Biblical HebrewGetting to Know ‫ הִפְעִיל‬Verbs                      by Chris Heard
Table of Contents    Abbreviations .............................. 3    Getting Ready .............................. 4    U...
Abbreviations   1, 2, 3 indicate grammatical person   m, f, c indicate grammatical gender   s, p indicate grammatical numb...
Getting Ready    Before we start getting to    know the ‫ ,הִפְעִיל בִּנ*י)ן‬let’s    run a few preflight checks.          ...
Do you remember how a Hebrewverb changes to form the variouscombinations of person, gender,and number, as well as perfecta...
If you answered“yes,” you’re readyfor the ‫!הִפְעִיל בִּנ*י)ן‬                            6
Remember that certain patternscan create predictable variations.This slideshow focuses on corepatterns. It does not illust...
Furthermore, this slideshowis intended to supplement,not replace, classroominstruction and practice.                      ...
Using ‫ הִפְעִיל‬Verbs  The ‫ הִפְעִיל‬is the second most  frequently used ‫ בִּנ*י)ן‬in the .‫תַּנ0״‬  (after ‫ .)3ל‬The .‫...
Verbs in ‫ הִפְעִיל‬are active, andoften transitive (taking directobjects).                                    10
Verbs in ‫ הִפְעִיל‬often describesome sort of change that thesubject imposes on an object.Therefore, you may hear the‫ הִ...
When the same ‫ שֹׁ5שׁ‬is used inboth ‫ 3ל‬and ‫ ,הִפְעִיל‬the ‫3ל‬version often means “to dosuch-and-such” and the ‫הִפְעִי...
However, this is only a trend,not a hard-and-fast rule, soyou should learn each verb’sparticular use in the ‫.הִפְעִיל‬   ...
The Basic Patterns    Memorize the following basic    patterns first, and then we’ll    go through the specifics.         ...
.‫הִשְׁלִי‬   He threw (3ms perfect).‫י0שְׁלִי‬   He will throw (3ms imperfect) .ֵ‫הַשְׁל‬   Throw! (ms imperative).‫הַשְׁלִי‬...
Recognizing ‫ הִפְעִיל‬Verbs   You can tell from the name   “‫ ”הִפְעִיל‬that the most noticeable   sign of this ‫ בִּנ*י)ן...
However, that –‫ ה‬won’t bevisible in the imperfect andparticiple forms, so you’ll needto learn a few other ‫ הִפְעִיל‬tra...
Alert! When a ‫ הִפְעִיל‬verbhas no suffix or a vowel asa suffix, its R2 will have adistinctive ‫.חִי5ק מָלֵא‬            ...
However, when a ‫ הִפְעִיל‬verb hasa suffix that starts with a consonant,R2’s distinctive ‫ חִי5ק מָלֵא‬willbecome a diffe...
Therefore, you mustn’t relyon R2’s distinctive ‫חִי5ק מָלֵא‬to identify ‫ הִפְעִיל‬verbs.                                 ...
Recognizing the ‫ הִפְעִיל‬Perfect        If you see a verb with a        perfect suffix and a –ִ‫ה‬        prefix, it’s p...
Just make sure the prefixis really –ִ‫ ה‬and not –B‫ ,הִת‬toavoid confusing the ‫הִפְעִיל‬with the ‫פַּעֵל‬B‫.הִת‬         ...
The ‫ הִפְעִיל‬perfect’s prefixusually appears as –ִ‫ ,ה‬butcan also be –ֵ‫( ה‬if R2 is ‫ )ו‬or–ֶ‫( ה‬if R2 is ‫.)י‬      ...
‫ר ב‬Gִ‫ה‬                  ‫  י‬   ִ                              The prefixed ‫ה‬The suffix       ‫הֵשׁ ב‬‫  י‬ ִ   with ...
ְ‫רבְ תּ‬Gִ‫ה‬                      ַ                              The prefixed ‫ה‬The suffix ‫הִ שׁ  מְתֶּם‬                ...
Recognizing the ‫ הִפְעִיל‬ImperfectIf a verb has an imperfect prefix withan a-class vowel (usually ‫ )פַּת=ח‬and R2has an ...
