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V8(3) 2017:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

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Research articles published in V8(3) 2017:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies ==>
Awareness of Passive Design on Apartment Façade Designs in Putrajaya, Malaysia
127
Comparative Analysis of Low-Cost Housing Policies in Malaysia and Nigeria
139
A Study on Kevin Lynch’s Urban Design Elements: Precinct 9 East Putrajaya
153
Investigating Urban Design Elements of Bandar Baru Sentul, Kuala Lumpur
169
A Study on Sharing Home Ownership Schemes in Malaysia
183
The Impact of Window to Wall Ratio (WWR) and Glazing Type on Energy Consumption in Air-Conditioned Office Buildings
197
Competitiveness Factors of Thai Construction Industry within the AEC Context: A Qualitative Approach
209
Application of Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Government Construction Procurement Problems in Thailand
221

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V8(3) 2017:: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies

  1. 1. Volume 8 Issue 3 (2017) ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642 http://TuEngr.com Cover photo is Confirmatory Factor Analysis of government construction procurement problems from Chaithongrat et al., a research article in this issue (Application of Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Government Construction Procurement Problems in Thailand). Awareness of Passive Design on Apartment Façade Designs in Putrajaya, Malaysia Comparative Analysis of Low- Cost Housing Policies in Malaysia and Nigeria A Study on Kevin Lynch’s Urban Design Elements: Precinct 9 East Putrajaya Investigating Urban Design Elements of Bandar Baru Sentul, Kuala Lumpur A Study on Sharing Home Ownership Schemes in Malaysia Competitiveness Factors of Thai Construction Industry within the AEC Context: A Qualitative Approach Application of Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Government Construction Procurement Problems in Thailand
  2. 2. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://TuEngr.com International Editorial Board Editor-in-Chief Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, PhD Professor Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA Executive Editor Boonsap Witchayangkoon, PhD Associate Professor Thammasat University, THAILAND Editorial Board: Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohamed Gadi (University of Nottingham, UNITED KINGDOM) Professor Dr.Hitoshi YAMADA (Yokohama National University, JAPAN) Professor Dr. Chuen-Sheng Cheng (Yuan Ze University, TAIWAN ) Professor Dr.Mikio SATOMURA (Shizuoka University, JAPAN) Professor Dr.Chuen-Sheng Cheng (Yuan Ze University, TAIWAN) Emeritus Professor Dr.Mike Jenks (Oxford Brookes University, UNITED KINGDOM ) Professor Dr.I Nyoman Pujawan (Sepuluh Nopember Institute of Technology, INDONESIA) Professor Dr.Toshio YOSHII (EHIME University, JAPAN) Professor Dr.Neven Duić (University of Zagreb, CROATIA) Professor Dr.Lee, Yong-Chang (Incheon City College, SOUTH KOREA) Professor Dr.Dewan Muhammad Nuruzzaman (University Malaysia Pahang MALAYSIA) Professor Dr.Masato SAITOH (Saitama University, JAPAN) Scientific and Technical Committee & Editorial Review Board on Engineering, Technologies and Applied Sciences: Associate Prof. Dr. Paulo Cesar Lima Segantine (University of São Paulo, BRASIL) Associate Prof. Dr. Kurt B. Wurm (New Mexico State University, USA ) Associate Prof. Dr. Truong Vu Bang Giang (Vietnam National University, Hanoi, VIETNAM ) Dr.H. Mustafa Palancıoğlu (Erciyes University, TURKEY) Associate Prof.Dr.Peter Kuntu-Mensah (Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi, USA) Associate Prof.Dr. Rohit Srivastava (Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, INDIA) Assistant Prof.Dr. Zoe D. Ziaka (International Hellenic University, GREECE ) Associate Prof.Dr. Junji SHIKATA (Yokohama National University, JAPAN) Assistant Prof.Dr. Akeel Noori Abdul Hameed (University of Sharjah, UAE) Madam Wan Mariah Wan Harun (Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA ) Dr. David Kuria (Kimathi University College of Technology, KENYA ) Dr. Mazran bin Ismail (Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA ) Dr. Salahaddin Yasin Baper (Salahaddin University - Hawler, IRAQ ) Dr. Foong Swee Yeok (Universiti Sains Malaysia, MALAYSIA) Dr.Azusa FUKUSHIMA (Kobe Gakuin University, JAPAN) 2017 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies.
  3. 3. i :: International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies Volume 8 Issue 3 (2017) ISSN 2228-9860 http://TuEngr.com eISSN 1906-9642 FEATURE PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLES Awareness of Passive Design on Apartment Façade Designs in Putrajaya, Malaysia 127 Comparative Analysis of Low-Cost Housing Policies in Malaysia and Nigeria 139 A Study on Kevin Lynch’s Urban Design Elements: Precinct 9 East Putrajaya 153 Investigating Urban Design Elements of Bandar Baru Sentul, Kuala Lumpur 169 A Study on Sharing Home Ownership Schemes in Malaysia 183 The Impact of Window to Wall Ratio (WWR) and Glazing Type on Energy Consumption in Air-Conditioned Office Buildings 197 Competitiveness Factors of Thai Construction Industry within the AEC Context: A Qualitative Approach 209 Application of Confirmatory Factor Analysis in Government Construction Procurement Problems in Thailand 221 © 2017 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Contacts & Offices: Professor Dr. Ahmad Sanusi Hassan (Editor-in-Chief), School of Housing, Building and Planning, UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA, 11800 Minden, Penang, MALAYSIA. Tel: +60-4-653-2835 Fax: +60-4-657 6523, Sanusi@usm.my Editor@TuEngr.com Associate Professor Dr. Boonsap Witchayangkoon (Executive Editor), Faculty of Engineering, THAMMASAT UNIVERSITY, Klong-Luang, Pathumtani, 12120, THAILAND. Tel: +66-2-5643005 Ext 3101. Fax: +66-2-5643022 DrBoonsap@gmail.com Postal Paid in MALAYSIA/THAILAND.
