Biblical HebrewGetting to Know ‫ פִּעֵל‬Verbs                      by Chris Heard
Table of Contents   Before You Begin ...................... 3   Abbreviations ............................ 6   Using ‫ פִּע...
Before You Begin …… ensure that you recognize the  various inflections of the ‫ &ל‬verbs.… ensure that you understand how ...
Also, remember that certain patterns can create predictablevariations. This slideshow focuses    on core patterns. It does...
Furthermore, this slideshow is intended to supplement,    not replace, classroom  instruction and practice.
Abbreviations   1, 2, 3 indicate grammatical person   m, f, c indicate grammatical gender   s, p indicate grammatical numb...
Using ‫ פִּעֵל‬Verbs      The ‫ פִּעֵל‬is the third most   frequently used ‫ בִּנ2י(ן‬in the 5‫תַּנ7״‬       (after the ‫ &ל‬a...
Like the ‫ ,&ל‬the ‫ פִּעֵל‬operates      in the active voice.
In cases where Biblical Hebrewuses the same ‫ שֹׁ<שׁ‬in both the ‫ &ל‬and the ‫ ,פִּעֵל‬the ‫ &ל‬tends to be declarative and ...
Example: ‫כבד‬‫)&ל( כָּבַד‬        he was honored                   he considered‫)פִּעֵל( כִּבֵּד‬   [someone] honored
Example: ‫למד‬‫)&ל( לָמַד‬          he learned‫)פִּעֵל( לִמֵּד‬       he taught
In other cases, a ‫ שֹׁ<שׁ‬may be  represented in both ‫ &ל‬and‫ ,פִּעֵל‬with no obvious semanticrelationship between the two...
Some ‫שִׁים‬Eָ‫ שׁ‬may appear onlyin the ‫ ,פִּעֵל‬not in the ‫ &ל‬at all. Example: ‫“ צִוָּה‬to command”
So you might use the ‫ פִּעֵל‬as afactitive verb (if the ‫ שֹׁ<שׁ‬also     appears in ‫ )&ל‬or as a declarative verb (if the ...
For most verbs, it’s probablybetter just to learn “this ‫שֹׁ<שׁ‬ means so-and-so in the ‫”פִּעֵל‬than to try to derive the ‫’...
Recognizing ‫ פִּעֵל‬Verbs    In many cases, a ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬in R2 is   your key to recognizing a ‫.פִּעֵל‬     Each conjugation d...
Recognizing the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Perfect      If a verb follows the suffix    pattern, has an i-class vowel    under R1, and has a ...
‫קטֵל‬ִּ                           R1’s i-vowelThe suffix     ‫דּב   ה‬                  ‫   ְר‬                   ָּ ִ    ...
‫נ חַם‬   ִ                            A guttural inThe suffix      5O‫בּ‬   ֵ     R2 may or mayindicates             ‫תִּי‬...
Alert! When R2 is a guttural, use R1’svowel to distinguish the ‫ פִּעֵל‬perfect        from the ‫ &ל‬perfect.‫ חַשׁ‬   ָ‫כּ‬ ...
Recognizing the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Imperfect   If a verb has an imperfect prefix,  check for a ‫ שְׁו(א‬in the prefix, an a-  vowel un...
‫ חלֵק‬                  ַּ                      ְ‫י‬     The prefix’s ‫,שְׁו(א‬The affixes     ‫תּדבֵר‬                   ּ...
Recognizing the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Imperative     The ‫ פִּעֵל‬imperative looks just      like the ‫ פִּעֵל‬imperfect, but          wit...
If it looks like a ‫ פִּעֵל‬perfect,  but R1 has an a-vowel, it’s probably a ‫ פִּעֵל‬imperative.
Recognizing the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Infinitives   The ‫ פִּעֵל‬infinitive* and adverbial   infinitive** look exactly like the          ...
Exception: If R3 is ‫ ,ה‬the 2msimperative and the adverbial                       ֶ infinitive end in ‫ ,–ה‬but the    in...
Recognizing the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Participle   The ms ‫ פִּעֵל‬participle looks just   like the 3ms ‫ פִּעֵל‬imperfect, but    with a ...
Summary    You see an unfamiliar verb.        Might it be a ‫?פִּעֵל‬
Remember that a ‫ פִּעֵל‬will have a ‫דָּגֵשׁ‬in R2* and will start with one of these:   • no prefix   • an imperfect prefix ...