‫י ַבְדּ ל‬                  ‫ י‬ ִ  The affixes       ‫ַ   י‬               ‫ר ב‬G‫תּ‬   ִ       The prefix’s ‫פַּת=ח‬indica...
Recognizing the ‫ הִפְעִיל‬Imperative    If a verb starts with –ַ‫ ה‬but    otherwise looks like a 2fs, 2mp,    or 2fp ‫ ה...
Almost the same goes for the msimperative, but in addition to the –ַ‫ה‬prefix, the ms imperative has a ‫צֵ@י‬where the 2ms...
Alert! The ‫פְעַל‬O‫ נ‬imperative alsostarts with a prefixed -ִ‫ ,ה‬but theforms are otherwise distinctive:    ‫הִקטֵל‬   ...
Recognizing the ‫ הִפְעִיל‬InfinitivesThe ‫ הִפְעִיל‬infinitive* looks just like the3ms ‫ הִפְעִיל‬imperfect with a –ַ‫ ה‬...
The ‫ הִפְעִיל‬adverbial infinitive* looksjust like the ms imperative. You’llhave to use context to tell them apart.Try im...
Recognizing the ‫ הִפְעִיל‬ParticipleThe ms ‫ הִפְעִיל‬participle resembles the3ms ‫ הִפְעִיל‬imperfect, but with a –‫מ‬in...
The mp and fp participles takethe familiar plural endings ‫  ים‬                               ִ–and ‫. –וֹת‬              ...
The fs participle is a little bitdifferent from the others. Its R2has a ‫ סְגוֹל‬instead of ‫,חִי5ק מָלֵא‬and it takes the ...
Summary‫ט ל‬Gִ‫3 ה‬ms perfect ‫ ִי‬‫ט ל‬G0‫3 י‬ms imperfect ‫ ִי‬                     In all of these ‫טל‬Gַ‫ ה‬ms imperat...
Credits    Dead Sea photo by Wikimedia Commons    contributor Xta11. Used under a CC-SA    license.    All other content b...
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Getting to Know הִפְעִיל Verbs

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A brief introduction to the הִפְעִיל stem in Biblical Hebrew.

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Getting to Know הִפְעִיל Verbs

  1. 1. Biblical HebrewGetting to Know ‫ הִפְעִיל‬Verbs by Chris Heard
  2. 2. Table of Contents Abbreviations .............................. 3 Getting Ready .............................. 4 Using ‫ הִפְעִיל‬Verbs ..................... 9 The Basic Patterns .................... 14 Recognizing ‫ הִפְעִיל‬Verbs ........ 16 Credits ........................................ 37
  3. 3. Abbreviations 1, 2, 3 indicate grammatical person m, f, c indicate grammatical gender s, p indicate grammatical number R1, R2, R3 indicate root letters 3
  4. 4. Getting Ready Before we start getting to know the ‫ ,הִפְעִיל בִּנ*י)ן‬let’s run a few preflight checks. 4
  5. 5. Do you remember how a Hebrewverb changes to form the variouscombinations of person, gender,and number, as well as perfectand imperfect? 5
  6. 6. If you answered“yes,” you’re readyfor the ‫!הִפְעִיל בִּנ*י)ן‬ 6
  7. 7. Remember that certain patternscan create predictable variations.This slideshow focuses on corepatterns. It does not illustrate everypossible variation. 7