  4. 4. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://TuEngr.com Awareness of Passive Design on Apartment Façade Designs in Putrajaya, Malaysia Ahmad Sanusi Hassan a , Yasser Arab a* and Bushra Qanaa b a School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia,11800 Penang, MALAYSIA b Faculty of Architecture, Ittihad Private University, SYRIA A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T RA C T Article history: Received 02 September 2017 Received in revised form 21 November 2017 Accepted 25 November 2017 Available online 01 December 2017 Keywords: Passive design, Vernacular style, Colonial style; Thermal Imager; colonial architectural style; high- rise apartments. This research conducts a study on sustainability awareness of apartment facade design in Malaysia. The scope of this study limits to a comparative analysis between colonial and vernacular style facade design. Vernacular style is derived from the traditional architecture to the condition of the place and environment in tropical setting. The style is a logical choice in warm and wet climatic conditions, ideal for creating air movement, ventilation and escape of warm air, thus bringing in thermal comfort to the occupants. On the other hand, colonial style is an expression of classical structures and motives. The architecture does not only have dominant classical style’s expression from Europe, it also has a mixture with the local style due to adjustment of the classical style to the tropical setting, which can be seen at heritage buildings erected during colonial time in Malaysia. Two contemporary apartments built in Putrajaya are selected in these two case studies; each has a design approach with colonial and vernacular architectural style. A camera device named Fluke® Ti20 Thermal Imager was used to capture a series of thermal images on a surface of the apartment facades. This camera captured photos of the apartment facade in hourly time during the field works. The study finds that the apartment with vernacular style’s facade design has higher sustainability awareness than the apartment with colonial style’s facade design. In conclusion, by applying vernacular style in apartment design, it provides awareness to the designer and architect to come with traditional passive design elements which are embedded as part and parcel of the design in a context of tropical climate. © 2017 INT TRANS J ENG MANAG SCI TECH. 1. Introduction This study focuses on high-rise apartments in Putrajaya. The definition of high-rise building is a tall and multi-story building equipped with elevator (Cheung, Fuller and Luther 2005). In 1930s ©2017 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. *Corresponding author (Yasser Arab).. E-mail: yasserarab2005@yahoo.com. ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/127.pdf. 127
  5. 5. the first high-rise building was constructed in the world in the United State and later in 1950s in the United Kingdom. The first high-rise building in Malaysia was built in 1960s namely Sulaiman Courts in 1657 (Hoffman, 1996). Figure 2 show the percentage of residential building categories in Putrajaya (Department of Statistics Malaysia, 2010). Figure 1: Views of apartments in Putrajaya. Figure 2: Apartment represents 74.1% of the total units of living quarters in Putrajaya. Source: Department of Statistic Malaysia (2010). 2. Colonial Architectural Style The colonial architectural style is a reflection of the classical architectural style in the region, a mixture of the colonial and the local style to get a new hybrid with the adaptations to the regional and climate. The colonial architecture style in Malaysia is not only a mixture between the colonial and Malay traditional style, it is also influenced by the Islamic, Indian and Chinese styles. This tuning of eastern and western architecture with local tropical architecture of the Malay traditional building appears with a building design of overhanging roof structures, maximum window openings, cantilevered veranda floor and big roof construction. The concept of traditional Malay building influences the colonial builders which guides them to design building with the tropical climate factors. Yeang (1987; 26) claimed that the roof should act like an umbrella to protect from 128 Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Yasser Arab and Bushra Qanaa
  6. 6. the rain and provides shade, on the other hand the building should have maximum openings to maximize the natural ventilation. These features will help the house to reach the thermal comfort and provide better indoor atmosphere. 3. Vernacular Architectural Style Mohd (1983) defined the vernacular traditional style as the attention to the place conditions, local materials, environment and the traditional habits. The most unique vernacular design elements are raising the floor construction, using the available local rainforest materials, and the flexibility of the spaces in order to cope with the tropical climate. The simple traditional Malay houses were basically built with cut jungle poles, bamboo, rattan ropes and palm trunks and leaves that are gathered around the site and that makes the houses integrated with the surrounding nature. The main structure of the traditional Malay house is timber post and beam with bamboo or wooden wall and large window openings to provide a good natural ventilation (Lim, 1984). And that reflect the large open indoor spaces (Lim 1987). The vernacular buildings designed with concept of nature respect and the ecological balance. Hassan (1998) argued that the local timbers transfer less heat due to the low thermal capacity and the palm leaves can be used as a good thermal insulation material, thus the vernacular style provides comfort against the climate. 4. Passive Design Having a passive design is having building design that does not require any mechanical heating or cooling systems, and depends on the natural air ventilation, daylight and orientation to reach the thermal comfort (Commonwealth of Australia, 2008). To achieve the thermal comfort, it means that the residents do not feel the temperature too high nor too low, or in other words Cena and Clark (1978) define it as ‘an expression of satisfaction’ to the thermal environment. This study aims to get better understanding of passive design in the tropical warm and humid climate in the South East Asia with case studies in Putrajaya Malaysia. In the last 25 years, passive thermal design gains the global awareness especially after the Rio Summit in 1992, the conference that set a primary global agenda on sustainable development. Lim in his research (1987) classified the climate in Malaysia as warm-humid temperature and described the characteristics as the following: • The average of air temperature is between 22°C and 32°C and seldom to exceed normal body temperature. • The wind is low-variable speed in general, and usually the strong wind brings rain • The region humidity is high during the year. Humidity is high throughout the year with almost 75% or more *Corresponding author (Yasser Arab).. E-mail: yasserarab2005@yahoo.com. ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/127.pdf. 129
  7. 7. The building can obtain the thermal comfort in the tropical region based on the following factors: • In order to achieve the climate comfort there are many factors must be controlled such as: temperature, humidity, glare and solar radiation in the house besides to control the rain which cause floods and sometimes the strong wind. • In order to reach the thermal comfort, 37°C the human being body temperature should be balanced with the indoor environment reducing the heat gain from the warm air and solar radiation to the minimum amount. • Providing good natural ventilation based on the air flow or the stack effect help to relieve the climate stress and provide better condition for the residence in hot and humid climate regions like Malaysia. • The main source of the heat gain is from direct solar radiations. Thus in order to reach the thermal comfort, the designers must take in consideration the building material, and shading elements in order to come out with an efficient façade design. 5. Hypothesis The research assumes that by applying vernacular style in apartment design, it guides the architects with traditional passive design elements which are embedded as part and parcel of the design in a context of tropical climate. 6. The Case Studies The two case studies are high-rise apartment buildings located in Putrajaya the capital city of Malaysia, these two case studies are about 800 metres apart from each other. This administrative capital of Malaysia was built after the federal government decision for a new capital city in the early 1990s (Moser, 2009). The city is considered as the newest and most developed city in Malaysia. Most of the buildings were designed with post-modern style which shows the mixture of traditional, modern and colonial styles (Hassan, 2005). The city was designed to be ideal garden and intelligent city with capacity of 250000 people (Scott, 1998). The city is located about 25 km south of Kuala Lumpur along the highway between Kuala Lumpur and the International Airport and this location gave her extra importance and viability as a new capital city (Ariffini, 2003;Hassan, Arab, & Ismail, 2015). 130 Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Yasser Arab and Bushra Qanaa