If your probable ‫ פִּעֵל‬has no prefix,               check R1.• If R1 has an i-vowel, it’s a ‫ פִּעֵל‬perfect.• If R1 has ...
If your probable ‫ פִּעֵל‬has an imperfect prefix, it’s obviously an imperfect.If your probable ‫ פִּעֵל‬has a ְ‫ מ‬prefix, ...
And that’s all it takes to recognize most     ‫ פִּעֵל‬verbs!
Forming ‫ פִּעֵל‬Verbs     If you compose sentences in     Biblical Hebrew, eventually   you’ll need to use the ‫ .פִּעֵל‬Th...
Forming the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Perfect       Start by applying the    appropriate sufformative to     the root, to show person,      ...
Now consider the three rootletters in your word. If all three are strong (not gutturals or ‫,)ר‬   forming the piel is eas...
… simply vocalize R1 with  a ‫ חִי<ק‬and lengthen (double) R2 with a ‫.דָּגֵשׁ‬
Of course, you still needto vocalize R2, and howyou do this depends on    the sufformative.
• If your verb has no sufformative (it’s    3ms), vocalize R2 with a ‫י‬Oֵ‫.צ‬•   If your verb has a sufformative that’s a...
If your verb has a guttural in R3,    or a guttural or ‫ ר‬in R2, the  vowels will be a little different. Your best bet is...
That said, here are a fewtypical patterns for ‫פִּעֵל‬ forms with weak root         letters.
• If R2 is ‫ ה‬or ‫ ח‬or ‫ ,ע‬it will refuse the  ‫ .דָּגֵשׁ‬Such an R2 might take ‫י‬Oֵ‫ צ‬like  strong ‫ פִּעֵל‬forms, or ‫...
Do not be upset if you find exceptions to these generalpatterns, and remember thatsufformatives can affect the   vowel pat...
Forming the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Imperfect       Start by applying the   appropriate preformative and    sufformative to the root, to  ...
All imperfect preformativestake a vocal ‫ שְׁו(א‬in the ‫פִּעֵל‬  (except the 1cs ‫ ,א‬which    requires a ‫ח‬S‫.)חָטֵף–פַּת‬
In the ‫ פִּעֵל‬imperfect, R1  regularly takes a ‫ח‬S‫פַּת‬(except when R2 is ‫ א‬or ‫,ר‬which makes R1 take ‫מֵץ‬W).
If R2 can accept a ‫,דָּגֵשׁ‬       give it one.
R2’s vowel is the mostvariable vowel in the ‫פִּעֵל‬ imperfect. It’s usually a        ‫י‬Oֵ‫ ,צ‬but …
• If the sufformative starts    with a vowel sound (2fs, 3mp,    2mp), give R2 a vocal ‫.שְׁו(א‬•   If R3 is ‫ ח‬or ‫ ,ע‬R2...
If your verb has a guttural in R3,   or a guttural or ‫ ר‬in R2, use a  lexicon to confirm the proper           vocalizati...
Forming the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Imperative    To form the ‫ פִּעֵל‬imperative,    simply form a second-person     imperfect, then remov...
Forming the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Infinitives      In most cases, you form the     ‫ פִּעֵל‬infinitive* and adverbial    infinitive** jus...
However, gutturals in R3  can cause variation.
If R3 is ‫ ,ה‬replace the ‫ ה‬with ‫וֹת‬  when forming the infinitive (this is very common in other ‫ים‬X‫ בִּנ2י(נ‬as well)...
If R3 is a ‫ ח‬or ‫ ,ע‬you form theadverbial imperative by givingR2 a ‫י‬Oֵ‫ צ‬and R3 a ‫ח גְּנוּבָה‬S‫*.פַּת‬         * Or “...
Forming the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Participles   To form the masculine singular   ‫ פִּעֵל‬participle, simply prefix ְ‫מ‬        to the im...
To form the femininesingular participle, append   ‫ אֶלֶת‬to the masculine       -    singular participle.
To form the masculine andfeminine plural participles, give R2 a vocal ‫ שְׁו(א‬and append thenormal suffixes for plural nou...
Credits Dead Sea photo by Wikimedia Commons contributor Xta11. Used under a CC-SA license. All other content by Dr. Chris ...
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Gettting to Know פעל Verbs

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A brief introduction to the piel binyan in Biblical Hebrew.

