functions Establish long term goals . Assign responsibilities for achieving goals. Establish recommended work practice. Determine criteria for decision making.
    78. 78.  The form of emergency preparedness policiesvaries from place to place . Six sectors arerequired for response and recovery strategies . They areCommunication Police and securityHealth Search and rescueSocial welfare Transport
    79. 79. National Policy onDisasterManagement(NPDM)On 23 December, 2005, the Government of Indiatook a defining step by enacting the DisasterManagement Act, 2005which envisaged thecreation of the National Disaster ManagementAuthority (NDMA), headed by the Prime Minister,State Disaster Management Authorities (SDMAs)headed by the Chief Ministers, and DistrictDisaster Management Authorities (DDMAs)headed by the Collector or District Magistrate orDeputy Commissioner.
    80. 80. INSTITUTIONAL AND LEGALARRANGEMENTS Disaster Management Act, 2005The Act lays down institutional, legal, financial and coordinationmechanisms at the national, state, district and local levels.These institutions are not parallel structures and will work inclose harmony. National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) State Disaster Management Authority (SDMA)
    81. 81. National Disaster ManagementAuthority of India : It is a govt. Agency – under Ministry of Home Affairs. A group representing a public/private has recentlybeen formed by the Government of India. Some of the groups early efforts involve the provisionof emergency management training for firstresponders (a first in India), the creation of a singleemergency telephone number, and the establishmentof standards for EMS staff, equipment, and training. Efforts are being made in making this a nation-wideeffective group. It is funded primarily by a large India-based computercompany and aimed at improving the generalresponse of communities to emergencies.
    82. 82. cont…… District Disaster Management Authority (DDMA). Local Authorities .Local authorities would include Panchayati Raj Institutions(PRI), Municipalities, District and Cantonment Boards andTown Planning Authorities. National Institute of Disaster Management (NIDM). National Disaster Response Force (NDRF).
    83. 83. cont…… Armed Forces Central Para Military Forces Civil Defence and Home Guards State Police Forces and Fire Services State Disaster Response Force (SDRF)
    84. 84. FINANCIALARRANGEMENTS The National Disaster Response andMitigation Fund The National Calamity Contingency Fund(NCCF)
    85. 85. General measures duringemergency Do not use telephone except call for help,so asto leave telephone lines free for theorganization to respond. Listen to the messages broadcast by radio andvarious media so as to be informed ofdevelopment. Carry out the official instructions given over theradio or by loudspeaker. Keep a family emergency kit ready.
    86. 86. HOME EMERGENCY KITBattery-operated radios,batteriesAlternate heat sourcesExtra warm clothing andblanketsCashFirst aid kitReady-to-eat and high-energy foods for 3 daysBottled waterExtra prescriptionmedicationsBaby suppliesSpecial needs itemsLanterns, flashlights,lightsticks
    87. 87. EMERGENCY KITS93EMERGENCY KITS
    88. 88. TRAVEL EMERGENCY KIT Flashlight Flares or reflectivetriangle First aid kit Basic tools including ashovel Extra clothing includinghats and gloves Booster cables Sand or kitty litter Ice scraper and brush Blanket Non-perishable highenergy food Water Small candle in a tincan, waterproofmatches9494 Flashlight Flares or reflectivetriangle First aid kit Basic tools including ashovel Extra clothing includinghats and gloves Booster cables Sand or kitty litter Small candle in a tin can,waterproof matches Water Ice scraper and brush Blanket Non-perishable highenergy foodTRAVEL EMERGENCY KIT
    89. 89. PERSONAL PROTECTIONIN DIFFERENT TYPES OFEMERGENCIESBy Darshan
    90. 90. Before a FloodTo prepare for a flood, you should:Avoid building in a flood prone areaunless you elevate and reinforce your home.Elevate the furnace, water heater, and electricpanel if susceptible to flooding.Install "check valves" in sewer traps to prevent floodwater frombacking up into the drains of your home.Contact community officials to find out if they are planning toconstruct barriers (levees, beams, floodwalls) to stopfloodwater from entering the homes in your area.Seal the walls in your basement with waterproofing compoundsto avoid seepage
    91. 91. During a FloodIf a flood is likely in your area, you should:Listen to the radio or television for information.Be aware that flash flooding can occur. If there is anypossibility of a flash flood, move immediately tohigher ground. Do not wait for instructions to move.Be aware of streams, drainage channels, canyons,and other areas known to flood suddenly. Flashfloods can occur in these areas with or without suchtypical warnings as rain clouds or heavy rain.