  8. 8. Figure 3: The two case studies location in Putrajaya (source: Google Maps) The first case study is a thirteen-story apartment building called Block 8R1 located at Jalan P8h, Presint 8, Putrajaya (Figure 3). The building has colonial architectural style like so many other building in the city of Putrajaya. The classical Greek and Roman architectural elements decorated on the building façade with triangular and semi-circular Figure (4). On the other hand the second case study as shown in Figure (5) is a seventeen stories building called Block 9A with vernacular architectural style located at Jalan P9 C/1, Presint 9, Putrajaya. The building is constructed with pyramid and pitch and overhang roofs and other traditional style elements. Figure 4: The first case study, colonial architectural style apartment. 7. Methodology This survey is able to detect thermal temperature using a thermal imager device named Fluke Ti20 (Figure 6). The equipment consists of Fluke Thermal Imager device and software. The device helps to get the thermal solution to conduct the thermal survey thorough with accurate inspections *Corresponding author (Yasser Arab).. E-mail: yasserarab2005@yahoo.com. ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/127.pdf. 131
  9. 9. in any climatic environment. From the affordable and easy-to-use Performance Series to the Professional Series, this device offers superior image quality and advanced features, to the Expert Series that gives you a premium viewing experience with highly detailed images, and an extensive feature set. The Fluke built in with the needed Infrared Camera to provide the survey results. The photo images can be stored in one location for comparison and work for approvals or questions for answers without leaving the field, for additional information. Figure 5: The second case study, vernacular architectural style apartment. Figure 6: Fluke® Ti20 device. 8. Analytical Software SmartView® software is used to view, optimize and analyse infrared images and to create a fully customisable and reports. SmartView® software is very easy to use and fits the requirement from the users. It provides the performance specialized thermographers help for advanced report and analysis. Fluke® IR-Fusion technology is a blending of digital and infrared images into a 132 Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Yasser Arab and Bushra Qanaa
  10. 10. single image. It delivers strikingly crisp detailed images, making problem detection extremely easy. SmartView® software allows the users to use this technology, to capture and annotate images and quickly import them into the reports. 9. Results of Analysis and Discussions The survey was taken by taking thermal photo shots for both of the case studies. The device places at the human eye level with a distance at 45 m apart and the photos snapped perpendicular to the building façade. The thermal photo shots were taken hourly from 2:00 pm to 5:00 pm in both of the case studies. The field survey is limited to these durations because of the full cloudy condition and raining weather usually occurred after 5:00 pm, which made the results of the survey inaccurate. It is hard to find the case study at exactly the same building orientation. Both of the case studies are located in orientation with almost the same angles with 35o degree for the first and 33o degree for the second case study. The results as illustrated in the Figures (8 to 11) and Tables (1 to 4). This research will be limited to the average of the selected points in the selected area as shown in Figure 7. The comparison will be between the averages of the points of the last five stories of the two case studies A series, B series, C series, and D series from up to down respectively. Figure 7: Selected points of case study 1 (left) and case study 2 (right)  Results analyzing at 2:00 pm: The thermal Images Figure 8: Thermal images for both case studies colonial style (left) and vernacular style (right) at 2:00 pm *Corresponding author (Yasser Arab).. E-mail: yasserarab2005@yahoo.com. ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/127.pdf. 133
  11. 11.  Results analyzing at 3:00 pm Figure 9: The thermal image for both case studies colonial style (left) vernacular style (right) at 3:00 pm  Results analyzing at 4:00 pm Figure 10: The thermal image for both case studies colonial style (left) vernacular style (right) at 4:00 pm  Results analyzing at 5:00 pm Figure 11 Thermal image for both case studies colonial style (left) vernacular style (right) at 5:00 pm 134 Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Yasser Arab and Bushra Qanaa
  12. 12. Table 1: The results (temperature point A) for both case studies. Temperature Case 1 Colonial style Case 2 Vernacular Style Time A1 A2 A3 A4 Average A1 A2 A3 A4 Average 2:00 PM 44.6 44.6 46.2 44 44.85 41.7 37.4 35.6 42 39.175 3:00 PM 41.2 47.4 46.6 40.2 43.85 41.1 41.3 46.1 49.4 44.475 4:00 PM 53.4 56.6 58 53 55.25 54.3 51.6 57.2 59.8 55.725 5:00 PM 59.4 61 60.1 59.4 59.975 50.7 51.9 57.2 58.2 54.5 Average of A1, A2, A3 and A4 50.98 Average of A1, A2, A3 and A4 48.47 Table 2: The results (temperature point B) for both case studies. Temperature Case 1 Colonial style Case 2 Vernacular Style Time B1 B2 B3 B4 Average B1 B2 B3 B4 Average 2:00 PM 44.7 44 45.3 43.4 44.35 36.4 37 39.1 46.8 39.825 3:00 PM 45.4 44.2 44.9 44.3 44.7 35.2 39.2 45.6 50.7 42.675 4:00 PM 54.6 53.1 52.7 56.3 54.175 46.2 50.4 58.2 63 54.45 5:00 PM 59.7 58.3 58.1 59.1 58.8 45.3 48.5 56.8 60.8 52.85 Average of A1, A2, A3 and A4 50.5 Average of A1, A2, A3 and A4 47.45 Table 3: The results (temperature point C) for both case studies. Temperature Case 1 Colonial style Case 2 Vernacular Style Time C1 C2 C3 C4 Average C1 C2 C3 C4 Average 2:00 PM 45.8 45.2 45.6 43.9 45.125 36.8 37.3 42.3 46.9 40.825 3:00 PM 48.2 44.8 45.4 48 46.6 37.5 41.2 46.5 51.8 44.25 4:00 PM 59.2 52.8 51.9 58.4 55.575 49.9 51.9 59.2 64.2 56.3 5:00 PM 62.9 56.1 55.3 61.6 58.975 46.5 49.3 57.4 61.4 53.65 Average of A1, A2, A3 and A4 51.57 Average of A1, A2, A3 and A4 48.76 Table 4 The results (temperature point D) for both case studies. Temperature Case 1 Colonial style Case 2 Vernacular Style Time D1 D2 D3 D4 Average D1 D2 D3 D4 Average 2:00 PM 46.7 54.3 56.3 47.8 51.275 37.4 37.9 42 47.2 41.125 3:00 PM 54.3 70.5 69.5 52.7 61.75 40.1 38.7 49.3 53.9 45.5 4:00 PM 63.9 78.3 78.8 63.8 71.2 50.6 50.4 59.7 64.3 56.25 5:00 PM 68.2 75.8 75.4 66.4 71.45 46.3 47.7 59.6 62.8 54.1 Average of A1, A2, A3 and A4 63.92 Average of A1, A2, A3 and A4 49.24 From the results, some notice points are • The highest temperature in averages in case 1 recorded at 5:00 pm with 71.45 °C at point D, while it was 56.3°C at point C in the case study 2 at 4:00 pm. • The least temperature in the first case study was 43.85 °C point A at 3:00 pm, whereas it was 39.19 °C point A in the second case study at 2:00pm. • The lowest temperature in average was 47.45°C at 3:00 pm in the colonial style followed by 50.98, 51.57 and 93.92 °C respectively at 2:00, 4:00 and 5:00 pm. • The lowest temperature in average in the vernacular style follows the same behavior *Corresponding author (Yasser Arab).. E-mail: yasserarab2005@yahoo.com. ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/127.pdf. 135