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Gettting to Know פעל Verbs

  1. 1. Biblical HebrewGetting to Know ‫ פִּעֵל‬Verbs by Chris Heard
  2. 2. Table of Contents Before You Begin ...................... 3 Abbreviations ............................ 6 Using ‫ פִּעֵל‬verbs ....................... 7 Recognizing ‫ פִּעֵל‬verbs .......... 16 Forming ‫ פִּעֵל‬verbs ................ 33 Credits ..................................... 58
  3. 3. Before You Begin …… ensure that you recognize the various inflections of the ‫ &ל‬verbs.… ensure that you understand how ‫ שְׁו(א‬and ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬interact with guttural consonants and with ‫.ר‬
  4. 4. Also, remember that certain patterns can create predictablevariations. This slideshow focuses on core patterns. It does not illustrate every possible variation.
  5. 5. Furthermore, this slideshow is intended to supplement, not replace, classroom instruction and practice.
  6. 6. Abbreviations 1, 2, 3 indicate grammatical person m, f, c indicate grammatical gender s, p indicate grammatical number R1, R2, R3 indicate root letters
  7. 7. Using ‫ פִּעֵל‬Verbs The ‫ פִּעֵל‬is the third most frequently used ‫ בִּנ2י(ן‬in the 5‫תַּנ7״‬ (after the ‫ &ל‬and ‫,)הִפְעִיל‬ appearing over 6,450 times.
  8. 8. Like the ‫ ,&ל‬the ‫ פִּעֵל‬operates in the active voice.
  9. 9. In cases where Biblical Hebrewuses the same ‫ שֹׁ<שׁ‬in both the ‫ &ל‬and the ‫ ,פִּעֵל‬the ‫ &ל‬tends to be declarative and the ‫פִּעֵל‬ to be factitive.
  10. 10. Example: ‫כבד‬‫)&ל( כָּבַד‬ he was honored he considered‫)פִּעֵל( כִּבֵּד‬ [someone] honored
  11. 11. Example: ‫למד‬‫)&ל( לָמַד‬ he learned‫)פִּעֵל( לִמֵּד‬ he taught
  12. 12. In other cases, a ‫ שֹׁ<שׁ‬may be represented in both ‫ &ל‬and‫ ,פִּעֵל‬with no obvious semanticrelationship between the two forms.
  13. 13. Some ‫שִׁים‬Eָ‫ שׁ‬may appear onlyin the ‫ ,פִּעֵל‬not in the ‫ &ל‬at all. Example: ‫“ צִוָּה‬to command”
  14. 14. So you might use the ‫ פִּעֵל‬as afactitive verb (if the ‫ שֹׁ<שׁ‬also appears in ‫ )&ל‬or as a declarative verb (if the ‫שֹׁ<שׁ‬ doesn’t appear in the ‫.)&ל‬
  15. 15. For most verbs, it’s probablybetter just to learn “this ‫שֹׁ<שׁ‬ means so-and-so in the ‫”פִּעֵל‬than to try to derive the ‫’פִּעֵל‬s sense from the same ‫ שֹׁ<שׁ‬in the ‫.&ל‬
  16. 16. Recognizing ‫ פִּעֵל‬Verbs In many cases, a ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬in R2 is your key to recognizing a ‫.פִּעֵל‬ Each conjugation does have special considerations, though.
  17. 17. Recognizing the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Perfect If a verb follows the suffix pattern, has an i-class vowel under R1, and has a ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬in R2, it’s probably a ‫ פִּעֵל‬perfect.
  18. 18. ‫קטֵל‬ִּ    R1’s i-vowelThe suffix ‫דּב   ה‬ ‫   ְר‬ ָּ ִ and the ‫דָּגֵשׁ‬indicates ‫שׁלַחְ תִּי‬ ּ ִ    in R2 indicatea perfect. a ‫.פִּעֵל‬ ‫שׁלַמְתֶּם‬ּ ִ   
  19. 19. ‫נ חַם‬ ִ A guttural inThe suffix 5O‫בּ‬ ֵ   R2 may or mayindicates ‫תִּי‬Nַ‫בּע‬ִ   not changea perfect. R1’s vowel. ‫תֶּן‬Nַ‫ ח‬ ִ‫מ‬
  20. 20. Alert! When R2 is a guttural, use R1’svowel to distinguish the ‫ פִּעֵל‬perfect from the ‫ &ל‬perfect.‫ חַשׁ‬ ָ‫כּ‬ 3ms ‫ &ל‬perfect “to grow lean”‫ חֵשׁ‬ ִ‫כּ‬ 3ms ‫ פִּעֵל‬perfect “to deny”
  21. 21. Recognizing the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Imperfect If a verb has an imperfect prefix, check for a ‫ שְׁו(א‬in the prefix, an a- vowel under R1, and a ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬in R2. If you see those, you have a ‫פִּעֵל‬ imperfect.