    92. 92. cont…If you must prepare to evacuate, you should do the following:Secure your home. If you have time, bring in outdoor furniture.Move essential items to an upper floor.Turn off utilities at the main switches or valves if instructed to doso. Disconnect electrical appliances. Do not touch electricalequipment if you are wet or standing in water.If you have to leave your home, remember these evacuation tips:Do not walk through moving water.. If you have to walk inwater, walk where the water is not moving. Use a stick to checkthe firmness of the ground in front of you.Do not drive into flooded areas.
    93. 93. After a FloodThe following are guidelines for the period following aflood:Listen for news reports to learn whether thecommunity’s water supply is safe to drink.Avoid floodwaters; water may be contaminated by oil,gasoline, or raw sewage. Water may also beelectrically charged from underground or downedpower lines.Avoid moving water.Be aware of areas where floodwaters have receded.Roads may have weakened and could collapse underthe weight of a vehicle.Stay away from downed power lines, and report themto the power company.
    94. 94. Return home only when authorities indicate itis safe.Stay out of any building if it is surrounded byfloodwaters.Use extreme caution when entering buildings;there may be hidden damage, particularly infoundations.Service damaged septic tanks, cesspools,pits, and leaching systems as soon aspossible. Damaged sewage systems areserious health hazards.Clean and disinfect everything that got wet.Mud left from floodwater can contain sewagecont…
    95. 95. STORMS,HURRICANES,TORNADOESWhat to do before hand? choose a shelter in advance minimise the effect of storms take measures against flooding prepare a family emergency kit
    96. 96. 1. During an emergency: Listen to the information and advice provided bythe authorities. Do not go out in car or boat once the storm hasbeen announced. Evacuate houses if requested Tie down any object liable to be blown away bywind If caught outside in a storm,take refuge as quicklyas possible in a shelter In a thunderstorm keep away fromdoors,windows,and electrical conductors,unplugelectrical appliances etc Donot use any electrical appliances or thetelephone
    97. 97. During an emergency (Contd. . ):Anyone who is outside should: Look for shelter in a building never take shelter under a tree if in a boat,get back to the shore keep away from fences and electriccables kneel down rather than standing
    98. 98. After the emergency:After the storm has subsided: Follow the instructions given by the authorities Stay indoors Give alert as quickly as possible Give first aid to the injured Make sure the water is safe to drink Check the exterior of dwellings and call forassistance if there is a risk of fallingobjects[tiles,guttering...]
    99. 99. EARTHQUAKESWhat to do before hand : Repair deep plaster cracks in ceilings andfoundations. Get expert advice if there are signs ofstructural defects. Hang heavy items such as pictures and Braceoverhead light and fan fixtures. Repair defective electrical wiring and leaky gasconnections. These are potential fire risks. Secure a water heater, LPG cylinder etc., by strappingit to the wall studs and bolting it to the floor. Store weed killers, pesticides, and flammableproducts securely in closed cabinets with latches andon bottom shelves
    100. 100. Identify safe places indoors and outdoors.1 Under strong dining table, bed2.Against an inside wall3.Away from where glass could shatter around windows, mirrors,pictures, or where heavy bookcases or other heavy furniture couldfall over4.In the open, away from buildings, trees, telephone and electricallines, flyovers, bridges5.Have a disaster emergency kit ready
    101. 101. If indoors: DROP to the ground; take COVER by getting under a sturdy table or other piece offurniture; and HOLD ON until the shaking stops. If there isn’t a table or desk near you,cover your face and head with your arms and crouch in an inside corner of the building. Protect yourself by staying under the lintel of an inner door, in the corner of a room, under atable or even under a bed. Stay away from glass, windows, outside doors and walls, and anything that could fall, suchas lighting fixtures or furniture. Stay in bed if you are there when the earthquake strikes. Hold on and protect your head witha pillow, unless you are under a heavy light fixture that could fall. Stay inside until the shaking stops and it is safe to go outside. Research has shown that mostinjuries occur when people inside buildings attempt to move to a different location insidethe building or try to leave.DO NOT use the elevators.