  13. 13. with 47.45, 48.47, 48.76 and 49.24°C at 3:00, 2:00, 4:00 and 5:00 pm respectively. • The highest record in average was at 5:00 pm in the colonial style with 63.92 °C, while the highest record in the vernacular style was at 5:00 pm with 49.24°C. • In average all hours shows lower temperature in vernacular style than the colonial style. 10.Conclusion The study finds that by applying the vernacular style on the second case study, the designer manages to reduce the façade surface temperature in all of the analyzing point between 3 to 15 degrees in the afternoon and evening hours comparing with the colonial style. The traditional design components and shading elements provide a slightly good sunlight shading façade performance compared to that of the colonial style’s apartment which helps to prevent the unnecessary sunlight from penetrate inside the house, thus lead to reduce solar radiation to the indoor air temperature. In other words, applying the vernacular architecture style for the second case study helps to reach the indoor thermal comfort. The study can be used as a guide for the architects and designer to apply the passive design element for their future projects. This study also finds that colonial style’s apartment has a façade design integrated with shading design similar to that of the traditional architecture like recessed wall, balcony and roof overhang. This design adjustment is inherited from the colonial architecture introduced by the architects and builders during the colonial times to cope the European styles to the tropical climatic contexts. 11.Acknowledgement The authors would like to express their appreciation for financial support under the Research University Grant No. 1001/PPBGN/816237 by Universiti Sains Malaysia. 12.References Ariffini, Shahoran Bin Johan. 2003. "Putrajaya, Malaysia." Australian Planner 40 (3): 40-42. Cena, K., & Clark, J. A. (1978). Thermal resistance units. Journal of Thermal Biology, 3(3), 173-174. Cheung, C.K., R.J. Fuller, and M.B. Luther. 2005. "Energy-efficient envelope design for high-rise apartments." Energy-efficient envelope design for high-rise apartments Vol 37. No 1, Page 37- 48. Hassan, A. S., (1998). Traditional Versus Modernity in the Rain Forest Environment with Particular Reference to Peninsular Malaysia. Unpublished Ph.D thesis. University of Nottingham. Hassan, A. S. (2005). Konsep rekabentuk bandar di Semenanjung Malaysia: Kuala Lumpur dan bandar- bandar di sekitarnya. Penang: Universiti Sains Malaysia Press. Hassan, Ahmad Sanusi, Yasser Arab, and Mazran Ismail. 2015. "Architectural Styles and Developments of Apartments in Putrajaya, Malaysia." International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies Vol6 No.3 Pages 117-123. 136 Ahmad Sanusi Hassan, Yasser Arab and Bushra Qanaa
  14. 14. Hoffman, Alexander von. 1996. "High ambitions: The past and future of American low‐income housing policy." Housing Policy Debate 7 (3): 423-446. Lim, J. Y., (1984). .ol. 12.4. Under One Roof. A World in Cities IDRC Reports. Lim, Jee Yuan. 1987. The Malay house : rediscovering Malaysia's indigenous shelter system / Lim Jee Yuan. Institut Masyarakat. Malaysia, Department of Statistics. 2010. Characteristics of Living Quarters 2010. Putrajaya: Department of Statistics Malaysia. Mohd, Ali Kamaruddin. 1983. A Vanishing Heritage: The Old Traditional Malay House. Skudai: Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Press. Moser, Sarah. 2009. "Putrajaya: Malaysia’s new federal administrative capital." Cities 27 (4): 285–297. Scott, James C. 1998. Seeing like a state: How certain schemes to improve the human condition have failed. New Haven: Yale University Press. Yeang, Ken. 1987. Tropical Urban Regionalism: Building in a South-East Asian City. Singapore: Concept Media Pte. Ltd. Professor Dr. Ahmad Sanusi bin Hassan teaches in Architecture Programme at the School of Housing, Building and Planning, University Sains Malaysia (USM). He obtained Bachelor and Master of Architecture from the University of Houston, Texas, USA. He was awarded a PhD degree from the University of Nottingham, United Kingdom. He was promoted to Associate Professor and later Full Professor. His research focuses on computer simulation on daylighting and thermal comforts, architectural history and theory, and housing in urban design. He is one of the nine regional writers involved in the preparation of Guideline: Agenda 21 for Sustainable Construction in Developing Countries: A Discussion Document, which was launched at The Earth/World Summit, Johannesburg in September 2002. At the university, he lectures in architecture courses related to urban design, studio, history, Computer Aided Design (CAD), and computer movie animation. He has integrated all these specialisations into his research, teaching, consultation and publications. He had designed several architectural projects such as mosque, USM guest house and a proposal for low-cost houses for fishermen community. Yasser Arab is a research assistant and currently pursuing his PhD in sustainable architecture on Resident’s Satisfaction and Sun Shading Model of Apartment Façade in Penang at school of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang, Malaysia, he is teaching Studio For first year student and involved in supervising student of Master of architecture. He obtained his Master degree in Sustainable Architecture from Universiti Sains Malaysia, his research was related to natural lighting in Turkish Mosques. He got his bachelor of architecture from Ittihad Private University, Aleppo, Syria. He is registered Architect in the Syrian Engineers Union. Bushra Qanaa is an architect; she obtained her bachelor of architecture from Ittihad Private University, Aleppo, Syria. She is a registered Architect in the Syrian Engineers Union. She worked for two and half years with Midmac company in Aleppo, Syria. Trademarks Disclaimer: All products names including trademarks™ or registered® trademarks mentioned in this article are the property of their respective owners, using for identification purposes only. Use of them does not imply any endorsement or affiliation. Note: The original work of this article was reviewed, accepted, and orally presented at the 3rd International Conference-Workshop on Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design (ICWSAUD 2017), a joint conference with the 3rd International Conference on Engineering, Innovation and Technology (ICEIT 2017), held at Royale Ballroom at the Royale Chulan Penang Hotel, Malaysia, during 13-15th November 2017. *Corresponding author (Yasser Arab).. E-mail: yasserarab2005@yahoo.com. ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/127.pdf. 137
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  16. 16. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://TuEngr.com Comparative Analysis of Low-Cost Housing Policies in Malaysia and Nigeria Andrew Ebekozien a*, b , Abdul-Rashid Bin Abdul-Aziz b , and Mastura Bin Jaafar b a Department of Quantity Surveying, Auchi Polytechnic, Auchi, Edo State, NIGERIA b School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia,11800 Penang, MALAYSIA A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T RA C T Article history: Received 02 September 2017 Received in revised form 21 November 2017 Accepted 25 November 2017 Available online 01 December 2017 Keywords: Low-Income-Earners, LCH policies; LCH programmes, homeless. The dearth of low-cost housing (LCH) provision in Nigeria calls for urgent attention and Malaysia as a fast-growing developing country mitigated a similar encumbrance, hence the need to review the LCH policies of the two countries. This will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms that were adopted by the Malaysian Government and suggest same to Nigerian Government with a view to mitigating homelessness in Nigerian cities. Drawing a systematic review of published literature, this paper reveals that Malaysian Government role in LCH provision is encouraging, although there are still some lacunas; already receiving the necessary attention by the stakeholders concerned. This paper reveals that the Malaysian LCH policies created opportunities for the poor, and therefore promote pro-poor growth to have a home while the Nigerian government policies encouraged inequality and enhance high disparities in access to financial credit for housing purpose by the low-income earners (LIEs) due to lack of framework and institutional failure. The paper conclude that LCH policies and programmes should be sustainable economically; socially acceptable, and technically feasible. In addition, the policies and programmes should enhance cooperation; consultation, sharing knowledge within the stakeholders and ensure that the LIEs can gain access to homes. © 2017 INT TRANS J ENG MANAG SCI TECH. 1. Introduction Low-cost housing (LCH) provision is one of the significant difficulties confronting developing nations, for example, Nigeria. The issue is more intense in the urban metropolis as there is a high rate of urbanisation happening in most of the developing countries. The high rate of populace blast, a consistent flood of individuals from these countries to the urban focuses combined with the absence of essential shelters required for a good way of life has issues throughout the years. The ©2017 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. *Corresponding author (Yasser Arab).. E-mail: yasserarab2005@yahoo.com. ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/139.pdf. 139