  22. 22. ‫ חלֵק‬ ַּ     ְ‫י‬ The prefix’s ‫,שְׁו(א‬The affixes ‫תּדבֵר‬ ּ ְַ      the a-vowel, andindicate an ‫תּ  ב  ִי‬ ‫  כ ַ   ְס‬ ּ ְ the ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬in R2imperfect. ‫תּ  שְׁלוּ‬ indicate a ‫.פִּעֵל‬ ּ ְ   ַ‫  ב‬
  23. 23. Recognizing the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Imperative The ‫ פִּעֵל‬imperative looks just like the ‫ פִּעֵל‬imperfect, but without the prefix. If R3 is ‫ ,ה‬R2’s vowel may lengthen in the imperative.
  24. 24. If it looks like a ‫ פִּעֵל‬perfect, but R1 has an a-vowel, it’s probably a ‫ פִּעֵל‬imperative.
  25. 25. Recognizing the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Infinitives The ‫ פִּעֵל‬infinitive* and adverbial infinitive** look exactly like the 2ms ‫ פִּעֵל‬imperative. * Or “infinitive construct.” ** Or “infinitive absolute.”
  26. 26. Exception: If R3 is ‫ ,ה‬the 2msimperative and the adverbial  ֶ infinitive end in ‫ ,–ה‬but the infinitive ends in ‫.–וֹת‬
  27. 27. Recognizing the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Participle The ms ‫ פִּעֵל‬participle looks just like the 3ms ‫ פִּעֵל‬imperfect, but with a ‫ מ‬as the prefixed letter.
  28. 28. Summary You see an unfamiliar verb. Might it be a ‫?פִּעֵל‬
  29. 29. Remember that a ‫ פִּעֵל‬will have a ‫דָּגֵשׁ‬in R2* and will start with one of these: • no prefix • an imperfect prefix with a ‫שְׁו(א‬ • a prefixed ְ‫מ‬ * Unless R2 is a guttural.
  30. 30. If your probable ‫ פִּעֵל‬has no prefix, check R1.• If R1 has an i-vowel, it’s a ‫ פִּעֵל‬perfect.• If R1 has an a-vowel, it’s a ‫פִּעֵל‬ infinitive, imperative, or adverbial infinitive (listed by frequency).
  31. 31. If your probable ‫ פִּעֵל‬has an imperfect prefix, it’s obviously an imperfect.If your probable ‫ פִּעֵל‬has a ְ‫ מ‬prefix, it’s a participle.
  32. 32. And that’s all it takes to recognize most ‫ פִּעֵל‬verbs!
  33. 33. Forming ‫ פִּעֵל‬Verbs If you compose sentences in Biblical Hebrew, eventually you’ll need to use the ‫ .פִּעֵל‬This is pretty easy to do, if you watch out for gutturals and ‫.ר‬
  34. 34. Forming the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Perfect Start by applying the appropriate sufformative to the root, to show person, gender, and number.
  35. 35. Now consider the three rootletters in your word. If all three are strong (not gutturals or ‫,)ר‬ forming the piel is easy: …
  36. 36. … simply vocalize R1 with a ‫ חִי<ק‬and lengthen (double) R2 with a ‫.דָּגֵשׁ‬
  37. 37. Of course, you still needto vocalize R2, and howyou do this depends on the sufformative.
  38. 38. • If your verb has no sufformative (it’s 3ms), vocalize R2 with a ‫י‬Oֵ‫.צ‬• If your verb has a sufformative that’s a vowel (3fs or 3cp), give R2 a vocal ‫.שְׁו(א‬• If your verb has a sufformative that begins with a consonant (all other cases), vocalize R2 with a ‫ח‬S‫.פַּת‬
  39. 39. If your verb has a guttural in R3, or a guttural or ‫ ר‬in R2, the vowels will be a little different. Your best bet is to look the ‫שׁׂ<שׁ‬up in a lexicon to see how its ‫פִּעֵל‬is vocalized, rather than trying to apply rules to figure it out.