    102. 102.  If you know that people have been buried, tell the rescue teams. Donot rush and do not worsen the situation of injured persons or yourown situation. Avoid places where there are loose electric wires and do not touchany metal object in contact with them. Do not drink water from open containers without having examinedit and filtered it through a sieve, a filter or an ordinary clean cloth. If your home is badly damaged, you will have to leave it. Collectwater containers, food, and ordinary and special medicines (forpersons with heart complaints, diabetes, etc.) Do not re-enter badly damaged buildings and do not go neardamaged structures.
    103. 103.  If outdoorsStay there.Move away from buildings, trees, streetlights, andutility wires.Once in the open, stay there until the shaking stops.The greatest danger exists directly outside buildings, atexits, and alongside exterior walls. Most earthquake-related casualties result from collapsing walls, flyingglass.
    104. 104.  If in a moving vehicle Stop as quickly as safety permits and stay in thevehicle. Avoid stopping near or under buildings, trees,overpasses, and utility wires. Proceed cautiously once the earthquake has stopped.Avoid roads, bridges, or ramps that might have beendamaged by the earthquake. If trapped under debris Do not move about or kick up dust. Cover your mouth with a handkerchief or clothing. Tap on a pipe or wall so rescuers can locate you. Usea whistle if one is available. Shout only as a lastresort.
    105. 105.  After an earthquakeKeep calm, switch on the radio/TV and obey any instructions you hear onit.Keep away from beaches and low banks of rivers. Huge waves may sweepin.Expect aftershocks. Be prepared.Turn off the water, gas and electricity.Do not smoke and do not light matches or use a cigarette lighter. Do notturn on switches. There may be gas leaks or short-circuits.Make sure that the water is safe to drink and food stored at home is fit toeat.
    106. 106. Clouds of toxic fumesWhat to do before hand? Find about evacuation plans and facilities Familiarize with the alarm signals used inemergencies Equip doors and windows with the tightestpossible fastenings Prepare family emergency kits
    107. 107. During an emergency Do not use the telephone;leave lines free forrescue services Listen to messages given by radio and othermedia Carry out the instructions given through media Close doors and windows Seal any cracks or gaps around windows anddoors with adhesive tapes Organise a reserve of water Turn off ventilators and air conditioners
    108. 108. After Emergency : Follow the authorities instructions and donot go out until there is no longer any risk Carry out necessary decontaminationmeasures
    109. 109. MAN-MADE DISASTERSBy : Chidanand
    110. 110. “Humans are good at creatingdisasters, and throughout historywe’ve rarely been afraid to prove it”.
    111. 111. Definition : Man-made disasters are thethreats having an element ofhuman intent, negligence, or error; or involving a failure of ahuman-made system. Human causation may beaccidental or intentional
    112. 112. Types of man made disasters Sudden disasters : such as Chernobyl disasterand Bhopal gas tragedy, Insidious disasters : Chemical and radiationexposure, global warming
    113. 113. Classification :Sociological disastersTerrorismWar and civilconflictsTechnologicaldisastersIndustrial disastersStructural collapseand fireCBRN disasterTransportationdisasters
    114. 114. Sociological hazards Terrorism : The primary objective of aterrorism is to create widespread fear. E.g. : On 11 September 2001 the World TradeCentre in New York City was destroyed bycrashing American airlines and killed 2,752.
    115. 115. War : It is a conflict between relatively large groups ofpeople, which involves physical force by theuse of weapons . Warfare has destroyed entire cultures,countries, economies and inflicted greatsuffering on humanity. E.g. : World war I and II. Since world war II therehave been about 127 wars and22 million war related deathshave occurred
    116. 116. Civil conflicts (riots):Any incident that disrupts a community,where intervention is required to maintainpublic safety. eg: 1984 Sikh massacre, a riot against theSikhs in response to assassination ofIndira Gandhi by her Sikh bodyguards More than 11,000 people were killed
    117. 117. Technological hazards Industrial disasters : E.g.-The Nuclear PowerPlant Explosion in Chernobyl,Russia : On April 26th 1986,which resulted in theatmospheric release ofradioactive material fourhundred times moreradioactive than Hiroshima. Structural collapse :oftencaused by engineeringfailures E.g.: recently buildingcollapse in Bangladesh,Kolkata and thane:
    118. 118.  Fire : mainly forest fire , mine fire. E.g. : In 2003, fire at Iraqi sulphurplant releasing Sulphur dioxidewhich killed people by causingrespiratory problems and alsocreates acid rain which destroyscrops. Transportation disaster: air, Rail,and Space disasters and trafficcollisions E.g.: Mangalore air crash on22 May 2010. Only eightpassengers survived in 160.