  17. 17. urban focuses in developing countries, Malaysia not exempted, are confronting the issue of intense deficiency of reasonable convenience, and fast weakening of existing housing stock and living conditions. The provision of housing does not by any stretch of the imagination coordinate the development of the populace in most urban focuses; which represents the momentous inadequacy in urban housing, quantitatively and subjectively (Olotuah, 2002; Bakhtyar, Zaharim, Sopian, & Moghimi, 2013). LCH needs are not coordinated by viable request since the huge greater part of the masses does not have the finance for sufficient housing. This portion of the urban populace is without a doubt are low-income earners (LIEs), poor, and is obliged to restricted, inadequate, swarmed, filthy and dirty houses (Galbraith, 1969). Access and affordability to the housing by the poor who constitute the biggest level of the populace in the developing countries have perhaps lingered persistently. In Malaysia, LCH provision is provided by both the public and private developers. Three parameters are considered when defining LCH, they are household income, selling price, and building size. Ministry of Housing and Local Government (MHLG) (1998) defined LCH as a housing unit of selling price not exceeding RM42,000 (1 US Dollar = RM4.24 as at 21st August 2017) per unit, aimed at the targeted group of household income not more than RM2,500 per month, and size of the building not more than 55.4 square meters. This comprises of one living room, two bedrooms, kitchen, toilet, and bathroom. In Malaysia, the minimum wage is RM1000 per month (Ebekozien, Abdul-Aziz, & Jaafar, 2017A). While in Nigeria, LCH provision is provided by the private developers, self-help, and public developers. The government role as provider and facilitator of LCH provision in Nigeria is weak, swallow and deplorable. Wahab (2006) defines the LIEs as all employees and self-employed persons whose monthly income is within N8,000 to N40,000 (1US Dollar = N365 as at 21st August 2017). While the minimum pay by law is N18,000/month, although most employers of labour including some state governments do default in this regards, most pathetic is that control and penalty for defaulters are weak. This should be expected because those to implement the sanction are defaulters too. Abdullahi (2013) opines that about fifty-seven percent (57%) of the Nigerian population falls below the poverty line, which is on the average of US$1 per day. World Bank (2017) reports that poverty headcount ratio at national poverty lines in Nigeria as at 2009 was 46. This is very high, as against 3.8 in the same year (2009) for Malaysia. In the year 2014, it became 0.6 in Malaysia, an indication of fast growing economy that promotes pro poor growth. Ibimilua and Ibitoye (2015) assert that the LCH policy requires a technique for the authorisation of the motivation behind the proposed projects of activity. The housing policy is gotten from laws, controls and regulatory practices that can help the creation and conveyance of housing (UN-HABITAT, 2006). A most thorough LCH policy should address the part of the government and other stakeholders, while the government may shift from the arranging and control of all parts of housing planning creation - arrive, venture, development, and inhabitancy - to mediation just at specific levels. This is an indication that the LCH policy of a nation gives the direction of the LCH stock; perhaps, a faulty LCH policy or weak implementation is likely going to 140 Andrew Ebekozien a*, b, Abdul-Rashid Bin Abdul-Aziz b, and Mastura Bin Jaafar
  18. 18. lead to LCH shortage. Aigbokhan (2008) asserts that in Nigeria, the government policies (housing inclusive) have been encouraging high inequality, hence, inequality seems to rise with growth. Some of these policies are disparities in access to human and physical capital, disparities in access to financial credit and wide differences in returns to assets. Thus, the need to review and compare the LCH policies of Malaysia and Nigeria to identify Malaysian LCH policies that promoted pro- poor growth that was used to address the housing encumbrances faced by Malaysian and suggests same to Nigerian Government cannot be overemphasised. 2. Malaysian Low-Cost Housing Policy This section categorises the Malaysian LCH policy historical development under the two distinct phases of the pre-independence (before 1957), and post-independence period (1957 to date). Stone (2006), Bahare (2017) asserts that during the colonial period before 1957, the government was the key players in housing provision. The author reviewed the Malaysian LCH but failed to identify the lacunas such as leakages in 30% housing provision. More worried is the obsolete price (RM25,000:00) stated by the author as the current price for unit of LCH. Table 1 gives the summarised details of the various policies from the pre-colonial era of the government to date. Between 1956–1964, the first 1st and 2nd Malaya Plan was rolled out. This period saw more LCH from the public sector but the private sector was not left out. The 1st Malaysia Plan (MP) (1965- 1970) had the explicit recognition of the government’s responsibility of housing the low-income groups. The 2nd Malaysia Plan (1971-1975) saw the launching of a public housing scheme for LIEs from the public sector and corporate societies encouraged to develop LCH from the private sector. This was enhanced more in the 3rd Malaysia Plan (1976-1980) from both sectors. This period saw the participation of many public agencies: Public Housing Schemes, Federal Agencies and Regional Development, Public Housing Programs, Institutional and Staff Quarters Schemes, and State Economic Development Corporation (SEDCs). The 4th Malaysia Plan (1981-1985) saw the introduction of the LCH by both sectors, and both sectors were inter-linked. Shuid (2013) asserts that the year 1982 marked a watershed in Malaysian Government imposed a 30% LCH construction on private developers to ensure the private sector, construct LCH in every residential development since 1982 during the 4th Malaysia Plan. The 5th MP (1986-1990) linked the concept of housing with social amenities to the quality of living and well-being. During this period, private developer’s contribution to LCH increased. Mohammed, David and Seow (2012) report that during the 6th MP (1991-1995), the National Development Plan came out, although private sector still played as a key player, the government created many new laws and guidelines to ensure quality housing, for example, National Housing Policy-1991 (NHP). During this period, more private developers were licensed to develop LCH program. The 7th MP (1996-2000) came up with a new housing category, known as the low-medium-cost housing to address another segment of the population struggling to get on the housing ladder. In line with this, the 8th MP targeted the eradication of squatters in Kuala Lumpur and other major urban *Corresponding author (Yasser Arab).. E-mail: yasserarab2005@yahoo.com. ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/139.pdf. 141
