Danielle CoutureCover Essay: The profession of nursing is a field of healthcare and research that focuses on humancare. Nurses work with patients during some of their most vulnerable moments. They strive tocomfort and support their patients throughout the process of healing or dying. The caring natureof this profession, coupled with its role in healthcare is what has motivated me to become anurse. One of my strongest and most pronounced personality traits is my ability and drive to careand show loving compassion toward any person that I have relations with. Furthermore, mypersonal interests include the physiology of the human body and the innate healing mechanismsit exhibits. My passion to help others is particularly focused on helping other women. Women’shealth has become an integral part of my everyday life and career as a student. I have educatedmyself on many of the topics surrounding my chosen career field, nurse-midwifery. Thephysiological mechanisms that are part of giving birth are both fascinating and complex. Boththe social mechanisms that drive different birthing practices as well as the biologicalmechanisms are what attract me to the field of nurse-midwifery. One of the aspects of birthingpractices that varies here in the US is the setting in which the woman gives birth. Differentsettings may include; in birthing centers, hospitals, at home as well as at other healthcarefacilities. Part of what differs between these settings in the type of care the woman receives. Themidwife model of care, which focuses on natural childbirthing practices, focuses on birth as asocial experience that should be celebrated. The alternative model of care, often used in hospitalsettings, includes the use of pain medication for the mother as well as having a physician or
nurse who is not there for the entire duration of the labor. Upon becoming a midwife, it is mygoal to help women have the birthing experiences that they desire. To achieve this goal I willrely on many of the skills I have gained as a result of my education in anthropology. Forexample, I hope to approach the process of giving birth in a holistic manner. By this I mean thatthe body can be viewed as one integrated system and should be treated as such. I also expect todraw on different cultural practices that have been proven to aid a woman in her birthingexperience. All of these tools will help me, as midwife and nurse, to deliver the best carepossible to my patients and their families. Upon completing my education and certification bothas a nurse and as a midwife, I hope to work in a hospital or birthing clinic. I wish to work inthese settings because it would allow me to help many women who may not know that naturalchildbirth is an option for them. The field and work of nurse-midwives is something that I amprepared to dedicate the rest of my working life towards and plan on doing so.Professional Annotated Bibliography2/15/13Miscellaneous:Dalvit, S. P. "The Effect of the Menstrual Cycle on Patterns of Food Intake." The AmericanJournal of Clinical Nutrition 34.9 (1981): 1811-815. Print.This article examines how increased estrogen levels in the human body can act as an appetitesurpressor. This article was used in concordance with a college course in nutrition.De Vrese, Michael, Anna Stegelmann, and Bernd Richter. “Probiotics –compensation forLactase Insufficiency.” The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 73.2 (n.d.): 421-29. Print.This article looks at the physiological mechanisms that lactase deficient people lack for thebreakdown of lactose and also how probiotic dairy products affect this. This article was used forpersonal enjoyment and education mainly because I am lactose intolerant.
Feria-Isacks, Valerie. "Anthropology Is For Foodies." Web log post. N.p., 28 Jan. 2013. Web. 15Feb. 2013.This blog examines how food is used cross-culturally as a communication medium. This blog isused for personal enlightenment and education.**McKenna, J. J. (1996). Sudden infant death syndrome in cross-cultural perspective: Is infant-parent cosleeping protective?. Annual Review of Anthropology, 25(1), 201.This article examines the cultural factors that may help to explain the different prevalence ratesof SIDS in different cultural regions. This article was used for personal education on a subjectrelated to postpartum care. This is particularly relevant to the field of midwifery because SIDSmost often occurs in infants aged less than 12 months."Oceana | Protecting the Worlds Oceans." Searching for a More Responsible Way to Farm Fish.N.p., n.d. Web. 07 July 2012. <http://oceana.org/en/blog/2012/05/searching-for-a-more-responsible-way-to-farm-fish>. This web article explains some of the mechanism of fish farming, such as how the fish are raisedand or caught. This article was used in concordance with a college course on the ethics of food. Itwas also used to educate personal consumer and food choices.Cervical Cancer:C.J. Simon, et al. “Comparison of Visual Inspection and Papanicolau (PAP) Smears For CervicalCancer Screening In Honduras: Should PAP Smears Be Abandoned?.” Tropical Medicine andInternational Health 12.9 (2007): 1018-1025.This source analyzes the effectiveness of PAP smear screening for cervical cancer as comparedto visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA). This article was used for a research projectexamining the higher prevalence of cervical cancer among developing nations as compared todeveloped nations such as the US.Fererra, Annabelle, Johan B. Felema, Ricardo Bulnes, and Luis A. Toro. "Co-factors Related tothe Causal Relationship between Human Papillomavirus and Invasive Cervical Cancer inHonduras." International Journal of Epidemiology 29.5 (2000): 817-25. Print.This article is a scientific study of the relationship between HPV and cervical cancer. This studyfound that there is a causal relationship between the virus and the development of cervicalcancer. This article was used both for personal education and for a course project.Luciani, Silvana, and Jon Kim Andrus. "A Pan American Health Organization Strategy forCervical Cancer Prevention and Control in Latin America and the Caribbean."ReproductiveHealth Matters 16.32 (2008): 59-66. Print.
