Gilligan

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  • Gilligan

    1. 1. Gilligan’s Theory of Development Michelle and Brooke
    2. 2. Background History <ul><li>1958: Swarthmore College, summa cum laude, major in literature </li></ul><ul><li>1960: Radcliffe University, Masters in clinical psychology </li></ul><ul><li>1964: Harvard University, doctorate in social psychology </li></ul><ul><li>1967: Began teaching at Harvard with Erik Erikson </li></ul>
    3. 3. Gilligan vs. Kohlberg <ul><li>1970: Became a research assistant to Lawrence Kohlberg </li></ul><ul><li>Criticism: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Kohlberg only studied white, privileged males </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Boys and individual rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Girls and Responsibility for others </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Theory of Development <ul><li>Moral Development </li></ul><ul><li>Stage Theory </li></ul>Gilligan's Stages of the Ethic of Care Approximate Age Range Stage Goal not listed Preconventional Goal is individual survival Transition is from selfishness -- to -- responsibility to others not listed Conventional Self sacrifice is goodness Transition is from goodness -- to -- truth that she is a person too maybe never Postconventional Principle of nonviolence: do not hurt others or self
    5. 5. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development <ul><li>Gilligan wrote book in1982. </li></ul><ul><li>She presents her material against Kohlberg’s Theory. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Justice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Care </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mentions the ideals of Freud: how females stay attached to their mother’s and males break free creating a large difference in development. </li></ul><ul><li>1995: Women's Psychology, Boys' Development and the Culture of Manhood, a three-year program of research on boys. </li></ul>
    6. 6. Projects By Gilligan <ul><li>1997: Harvard Project on Women's Psychology, Boy's Development and the Culture of Manhood </li></ul><ul><li>12.5 million dollar donation by Jane Fonda for Gender and Education Center at Harvard </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Guide Method </li></ul><ul><li>Helps teach at Harvard Law on occasion </li></ul><ul><li>1992:Grawemeyer Award in Education </li></ul><ul><li>1997: Heinz Award </li></ul>
    7. 7. Criticisms <ul><li>Christina Hoff Sommers, PhD </li></ul><ul><ul><li>says Gilligan has no real data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only as anecdotal evidence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Test groups were too small </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research needs to be retested </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sex-role stereotypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gilligan fought back against claims by showing her proof and tests. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. How it Applies to a Teacher <ul><li>Realize there is a difference between males and females. </li></ul><ul><li>Males are egocentric and females are more prone to care for others. </li></ul>
    9. 9. References <ul><li>Gilligan's In a Different Voice </li></ul><ul><li>Moral Development and Moral Education: An Overview </li></ul><ul><li>Soundbites from Christina Hoff Sommers </li></ul><ul><li>Carol Gilligan: 1936-Present </li></ul><ul><li>Notes on A Different Voice by Carol Gilligan </li></ul><ul><li>The Connection </li></ul>
    10. 10. References <ul><li>7. In A Different Voice Passages </li></ul><ul><li>8. From White Rats to Robots </li></ul><ul><li>9. Carol Gilligan’s Work </li></ul><ul><li>10. Applied History of Psychology/Moral Development </li></ul>

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