  19. 19. centres. Shuid (2013) and The Sun Malaysia (2016) assert that more LCH came in during the 9th MP (2006-2010), it was encouraging, including States Economic Development Corporations (SEDCs). These projects were implemented by state governments through grants and loans provided by the federal government, although not sufficient and mainly concentrated in small towns and sub-urban areas. During this period, Program Perumahan Rakyat Bersepadu (PPRB) was implemented for the resettlement of squatters. In the 10th MP (2011-2015) period, to address the issue of poor housing maintenance, the government established Housing Maintenance Fund (HMF). The Malaysian National Housing Policy (NHP) was launched on 10th February 2011, during the 10th MP (10th Malaysia Plan, 2010). The uniqueness of the Malaysia Plan is that at each MP, one can see the leading role of the government. This is an indication that the government is actually for the people. Table 1: Summary of Malaysia housing policy with emphasis on the role of public and private sectors respectively compilation from various LCH Malaya Plans (1st and 2nd 1956-1964) and Malaysia Plans (1st – 11th 1965-1970 to 2016-2020) as modified. Plan Period Public Sector Private Sector Pre-Independence & Colonial Administration Formal housing mode by British Govt., under divide and rule. Provided houses for govt staff, provided rural public low cost Program and resettlement. No precise information regarding formal housing provision from this sector. 1st & 2nd Malaya Plan (1956-1964) More low-cost housing units produced through Housing Trust Government built houses for rent and sales. Government started giving loans for private sector developer. 90% houses built for the private sector. 1st Malaysia Plan (1965-1970) Formal & structured housing programs commenced. 5 years Plans introduced. LCH was the major area of concern. Private sector developers begun to develop properties in cooperation with the state. They compliment public sec. to provide LCH 2nd Malaysia Plan (1971-1975) Housing Trust was dissolved; states took over. Public housing scheme was launched. Corporate societies started to deliver housing units. Private Sector concentrates on middle and higher income housing. 3rd Malaysia Plan (1976-1980) Public Housing Schemes, Federal Agencies & Regional Development, Public Housing Programs, Institutional & Staff Quarters Scheme, State Economic Development Corporation (SEDCs), were among many public agencies in the provision of LCH Housing development here also increased. Private Developers Cooperative Society. 4th Malaysia Plan (1981-1985) Low-cost housing introduced for implementation by both sectors. Public housing schemes, govt. agencies and regional development authority’s Housing schemes. Institutional &Staff Accommodation scheme Private sector housing Construction increased private developers cooperative society. 5th Malaysia Plan (1986-1990) Renting and selling homes (LCH); Housing schemes delivered here, eg: Public LCH scheme; Housing schemes; Institutional & Staff quarter homes for the poor (junior) staff. Private sector housing construction increased private developers cooperative society. 6th Malaysia Plan (1991-1995) Housing schemes delivered here: Public low-cost housing (PLCH) Site & Services Housing Schemes Housing Loan Schemes (HLS) Housing under Land & Regional Dev. Institutional & Staff Quarters Schemes Econ Dev. Agencies housing programs Private sector housing construction increased Licensed private developers housing Special low- cost housing program Cooperative society. 7th Malaysia Plan (1996-2000) Same as 6th Malaysia Plan Housing rehabilitation Housing by commercial agencies Same as 6th Malaysia Plan 8th Malaysia Plan (2001-2005) Same as 7th Malaysia Plan Eradicate squatters in major urban cities Same as 7th Malaysia Plan 9th Malaysia Plan (2006-2010) Public low-cost housing programme more houses. Program Perumahan Rakyat Bersepadu (PPRM) was Implemented for squatters. The private sector performed more than their planned target of low-cost housing Provision of 200%. 10th Malaysia Plan (2011-2015) Housing maintenance for public low-cost housing was embarked upon by government for new/maintenance low cost houses. Housing Maintenance Fund established. Government subsidies 30%-75% of construction costs. Private developers encourage to build-then-sell (BTS) approach with incentives. Developers accredited in usage of skilled and improved construction processes. 11th Malaysia Plan (2016-2020) Transit houses will be built for youth & young couples in urban areas, subject When there are enough savings to buy 1st home Public-private partnership encouraged. Public-private partnership (PPP) encouraged to provide homes for LIEs 142 Andrew Ebekozien a*, b, Abdul-Rashid Bin Abdul-Aziz b, and Mastura Bin Jaafar
  20. 20. The 11th Malaysia Plan (2016) reports that the 11th MP is unique to the Malaysian Government; it is the last plan before the year 2020 target of becoming a developed nation. The government will continue to play a major role in meeting the housing needs of targeted LCH group in urban and rural areas by continuing supporting existing successful programmes via financing. This includes programmes under RMR1M, PPR, My First Home Scheme, Youth Housing Scheme, MyHome. Also, houses will be built for youth and young married couples in urban areas, including those proposed under the 1 Malaysia Youth City Programme. This transit houses will be used as a transit for these young Malaysians, to give an opportunity for them to make savings to buy their home. Also, the public-private partnership will be encouraged as a key to solving the demand-supply gap of low-cost housing in Malaysia. Table 2 shows the proposed target for the various programmes under the LCH in the 11th MP (2016-2020). Can this be achieved? Whether achieved or not, there is a template guiding and reminding all relevant agencies and stakeholders to do the needful, this is missing in Nigeria. Table 2: Proposed Target for LCH during the 11th MP (2016-2020), compilation from 11th Malaysia Plan (2016) as modified. Programme Housing Unit Skim Rumah Pertamaku (SBR) 47,000 Program Perumahan Rakyat (PPR) 50,000 1 Malaysia Civil Servants Housing (PPA1M) 88,000 Rumah Mesra Rakyat 1 Malaysia (RMR1M) 55,000 Total 240,000 Malaysia’s housing policies since independence can be summed up in the following order. First, up until recently, there was no national housing policy, it was only unveiled in 2011 (Bahare, 2017). In the absence of formal housing policy document, the federal government initiated five-year Malaysian Plans (MPs) that provided a cursor for housing development (Abdul-Aziz & Kassim, 2011). The details of each plan period have been discussed extensively earlier in this section. 11th MP (2016) identified some of the policies that the government over the years have implemented to overcome the LCH challenge. Unfortunately, the problem is even now obvious as postulated by Zaid (2015) and corroborated by Abdullateef, Seong, and Lee (2016), Bahare (2017). 2.1 Encumbrances Faced by Malaysian Low-Cost Housing Policy Ebekozien et al. (2017A), (2017B) assert that Malaysia has LCH institutional and regulatory framework policy, but some factors hindered the full implementation of Malaysian LCH policy. These factors are limited land because of the country’s location, limited financial resource, limited federal grant to state governments to construct people housing programmes, the bottleneck in approval processes, federalism in LCH provision, leakages in LCH provision, and the top-bottom approach of the five years LCH plan from the federal government. However, the issue of central data-bank cannot be over emphasised. Every planner and administrator need data to coordinate their policies and strategies the formulation of policy. Hence, the incomplete and non-digital registration system did not assist the Malaysian LCH policy implementation. Ebekozien et al. (2017B) assert that over the years, some private developers developed a tactic of avoiding the construction of LCH *Corresponding author (Yasser Arab).. E-mail: yasserarab2005@yahoo.com. ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/139.pdf. 143