The article is a summary of the Pan American Health Organization’s response to cervical cancerin Latin America. The article summarizes what the PAHO recommends for treatment andscreening of cervical cancer as well as educational programs about the disease. This article wasused as a reference for different screening programs available in Latin America where cervicalcancer rates are very high.Murillo, Raul, Maribel Almonte, Ana Pereira, Elena Ferrer, Oscar A. Gamboa, José Jerónimo,and Eduardo Lazcano-Ponce. "Cervical Cancer Screening Programs in Latin America and theCaribbean." Vaccine 26 (2008): L37-48. Print.This article compares different types of screening programs used for detection of cervical cancerin Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors concluded that following up with patientsconsistently could help reduce the number of cervical cancer deaths. This article was used in acourse research project examining current screening, detection and treatment of cervical cancerin Honduras.Tuberculosis:"Delays In Starting Antiretroviral Therapy In Patients With HIV-Associated TuberculosisAccessing Non-Integrated Clinical Services In A South African Township." BMC InfectiousDiseases 11.1 (2011): 258-266. Academic Search Elite. Web. 7 Apr. 2012. This study looked at the time delay between starting treatment for TB and starting ARTin the Gugulethy township between 2002 and 2008. This article was used as a reference toexplain the relationship between HIV/AIDS and the current tuberculosis epidemic in SouthAfrica."Fact Sheet: Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis (MDR TB)." Centers for Disease Control andPrevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 20 June 2011. Web. 07 Apr. 2012.<http://www.cdc.gov/tb/publications/factsheets/drtb/mdrtb.htm>. This article is a fact sheet which defines and explains common questions about TB. Forexample the article defines the different forms of TB including MDR TB and XDR TB. Thisarticle was used as a scientific reference for the different strains of tuberculosis currently foundaround the world."Guidlines for the Programmatic Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis." World HealthOrganization. 2011. Web. 7 Apr. 2012.<http://whqlibdoc.who.int/publications/2011/9789241501583_eng.pdf>. This guide is the 2011 update with revision to the recommended protocol for treatingmulti-drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR TB). The WHO recommends that rapid drug
susceptibility testing (DST) be used to detect resistance to isoniazid and rifampicin. This articlewas used to describe how the WHO is currently responding to multi-drug resistant tuberculosis.Epidural Analgesia:Lieberman, E., and C. Odonoghue. "Unintended Effects of Epidural Analgesia during Labor: ASystematic Review." American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 186.5 (2002): S31-68.Print. This article found that a direct correlation between the use of an epidural duringchildbirth and a cesarean delivery could not be made. The reason being that in many cases thereare other contributing factors which result in the necessity of a cesarean delivery. This articlewas used to counter a research hypothesis that predicted that the use of epidural analgesia inlaboring women would result in a higher incidence of cesarean deliveries.Menacker, Fay, and Brandy E. Hamilton. "Recent Trends in Cesarean Delivery in the UnitedStates." Center for Disease Control. N.p., Mar. 2010. Web. 21 Sept. 2012.<http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/databriefs/db35.pdf>.This is a great resource for cesarean statistics and rates in the US. This article, published by theCDC, breaks down the cesarean section rates by state, race and also by decade. This resourcewas used on a research project surrounding the topic of epidural analgesia and different laboroutcomes."NIH News Release-Epidural Pain Relief During Labor Does Not Increase Chance of C-Section- 08/09/2001." U.S National Library of Medicine. U.S. National Library of Medicine, n.d. Web.25 Sept. 2012. <http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/aug2001/nichd-09.htm>.This news release which was published by the NIH examined whether the use of epiduralscontributed to the need of a cesarean section and also whether it could cause complications in thedelivery. This study was used in a college research project on the subject of epidural analgesiaand labor outcomes.Brancato, R., S. Church, and P. W. Stone. "A Meta-analysis of Passive Descent versusImmediate Pushing in Nulliparous Women with Epidural Analgesia in the Second Stage ofLabor." National Institute for Health Research. University of York, n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2012.<http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/crdweb/ShowRecord.asp?LinkFrom=OAI>.This article examined the topic of whether active labor or passive descent resulted in a reductionof assisted vaginal deliveries. This article brings into question whether a laboring woman cancontribute to whether or not her delivery needs either forceps or vacuum suction to assist with