  40. 40. That said, here are a fewtypical patterns for ‫פִּעֵל‬ forms with weak root letters.
  41. 41. • If R2 is ‫ ה‬or ‫ ח‬or ‫ ,ע‬it will refuse the ‫ .דָּגֵשׁ‬Such an R2 might take ‫י‬Oֵ‫ צ‬like strong ‫ פִּעֵל‬forms, or ‫ח‬S‫ פַּת‬instead.• If R2 is ‫ א‬or ‫ ,ר‬it will refuse the ‫,דָּגֵשׁ‬ and R1 and R2 will both usually take a ‫י‬Oֵ‫.צ‬• If R3 is a ‫ ח‬or ‫ ,ע‬R2 will usually take a ‫ח‬S‫.פַּת‬
  42. 42. Do not be upset if you find exceptions to these generalpatterns, and remember thatsufformatives can affect the vowel patterns as well.
  43. 43. Forming the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Imperfect Start by applying the appropriate preformative and sufformative to the root, to show person, gender, and number.
  44. 44. All imperfect preformativestake a vocal ‫ שְׁו(א‬in the ‫פִּעֵל‬ (except the 1cs ‫ ,א‬which requires a ‫ח‬S‫.)חָטֵף–פַּת‬
  45. 45. In the ‫ פִּעֵל‬imperfect, R1 regularly takes a ‫ח‬S‫פַּת‬(except when R2 is ‫ א‬or ‫,ר‬which makes R1 take ‫מֵץ‬W).
  46. 46. If R2 can accept a ‫,דָּגֵשׁ‬ give it one.
  47. 47. R2’s vowel is the mostvariable vowel in the ‫פִּעֵל‬ imperfect. It’s usually a ‫י‬Oֵ‫ ,צ‬but …
  48. 48. • If the sufformative starts with a vowel sound (2fs, 3mp, 2mp), give R2 a vocal ‫.שְׁו(א‬• If R3 is ‫ ח‬or ‫ ,ע‬R2 will probably want a ‫ח‬S‫.פַּת‬• If R3 is ‫ ,ה‬follow the normal third-‫( ה‬or ‫ )ל״ה‬pattern.
  49. 49. If your verb has a guttural in R3, or a guttural or ‫ ר‬in R2, use a lexicon to confirm the proper vocalization.
  50. 50. Forming the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Imperative To form the ‫ פִּעֵל‬imperative, simply form a second-person imperfect, then remove the preformative.
  51. 51. Forming the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Infinitives In most cases, you form the ‫ פִּעֵל‬infinitive* and adverbial infinitive** just like you form the ‫ פִּעֵל‬imperative. * Or “infinitive construct.” ** Or “infinitive absolute.”
  52. 52. However, gutturals in R3 can cause variation.
  53. 53. If R3 is ‫ ,ה‬replace the ‫ ה‬with ‫וֹת‬ when forming the infinitive (this is very common in other ‫ים‬X‫ בִּנ2י(נ‬as well). The adverbialinfinitive remains identical to the imperative.
  54. 54. If R3 is a ‫ ח‬or ‫ ,ע‬you form theadverbial imperative by givingR2 a ‫י‬Oֵ‫ צ‬and R3 a ‫ח גְּנוּבָה‬S‫*.פַּת‬ * Or “furtive patach.”
  55. 55. Forming the ‫ פִּעֵל‬Participles To form the masculine singular ‫ פִּעֵל‬participle, simply prefix ְ‫מ‬ to the imperative form.
  56. 56. To form the femininesingular participle, append ‫ אֶלֶת‬to the masculine - singular participle.
  57. 57. To form the masculine andfeminine plural participles, give R2 a vocal ‫ שְׁו(א‬and append thenormal suffixes for plural nouns.
  58. 58. Credits Dead Sea photo by Wikimedia Commons contributor Xta11. Used under a CC-SA license. All other content by Dr. Chris Heard, Associate Professor of Religion, Pepperdine University. Released under a CC-BY license. Grammatical terminology used in this presentation follows R. Holmstedt and J. Cook, Biblical Hebrew: An Illustrated Introduction (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2013).

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