    119. 119. CBRN Disasters :CBRN (chemical , biological , radiation andnuclear ) disasters : release of CBRN hazardousmaterial into air, soil, water leads to serioushazards E.g. : Fukushima nuclear disaster on march2011 which was triggered by earthquake andtsunami in nearby Tohoku region.
    120. 120. Worst disasters in IndiaBhopal Gas Tragedy :1984 Worlds worst man made disaster in which methylisocyanate gas was leaked at Union Carbide PesticidePlant More than 20,000 people have been killed till date Today, in Bhopal 1,20,000 people are suffering fromchronic diseases like Emphysema, Cancer etc.
    121. 121. Worst disasters inIndia(cont…) In 1999, Orissa had super cyclone ,in whichthousands lost their lives In 2001, Gujarat had a severe earthquake inwhich 16500 people died and lakhs becamehomeless In 2004, Indian ocean earthquake andTsunami killed more than 200,000 people inDecember 2004 In 2008 ,terror attack in Mumbai
    122. 122. Prevention of man madedisaster Tighter regulation of chemical plants and otherhazardous facilities Chemical plants be built away from the densepopulous areas Appropriate engineering and technologicalmeasures Early warnings and protection against humanerrors
    123. 123. ORGANIZATIONS CONCERNED WITHDISASTER MANAGEMENT NATIONAL INTERNATIONAL NGOs :
    124. 124. International Organisations :OCHA : United Nations Office for theCoordination of Humanitarian Affairs It was designed to strengthen the UNsresponse to complex emergencies and naturaldisasters by creating the Department ofHumanitarian Affairs (DHA)
    125. 125. International Organisations(contd..) :WHO : World Health Organization The role is to reduce avoidable loss of lifeand the burden of disease and disability.FAO :The Food and Agriculture Organisation ofthe UN provides early warningof impending food crises, andassesses global food supply problems.
    126. 126. International Organisations(contd..) :IOM : The International Organisationfor Migration is an intergovernmentalagency which helps transfer refugees.IRP : The International RecoveryPlatform serve as a catalyst for thedevelopment of tools, resources, andcapacity for disaster recovery
    127. 127. WFP : The World Food Programme isthe principle supplier of relief foodaid.UNDP : The United NationsDevelopment ProgrammeUNICEF : The United NationsChildren’s Emergency Fund
    128. 128. NGOsIFRC : International Federation of Red Crossand Red Crescent Societies Pivotal roles in responding to emergencies .Field Assessment and Coordination Team –(FACT) to the affected country if requested bythe national Red Cross or Red CrescentSociety.
    129. 129. CARE : The Cooperative for Assistance andRelief Everywhere is a humanitarianorganisation fighting global poverty .It also delivers emergency aid to survivors ofwar and natural disasters, and helps peoplerebuild their lives.
    130. 130. NetHope :Founded in 2001, is international NGOs thatspecializes in improving IT connectivity amonghumanitarian organizations in developingcountries and areas affected by disaster. Organization has partnerships withMicrosoft, Cisco Systems, Intel, andAccenture.
    131. 131.  HVO :Health Volunteers Overseas is a network ofhealth care professionals, organisations,corporations and donors united in a commoncommitment to improving global health througheducation IRC :International Rescue Committee offerslifesaving care and life-changing assistance torefugees forced to flee from war or disaster
    132. 132.  HI: HandicapInternational works inpartnership with localorganisations andgovernment institutions. . MSF: Médecins SansFrontières provides medicalservices in emergencysituations. RI: RehabilitationInternational is a globalnetwork of expert
    133. 133. INDIAN NGO’s :Aniruddha’s Academy of DisasterManagement(AADM) : Non-Profit Organization in Mumbai, India with DisasterManagement as its principal objective. Basic aim of AADM is to save life and property in theevent of a disaster, be it natural or manmade. Successfully trained 60,000 citizens, the DisasterManagement Volunteers (DMVs) to handle variousdisasters and disaster situations effectively. AADM has build up a volunteer base, that assists theGovernment authorities during the disaster relief andrehabilitation work.
    134. 134. References : K Park – Text book of community medicine www.ndmindia.nic.in WIKIPEDIA Other information from various websiteswith help of google

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