the delivery. This article was used for a college research project on the subject of laboroutcomes.Lawrence A, Lewis L, Hofmeyr GJ, Dowswell T, Styles C. Maternal positions and mobilityduring first stage labour. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2009, Issue 2. Art. No.:CD003934. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD003934.pub2This article reviews whether birthing positions, particularly the supine, effect labor outcomessuch as length and whether a spontaneous vaginal delivery occurs. The authors bring up theinteresting point that the use of epidurals causes the woman to become immobile, which requiresthe woman to labor in a lying down position. This article was used to help explain therelationship between anatomy and birthing positions.Liu, E. H., and A. T. Sia. "Rates of Caesarean Section and Instrumental Vaginal Delivery inNulliparous Women after Low Concentration Epidural Infusions or Opioid Analgesia:Systematic Review." Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. NIH, n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2012.<http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/crdweb/ShowRecord.asp?LinkFrom=OAI>.This article compared two types of epidurals; bupivacaine and parenteral opioid and examinedwhether there was an increased risk of cesarean or assisted vaginal delivery between the twoepidural types. The study found that comparatively both had the similar rates of assisteddeliveries. This article was used for a college research project on the relationship betweenepidural analgesia and labor outcomes.Mayberry, L., D. Clemmens, and A. De. "Epidural Analgesia Side Effects, Co-interventions, andCare of Women during Childbirth: A Systematic Review." American Journal of Obstetrics andGynecology 186.5 (2002): S81-93. Print.This article reviews some of the lesser and more treatable symptoms associated with epiduraluse. This article was used to provide information about how epidural analgesia affects the bodyduring labor.Sugar:"Is Fructose Bad For You?." Harvard Health Letter 32.7 (2007): 3. Academic Search Elite. Web.31 Mar. 2012. The article explains how the body breaks down and uses glucose and fructose differently.The article also explains what the glycemic index is and how it is used. This article was used forpersonal research as well as course research into the subject of how the human body uses sugar.Gaby, Alan R. "Adverse Effects Of Dietary Fructose." Alternative Medicine Review 10.4(2005): 294-306. Academic Search Elite. Web. 2 Apr. 2012.
This article is a review of current research which has been published on the effects offructose and other sugar sources on the body. This is a great reference tool because it details howthe body breaks down and utilizes fructose as compared to the processes used in the utilization ofglucose in the body. This article was used for a research project examining how sugar is used,processed and stored in the human body.Armando Aguirre-Jaime, et al. "Association Between Glycemic Index, Glycemic Load, AndFructose With Insulin Resistance: The CDC Of The Canary Islands Study." European Journal OfNutrition 49.8 (2010): 505-512. Academic Search Elite. Web. 3 Apr. 2012.This study was conducted on the Canary Islands with a randomly chosen sample group of 668people who did not currently have diabetes. The aim of the study was to determine if there wasan association between insulin resistance and glycemic index and glycemic load. This article wasused in a research project examining how sugar is metabolized in the body.Forensics:Burns, Karen Ramey. Forensic Anthropology Training Manual. Upper Saddle River, NJ:Prentice Hall, 1999.This book details many functions, dysfunctions, marking and structures present in bones. Thisarticle was used as a reference for a research project examining the skeletal evidence ofparturition on female pelvises.Cox, Margaret, and Andrew Scott. Evaluation of the Obstetric Significance of Some PelvicCharacters in an 18th Century British Sample of Known Parity Status. American Journal ofPhysical Anthropology 89.4 (1992): 431-40.This article examined skeletal remains of women with known parity status. The researchers useda number of different markers to determine parity status and then compared them in order to seewhich was more statistically accurate. This article was used for a forensic research projectexamining the skeletal evidence of parturition and also the accuracy in determining this.Houghton, Philip. The Relationship of the Pre-auricular Groove of the Ilium toPregnancy.American Journal of Physical Anthropology 41.3 (2005): 381-89.This article examines skeletal remains exhibiting the pre-auricular sulcus which can be used as amarker of parity status. This article was used for a research project on different skeletal markingsthat may help to determine parity status of human remains.Kelley, Marc A. Parturition and Pelvic Changes. American Journal of PhysicalAnthropology 51.4 (1979): 541-45.This article examined 5 different known markers of parity status. Researchers found that markersof parity status can become obliterated with age and also they concluded that the pre-auricular
sulcus is the most accurate marker of parity status. This article was used for a research project onthe skeletal markers that may help to determine parity status.Meyers Suchey, et al., Analysis of Dorsal Pitting in the 0s Pubis in an Extensive Sample ofModern American Females. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 51.4 (2005).This article examined dorsal pitting on the pubic bone in skeletal remains as a marker of paritystatus. The article found that the dorsal pitting could be used in concordance with other markersto determine parity status. This article was used in a research project surrounding the topic ofparity markers on female skeletal remains.Tague, Robert G. Bone Resorption of the Pubis and Preauricular Area in Humans and NonhumanMammals. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 76.2 (1988): 251-67.This study examined both human remains as well as other non-human mammals such as mice.This study examined the causes of bone resorption in the pubis and preauricular areas as theyrelate to markers of parity status. This article was used for a research project in forensicanthropology.