  8. 8. Furthermore, this slideshowis intended to supplement,not replace, classroominstruction and practice. 8
  9. 9. Using ‫ הִפְעִיל‬Verbs The ‫ הִפְעִיל‬is the second most frequently used ‫ בִּנ*י)ן‬in the .‫תַּנ0״‬ (after ‫ .)3ל‬The .‫ תַּנ0״‬contains over 9,300 instances of verbs in ‫.הִפְעִיל‬ 9
  10. 10. Verbs in ‫ הִפְעִיל‬are active, andoften transitive (taking directobjects). 10
  11. 11. Verbs in ‫ הִפְעִיל‬often describesome sort of change that thesubject imposes on an object.Therefore, you may hear the‫ הִפְעִיל‬described as “causative.” 11
  12. 12. When the same ‫ שֹׁ5שׁ‬is used inboth ‫ 3ל‬and ‫ ,הִפְעִיל‬the ‫3ל‬version often means “to dosuch-and-such” and the ‫הִפְעִיל‬version means “to make[someone] do such-and-such.” 12
  13. 13. However, this is only a trend,not a hard-and-fast rule, soyou should learn each verb’sparticular use in the ‫.הִפְעִיל‬ 13
  14. 14. The Basic Patterns Memorize the following basic patterns first, and then we’ll go through the specifics. 14
  15. 15. .‫הִשְׁלִי‬ He threw (3ms perfect).‫י0שְׁלִי‬ He will throw (3ms imperfect) .ֵ‫הַשְׁל‬ Throw! (ms imperative).‫הַשְׁלִי‬ To throw (infinitive).‫מַשְׁלִי‬ Throwing (ms participle) 15
  16. 16. Recognizing ‫ הִפְעִיל‬Verbs You can tell from the name “‫ ”הִפְעִיל‬that the most noticeable sign of this ‫ בִּנ*י)ן‬is a prefixed –‫.ה‬ 16
  17. 17. However, that –‫ ה‬won’t bevisible in the imperfect andparticiple forms, so you’ll needto learn a few other ‫ הִפְעִיל‬traits. 17
  18. 18. Alert! When a ‫ הִפְעִיל‬verbhas no suffix or a vowel asa suffix, its R2 will have adistinctive ‫.חִי5ק מָלֵא‬ 18
  19. 19. However, when a ‫ הִפְעִיל‬verb hasa suffix that starts with a consonant,R2’s distinctive ‫ חִי5ק מָלֵא‬willbecome a different vowel, usuallya ‫ פַּת=ח‬in the perfect and a ‫ צֵ@י‬inother forms. 19
  20. 20. Therefore, you mustn’t relyon R2’s distinctive ‫חִי5ק מָלֵא‬to identify ‫ הִפְעִיל‬verbs. 20
  21. 21. Recognizing the ‫ הִפְעִיל‬Perfect If you see a verb with a perfect suffix and a –ִ‫ה‬ prefix, it’s probably a ‫ הִפְעִיל‬perfect. 21
  22. 22. Just make sure the prefixis really –ִ‫ ה‬and not –B‫ ,הִת‬toavoid confusing the ‫הִפְעִיל‬with the ‫פַּעֵל‬B‫.הִת‬ 22
  23. 23. The ‫ הִפְעִיל‬perfect’s prefixusually appears as –ִ‫ ,ה‬butcan also be –ֵ‫( ה‬if R2 is ‫ )ו‬or–ֶ‫( ה‬if R2 is ‫.)י‬ 23
  24. 24. ‫ר ב‬Gִ‫ה‬ ‫  י‬ ִ The prefixed ‫ה‬The suffix ‫הֵשׁ ב‬‫  י‬ ִ with an i-class indicates ‫הִלְבּ שׁ ה‬ ָ     ‫ י‬ ִ vowel indicatesa perfect. a ‫.הִפְעִיל‬ ‫הִשְׁל כ וּ‬ ‫ י‬ִ   24
  25. 25. ְ‫רבְ תּ‬Gִ‫ה‬ ַ   The prefixed ‫ה‬The suffix ‫הִ שׁ  מְתֶּם‬ ַ‫ְכּ‬ with an i-class indicates ָ‫הִלְבּשְׁתּ‬ ַ   vowel indicatesa perfect. a ‫.הִפְעִיל‬ ‫הִשְׁלַכְתִּי‬    25
