Schooling In Colonial America2008


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Schooling In Colonial America2008

  1. 1. Schooling in Colonial America 1600-1800
  2. 2. The Purpose of Education <ul><li>Do the claims of the Functionalist and Conflict Theorists hold true historically? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose of American education is not stable-it is changed over time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dominant purpose of American education is always contested </li></ul></ul>Harvard 1726
  3. 3. The Purpose of Education <ul><li>The Functionalist Claim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose(s) of education are functional- that is they serve a social function </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Conflict Theorist Claim </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American education has tended to reproduce social inequities, not eliminate them. </li></ul></ul>Harvard 1726
  4. 4. Education was neither free, public, nor secular in the Colonies <ul><li>Educational opportunities were stratified </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Race </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education served to retain the status quo </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Children were educated to take their parent’s place in society </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tension </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American ideal of equal opportunity for all </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Southern Colonies <ul><li>A sharply defined class structure </li></ul><ul><li>Dispersed population </li></ul><ul><li>Anglican church did not put an emphasis on religious indoctrination </li></ul><ul><li>Belief that education was a private matter and not the concern of the state </li></ul>
  6. 6. Middle Colonies <ul><li>A diverse population </li></ul><ul><ul><li>English, Dutch, German, French, Swedish </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Catholics, Mennonites, Calvinists, Lutherans, Quakers, Presbyterians, Jews </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Commercial interests </li></ul><ul><ul><li>An emphasis on vocational education </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Northern Colonies <ul><li>A fairly uniform population </li></ul><ul><li>Puritan New England </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Children are vipers and infinitely more hateful than vipers.” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Jonathan Edwards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The “construction” of Childhood </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Centuries of Childhood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Phillippe Aries </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. The Construction of Childhood <ul><li>For the Puritans, Children were miniature adults </li></ul><ul><li>Born in sin, they were vulnerable to Satan’s ploys </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, they need to be closely monitored </li></ul>
  9. 9. The Construction of Childhood <ul><li>The Mason children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The boy holds a walking cane and gloves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One girl holds a fan </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The other holds a rose </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Construction of Childhood <ul><li>Families of 16-25 children were common </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Construction of Childhood <ul><li>High child mortality led to more “objectification” than today </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Construction of Childhood <ul><li>By the mid-19 th century, childhood began to be thought of as a unique time in life. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Adolescence” had not yet been invented, however. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Emergence of Higher Education <ul><li>Harvard College </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The purpose was to prepare young men, 13-18, in Biblical and classical studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The goal was to produce a new generation to assume leadership in the church and commonwealth </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. The first Colleges in the Colonies <ul><li>Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>Yale </li></ul><ul><li>William & Mary </li></ul><ul><li>New Jersey (Princeton) </li></ul><ul><li>King’s (Columbia) </li></ul><ul><li>Philadelphia </li></ul><ul><li>Rhode Island (Brown) </li></ul><ul><li>Queen’s (Rutgers) </li></ul><ul><li>Dartmouth </li></ul>
  15. 15. College Life <ul><li>Greek, Latin, Scripture </li></ul><ul><li>Moral development was as important as intellectual development </li></ul><ul><li>College was a “rite of passage” for colonial gentlemen. </li></ul>“ Caning” at Harvard
  16. 16. Colonial Schooling <ul><li>Private Tutors </li></ul><ul><li>Dame Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar School </li></ul><ul><li>Mission or Charity School </li></ul><ul><li>Private Academies </li></ul><ul><li>College </li></ul>
  17. 17. Dame Schools <ul><li>Taught by women in their homes </li></ul><ul><li>Open to girls </li></ul><ul><li>Colonial “Day Care” </li></ul>
  18. 18. Education For The Wealthy <ul><li>Private tutor </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar school </li></ul><ul><li>Academy </li></ul><ul><li>College </li></ul>
  19. 19. What was a colonial education like? <ul><li>One-room log or clapboard cabins </li></ul><ul><li>Students aged 3-20 </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers would “cite,” students would “re-cite.” </li></ul><ul><li>Corporal punishment </li></ul>
  20. 20. What was a colonial education like? <ul><li>One-room log or clapboard cabins </li></ul><ul><li>Students aged 3-20 </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers would “cite,” students would “re-cite.” </li></ul><ul><li>Corporal punishment </li></ul>
  21. 21. Hornbook <ul><li>Paddle shaped board with paper sheet attached </li></ul><ul><li>Usually contained the ABC's in both small and capital letters </li></ul><ul><li>Some Scripture </li></ul>
  22. 22. Hornbook <ul><li>They had been used in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>There use continued in the colonies because printed books and pamphlets were harder to come by. </li></ul>
  23. 23. New England Primer <ul><li>Calvinist Theology </li></ul><ul><li>Combined hornbook with authorized catechism </li></ul>
  24. 24. Secular materials <ul><li>Almanacs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Franklin’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Poor Richard’s Almanack” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chapbooks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Most imported from England </li></ul></ul></ul>