Getting to Know פֻּעַל Verbs

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A brief introduction to the פֻּעַל stem in Biblical Hebrew.

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Getting to Know פֻּעַל Verbs

  1. 1. Biblical HebrewGetting to Know ‫ פֻּעַל‬Verbs by Chris Heard
  2. 2. Table of Contents Abbreviations .............................. 3 Getting Ready .............................. 4 Using ‫ פֻּעַל‬Verbs ....................... 10 The Basic Patterns .................... 15 Recognizing ‫ פֻּעַל‬Verbs ............ 18 Credits ........................................ 32
  3. 3. Abbreviations 1, 2, 3 indicate grammatical person m, f, c indicate grammatical gender s, p indicate grammatical number R1, R2, R3 indicate root letters 3
  4. 4. Getting Ready Before we start getting to know the ‫ ,פֻּעַל בִּנ)ין‬let’s run a few preflight checks. 4
  5. 5. Do you remember how a Hebrewverb changes to form the variouscombinations of person, gender,and number, as well as perfectand imperfect? 5
  6. 6. Can you handle‫ פִּעֵל‬verbs well? 6
  7. 7. If you answered“yes,” you’re readyfor the ‫!פֻּעַל בִּנ)ין‬ 7
  8. 8. Remember that certain patternscan create predictable variations.This slideshow focuses on corepatterns. It does not illustrate everypossible variation. 8
  9. 9. Furthermore, this slideshowis intended to supplement,not replace, classroominstruction and practice. 9
  10. 10. Using ‫ פֻּעַל‬Verbs The ‫ פֻּעַל‬is a fairly infrequent ‫ ,בִּנ)ין‬used about 400 times in the /‫.תַּנ1״‬ 10
  11. 11. You can think of the ‫ פֻּעַל‬as thepassive version of the ‫ .פִּעֵל‬Inother words, the subject of a ‫פֻּעַל‬verb receives the verb’s action. 11
  12. 12. For example, you mightsay “‫”,מֹשֶׁה שִׁבֵּר אֶת–הַלֻּחֹת‬or “Moses shattered thetablets,” using the ‫.פִּעֵל‬ 12
  13. 13. Alternately, you could say“‫ ”,הַלֻּחֹת שֻׁבַּר‬or “the tabletswere shattered,” using the ‫.פֻּעַל‬ 13
  14. 14. (In case you’re wondering, Exod32:19 actually uses the ‫ ,פִּעֵל‬inthe past narrative conjugation:“‫)”.ו1יִּשַׁבֵּר ]מֹשֶׁה[ אֹת>ם‬ 14
  15. 15. The Basic Patterns Memorize the following basic patterns first, and then we’ll go through the specifics. 15
  16. 16. ‫בַּר‬A He was buried (3ms perfect)‫בַּר‬A)‫י‬ He will be buried (3ms imperfect)‫בַּר‬Aְ‫מ‬ Being buried (ms participle) 16
  17. 17. That list of basic patterns omittedthe imperative because it neveroccurs in the /‫ ,תַּנ1״‬and theinfinitive because the infinitive andadverbial infinitive appear onlyone time each in the whole /‫.תַּנ1״‬ 17
  18. 18. Recognizing ‫ פֻּעַל‬Verbs The most distinctive feature of the ‫ פֻּעַל‬is R1’s u-class vowel, usually a ‫בּוּץ‬E. 18
  19. 19. Like its active counterpart,the ‫ ,פִּעֵל‬the ‫ פֻּעַל‬also usuallyhas a ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬in R2. 19
  20. 20. R1’s ‫בּוּץ‬E and R2’s ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬are visiblein most forms of the ‫.פֻּעַל‬ 20
  21. 21. However, if R2 is a guttural or ‫,ר‬it will reject the ‫ .דָּגֵשׁ‬When thishappens, R1’s characteristic ‫בּוּץ‬Ewill usually* lengthen to a ‫.חוֹלֶם‬ * When R2 is a ‫ ,ח‬the ‫בְוּץ‬E remains unchanged. 21
  22. 22. Also, if R1 is ‫ ,א‬it will take a‫מֵץ–חָטוּף‬M instead of a ‫בּוּץ‬E.Don’t let this trick you intothinking you’re seeing a ‫ל‬N.Use R2’s ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬to recognize theword as a ‫.פֻּעַל‬ 22
  23. 23. Recognizing the ‫ פֻּעַל‬Perfect If you see a verb with a ‫בֻּץ‬E under R1 and a ‫ דָּגֵשׁ‬in R2, that’s a clear sign of the ‫ .פֻּעַל‬If it has a perfect suffix, it’s a ‫ פֻּעַל‬perfect. 23
  24. 24. ‫ קבַר‬The ‫בּוּץ‬E ּ ֻ   The suffix ְ‫ רחַצְתּ‬and ‫דָּגֵשׁ‬ ֻ   indicatesa perfect. ‫ שׁ  ְחוּ‬indicate a ּ‫  ל‬ ֻ ‫חצ ַּ בְתֶּם‬ ֻ   ‫.פֻּעַל‬ 24
  25. 25. Recognizing the ‫ פֻּעַל‬Imperfect The ‫ פֻּעַל‬imperfect retains the characteristic ‫בּוּץ‬E and ‫ ,דָּגֵשׁ‬using the standard affixes to indicate person, gender, and number. 25
  26. 26. ‫תְּבשַׁל‬ ּ ֻ    The ‫בּוּץ‬EThe affixes ‫י)בכַר‬ ֻּ    and ‫דָּגֵשׁ‬indicate an imperfect. ‫י)רטְשׁוּ‬ ּ ֻ    indicate a ‫.פֻּעַל‬ ‫תְּ  חַמוּ‬ ֻ‫נ‬ 26
  27. 27. Recognizing the ‫ פֻּעַל‬Participle The ms ‫ פֻּעַל‬participle looks like the 3ms perfect, but with a prefixed –‫מ‬ and a lengthened R2 vowel: ‫בּשׁל‬ ַּ ֻ      3ms perfect ‫מְבשׁל‬ ָּ ֻ      ms participle 27
  28. 28. The mp and fp participles takethe familiar plural endings ‫  ים‬ ִ–and ‫. –וֹת‬ 28
  29. 29. The fs participle is a little bitdifferent from the others. ItsR2 has a ‫ סְגוֹל‬and it takes thesuffix ‫  ת‬as follows: ֶ–   ‫מְבּשׁל‬ ָּ ֻ      ms participle ‫מְבּשׁלת‬ ֶ ֶּ ֻ        fs participle 29
  30. 30. Unused and Rare Forms of the ‫פֻּעַל‬ There are no ‫ פֻּעַל‬imperatives in the /‫ ,תַּנ1״‬and only one each of the infinitive (Ps 132:1) and adverbial infinitive (Gen 40:15). You need not commit their forms to memory. 30
  31. 31. Summary‫קבַר‬ ּ ֻ    3ms perfect Look for R1’s ‫בּוּץ‬E‫קבַר‬T‫י‬ ּ ֻ    3ms imperfect and R2’s ‫דָּגֵשׁ‬ ָּ ֻ‫מְקבר‬    ms participle in all forms. 31
  32. 32. Credits Dead Sea photo by Wikimedia Commons contributor Xta11. Used under a CC-SA license. All other content by Dr. Chris Heard, Associate Professor of Religion, Pepperdine University. Released under a CC-BY license. Grammatical terminology used in this presentation follows J. Cook and R. Holmstedt, Beginning Biblical Hebrew (Grand Rapids: Baker, 2013).

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