  26. 26. Recognizing the ‫ הִפְעִיל‬ImperfectIf a verb has an imperfect prefix withan a-class vowel (usually ‫ )פַּת=ח‬and R2has an i-class vowel (usually ‫חִי5ק מָלֵא‬or ‫ ,צֵ@י‬depending on the suffix), youhave a ‫ הִפְעִיל‬imperfect. 26
  27. 27. ‫י ַבְדּ ל‬ ‫ י‬ ִ  The affixes ‫ַ   י‬ ‫ר ב‬G‫תּ‬ ִ The prefix’s ‫פַּת=ח‬indicate an and R2’s i-vowel imperfect.   ‫    י‬ ‫תּפְר חִי‬ ִ ַ indicate a ‫.הִפְעִיל‬ ‫י אֲמ נ וּ‬ ‫ַ  י‬ ִ   27
  28. 28. Recognizing the ‫ הִפְעִיל‬Imperative If a verb starts with –ַ‫ ה‬but otherwise looks like a 2fs, 2mp, or 2fp ‫ הִפְעִיל‬imperfect, it’s a ‫ הִפְעִיל‬imperative with the same gender and number. 28
  29. 29. Almost the same goes for the msimperative, but in addition to the –ַ‫ה‬prefix, the ms imperative has a ‫צֵ@י‬where the 2ms imperfect has ‫:חִי5ק מָלֵא‬ ‫ט ל‬Gַ‫תּ‬ ‫ ִי‬ 2ms ‫ הִפְעִיל‬imperfect ‫טל‬Gַ‫ה‬ ֵ   ms ‫ הִפְעִיל‬imperative 29
  30. 30. Alert! The ‫פְעַל‬O‫ נ‬imperative alsostarts with a prefixed -ִ‫ ,ה‬but theforms are otherwise distinctive: ‫הִקטֵל‬ ָּ   ms ‫פְעַל‬O‫ נ‬imperative ‫ט ל‬Gִ‫ה‬ ‫ ִי‬ 3ms ‫ הִפְעִיל‬perfect 30
  31. 31. Recognizing the ‫ הִפְעִיל‬InfinitivesThe ‫ הִפְעִיל‬infinitive* looks just like the3ms ‫ הִפְעִיל‬imperfect with a –ַ‫ ה‬insteadof the normal imperfect prefix. * Or “infinitive construct.” 31
  32. 32. The ‫ הִפְעִיל‬adverbial infinitive* looksjust like the ms imperative. You’llhave to use context to tell them apart.Try imperative first; they’re almostthree times as common in the .‫.תַּנ0״‬ * Or “infinitive absolute.” 32
  33. 33. Recognizing the ‫ הִפְעִיל‬ParticipleThe ms ‫ הִפְעִיל‬participle resembles the3ms ‫ הִפְעִיל‬imperfect, but with a –‫מ‬instead of the imperfect prefix. ‫ט ל‬Gַ‫ה‬ ‫ ִי‬ 3ms imperfect ‫ט ל‬Gַ‫מ‬ ‫ ִי‬ ms participle 33
  34. 34. The mp and fp participles takethe familiar plural endings ‫  ים‬ ִ–and ‫. –וֹת‬ 34
  35. 35. The fs participle is a little bitdifferent from the others. Its R2has a ‫ סְגוֹל‬instead of ‫,חִי5ק מָלֵא‬and it takes the suffix ‫.  ת‬ ֶ–   ‫ט ל‬Gַ‫מ‬ ‫ ִי‬ ms participle ‫מַ    ת‬ ֶ‫טל‬G ֶ fs participle 35
  36. 36. Summary‫ט ל‬Gִ‫3 ה‬ms perfect ‫ ִי‬‫ט ל‬G0‫3 י‬ms imperfect ‫ ִי‬ In all of these ‫טל‬Gַ‫ ה‬ms imperative ֵ   forms, look for‫ט ל‬Gַ‫ ה‬infinitive ‫ ִי‬ the prefix and ‫טל‬Gַ‫ ה‬adv. infinitive ֵ   R2’s i-vowel.‫ט ל‬Gַ‫ מ‬ms participle ‫ ִי‬ 36
  37. 37. Credits Dead Sea photo by Wikimedia Commons contributor Xta11. Used under a CC-SA license. All other content by Dr. Chris Heard, Associate Professor of Religion, Pepperdine University. Released under a CC-BY license. 37

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