  21. 21. by splitting the project, so that they will not be directed to construct LCH. There are cases where some insist that development of LCH within their project area would devalue the entire project, hence, insist that another location should be given to them to construct the LCH. Most times, the locations are isolated from the cities and when completed, become difficult to get House-buyers. The authors assert that sales of LCH within or after the moratorium have become a profiteering venture to some persons; hence there is need for a reassessment of that portion. The 11th Malaysia Plan 2016 to 2020 proffer strategic solutions to these identified hindrances such as government should strengthen management and delivery of public housing programmes and promote more efficient and sustainable affordable housing for the people. Others are eliminating housing approvals that are not based on demands; reducing government maintenance funding; improving coordination in planning and implementing through the National Housing Council; encouraging residents' commitment to maintenance, cleanliness and prevention of vandalism; using potential “Waqf” and “Baitullah” land (land given over for religious or charitable purposes) for development of affordable LCH. Others are the construction of transit housing for youth; augmenting private sector participation; developing maintenance cost sharing for LCH; enhancing access to financing schemes, this is germane if we want to get the issue of LCH for the low-income earners right. The government is expected to review policies, although not to expose the lender, ensure that there is easy access to finance; creating a land bank for future needs; and establishing an integrated database of all affordable housing projects for effective planning and implementation. This is the beauty of the Malaysian housing policies, flexible and pro poor friendly. 3. Nigerian Low-Cost Housing Policy Ibimilua and Ibitoye (2015) report that Nigerian LCH policy is as old as the history of the Nigeria, however, this section categorises its historical development under the five distinct phases of the pre-independence (before 1960), the post-independence period (1960-1979), the second civilian administration (1979-1983), the military era (1984-1999), and the Third Republic to date (1999 to date). The recorded history of formal intervention into the housing sector in Nigeria dated back to the pre-independence, after the ill-fated outburst of the bubonic plaque of 1928 in Lagos. This necessitated the establishment of the Lagos Executive Development Board (LEDB) in 1955. This signifies the ushering of Nigerian public housing programmes (LCH) intervention (Aribigbola, 2008). The major characteristic of the pre-independence period was the provision of staff quarters for foreigners and other indigenous staff of parastatals and organisations in government. This period witnessed the establishment of Urban Councils in 1946, the Nigerian Building Society in 1955, as well as the Regional Housing Corporation in 1959. The post-independence period experienced some improvements in housing provision during the First National Development Plan period (1962- 1968) and the Second National Development Plan 1970-1974). However, the formulation of the National Council on Housing in 1971 led to further improvement in LCH provision. The Third National Development Plan (1975-1980) made further 144 Andrew Ebekozien a*, b, Abdul-Rashid Bin Abdul-Aziz b, and Mastura Bin Jaafar
  22. 22. improvements on LCH programmes, policies, and delivery in Nigeria. The upgrading of the Nigerian Building Society into Federal Mortgage Bank of Nigeria with the promulgation of Decree No 7 of 1977 also brought some improvements into the LCH delivery in Nigeria. The Land Use Decree (LUD) of 1978, this was promulgated to guarantee access to land by all Nigerians, came to stabilise the ownership and acquisition of land, yet no positive impact. Furthermore, during the period, the Constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria (1979) laid emphasized on the significant of local building materials and the relevance of labour and construction industry. In that same year, the Employees Housing Scheme Decree No 54 of 1979 was promulgated. This decree made provision for staff LCH estates. Ibimilua and Ibitoye (2015) argued that the LCH policy in the 1980s and 1990s was how divided society was being created. The rural areas were neglected, and the LCH stocks in the urban areas were improved upon, yet not enough. This was because of the high rate of migration to urban cities, subsequently resulted in LCH shortage in urban centres. The military era witnessed further improvements in housing policies and delivery. This was facilitated by the promulgation of the Mortgage Institutions Decree No 53 of 1989. The decree enhanced the specific objectives of the National Housing Policy. Furthermore, the Economic Liberalisation Policy of Babangida’s administration supported the participation of the private organisation in LCH delivery. This was closely followed by the promulgation of the Urban and Regional Planning Decree 88 of 1992 as well as the Nigerian National Housing Fund (NHF) Decree No 3 of 1992. The NHF was saddled with the responsibility of ensuring a continuous flow of fund for LCH construction and delivery; was the mission accomplished? No! It may interest you to note that before the millennium, the policy of “housing for all in the year 2000” was formulated. This policy was thoroughly pursued, but it was besieged by administrative bottlenecks as usual, which made the policy difficult to be realized by the year 2000, this is unfortunate. Nevertheless, in the year 2002, the Housing and Urban Development Policy was formulated. This policy was a corrective measure, to correct the inconsistencies of the Land Use Act as well as to allow finance and ownership to operate in a free market economy. Ibem, Anosike, and Azuh (2011) report that between 1975 and 2010, several LCH programmes involving direct construction by the government were initiated by both the Federal Military and Civilian Governments in Nigeria, for example, the National LCH Scheme (1975-1980), Shagari’s LCH Programme (1980-1985), the National Housing Programme (1994-1995), the National Prototype Housing Programme (2000-2003), the Presidential Housing Mandate Scheme (PMHS) (2004-2006) and PPP housing schemes. Although there are conflicting figures on the actual number of LCH units completed in each of these programmes, Table 3 reveals that between 1962 and 2010 a total of 653,271 housing units were expected to be constructed in the different LCH schemes across the country. However, only 95,594 housing units were constructed. Also, Table 3 shows that none of the previous public housing programmes achieved up to 50 percent of the targeted number of housing units. Apart from the period between 2006 and 2010 in which there was 43 percent *Corresponding author (Yasser Arab).. E-mail: yasserarab2005@yahoo.com. ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/139.pdf. 145
  23. 23. achievement, yet below 50%. UN-HABITAT (2010) opines that 61.9% of urban population in Nigeria as at 2010 lives in slums. Thus, the impact of these programmes in addressing the existing housing problems among LIEs in the country can best be described as negligible. Odunsi (2017) reports that in August 2017, Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN) rolled out a scheme called “My Own Home”. We hope this housing programme will succeed since it is joint finance by the World Bank, Federal Ministry of Finance, Federal Ministry of Power, Works and Housing, Federal Ministry of Justice, Mortgage Banking Association of Nigeria, as well as Primary Mortgage Banks through equity in the Nigeria Mortgage Refinance Company. The sadden episode of this scheme is that about 80% of the LIEs will not be able to meet the minimum requirements to participate, such as down payment, collateral, guarantor, and evidence of regular income. For an average LIE in Nigeria, it is as good as nothing. This again justified the reason for the only option available to Nigerians is self-help provision. There is no hope from the government, even the few states that construct scanty houses, the prices are not within what the LIEs can afford. There is a need for Nigerian Government to send delegates to Malaysia to study various policies and programmes of Malaysian LCH schemes, including some Malaysian States LCH programmes, complementing the federal, for example Sarawak, Selangor, and Johor. Table 3: Low-cost Housing Schemes by the Federal Government of Nigeria (1962- 2010) Compilation from Onibokun (1985), UN-HABITAT (2006), Ibem et al. (2011). Period Proposed # of housing units # housing units produced Percentage achievement 1962-1968 61,000 500 0.81 1971-1974 59,000 7,080 12 1975-1980 202,000 30,000 14.85 1981-1985 180,000 47, 234 26.24 1986-1999 121,000 5,500 4.55 2000-2003 20,000 - - 2004-2006 18,000 840 4.67 2006-2010 10,271 4,440 43.23 TOTAL 653,271 95,594 14.63 3.1 Encumbrances Faced by Nigerian Low-Cost Housing Policy Abdullahi (2013), Olawale, Lawal, and Alabi (2015) assert that not until 1991, Nigeria cannot be said to have a National Housing Policy (NHP), policies regulatory housing prior this were just the integral parts of the National Development Plans. Twenty years later, the government confessed openly its inability to achieve the then set objectives and went ahead with to review the NHP. In 2012, Nigeria received her latest NHP that promised Nigerians “real mass housing which the country has been dreaming of”. Five years later, now 2017, Nigeria with an increasing population of over 170 million, there is no evidence of providing solutions to the shortage of LCH, and housing the poorest of the poor. The government promised has become a nightmare in the eyes of Nigerians, most especially in the eyes of LIEs. Perhaps, one can say that Nigeria lacks LCH Institutional and regulatory policy framework compared to Malaysia. Akintomide (2016) reports that from a figure released in 2015 by the UN, Nigeria has an estimated figure of 24.4 million homeless citizens. This calls for concern and worries as the figure is alarming. This was the consequence of many factors such as corruption in the implementation of various past LCH policies, rapid urbanisation, poverty 146 Andrew Ebekozien a*, b, Abdul-Rashid Bin Abdul-Aziz b, and Mastura Bin Jaafar
  24. 24. and terror acts by the Boko-Haram terrorists’ organisation which had displaced over 650,000 Nigerians internally and 70,000 more as refugees in neighbouring countries. Hence, there is need to identify the challenges facing these various LCH policies in Nigeria. Several studies have been conducted by researchers to propel reasons why the past government and states supported housing policy in Nigeria neglected to give the coveted outcomes, for eaxample Ibem et al. (2011), Ibem, Opoko and Aduwo (2013), Abdullahi (2013), Olawale, Lawal, and Alabi (2015), Akintomide (2016), just to mention a few. No one study talk about open registration system as key to the provision of LCH, perhaps because the NHP did not categorically state it as key to achieving LCH. All over the world, without data, policy planning, formulation, and implementation are all fallacy. A large portion of the findings from the authors reveals that lax enforcement, bribery and corruption, lack of adequate funding, corruption in the allocation of complete housing units, political interference and the lack of adequate monitoring and evaluation of the programmes are the major cause of the backwardness of LCH provision in Nigeria. For instance, Ibem et al. (2013) explored the results of the PMHS started by the Obasanjo's organisation to give 18,000 LCH units between 2004 and 2006 utilising nearby local building materials and found that the plan was actualised in not very many states in the nation with the modest number of LCH provided. The difficulties of that scheme were identified as poor design and implementation strategies, inadequate funding and low organisational capacity of the three public agencies: National Building and Road Research Institute (NIBRRI), Association of Housing Corporations of Nigeria (AHCN) and the FMBN charged with the responsibility of implement that scheme. NHP among other functions have a responsibility to mobilize primary mortgage institutions to assist Nigerians desirous of purchasing LCH to do so, this they failed because of lack of institutional framework and open registration system. Government-sponsored mass housing schemes are supposed to be based on a three-tier institutional framework, involving Federal, State and Local Government as outlined in the National Housing Policy in 1991 and 2012. This three-tier of governments have failed in their constitutional obligation to the masses in respect to housing provision. Nigerian Government responsibility regarding the 2012 NHP objectives and strategies have more than 80% role to play, for example, grant to LIEs, subsidies to targeted group, Land Use Act Review, strengthen institution for implementation of NHP, establish secondary mortgage market, encourage training of skilled manpower for mass LCH production, etc., but government yet to meet up to 20% of these objectives, perhaps, Nigerians that belong to the target group have a long way to go. Akintomide (2016) reports that one of the uniqueness of the 2012 NHP is the emphasis on private sector participation in LCH provision (private developers), finance and investment (financial institutions) but there is a lacuna in the policy. The NHP fails to state sanctions for defaulter. In Malaysia, this was well documented and sanctions are melted to private developers who default. NHP perhaps give room for laxity with a resultant effect of poor implementation. Perhaps, this is because the Nigerian Government does not lead by example like their counterpart (Malaysia). The Malaysian Government till date is a provider and facilitator of LCH to the LIEs. *Corresponding author (Yasser Arab).. E-mail: yasserarab2005@yahoo.com. ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/139.pdf. 147
  25. 25. Thus, the Malaysian LCH policy model will assist Nigerian Government if only the political will is there to do the needful for the masses that elected them into their various political positions from the local government to federal government level. Some school of thought believes that the quote “I belong to everybody, and I belong to nobody” a quote by the President of the Federal Republic of Nigeria, during his sworn-in-ceremony on 29th May 2015, although alleged plagiarised Charles De Gaulle’s quote, as alleged by the opposition parties in the news media is only on paper. Nigerians are still finding it difficult to believe that after two and a half years of the present administration of President Buhari, housing for the poor is not having any direction or blue print for future hope. Olorode and Igbolo (2015) assert that this is a presumed government that came to fight for the masses, nothing seems to be working out, all promises made before the election as gone to “voice mail”, and this is saddened. Olukotun (2015) correctly in The Punch May 29, 2015: p. 96, doubted the feasibility of the promises to “grow the economy by 12 per cent annually, mount an elaborate social welfare programme … [employing] 25 million people [with] N5,000 monthly and dish out one free meal a day to all public primary school pupils …[get] the naira to be at par with the dollar, give Nigerians electricity round the clock”, all these mounted to zero. 4. Summary of Similarities and Differences of Both Countries LCH Policies Table 4 shows the differences and similarities of Malaysian and Nigerian LCH policies respectively. Table 4 is divided into two sections; the first section outlines the similarities that are common to both countries LCH policy, although with a slight difference in some instances, while the second section highlights the differences. Table 4 reveals that in Nigeria, self-help is one of the means of LCH provision. This is because the Nigerian Government Institutional framework and regulatory policies failed to address the needs of the LIEs. To worst the scenario, there is no policy that instructs the private developers to make provision for housing LIEs in their housing project. The Nigerian Government have a lot to learn from the Malaysian Government LCH policy in respect to price control, cross subsidization, 30% provision for LIEs, LCH subsidies in different forms both from the federal and state governments to LIEs house-buyers. Hence, these findings corroborate Abdullahi (2013) submission that country with many developmental strides, for example Malaysia seems to perform more in implementation of LCH policies and programmes than the less developmental country, for example, Nigeria. The provision of LCH scheme in Nigeria seem to have been either forgotten or has eluded the government, leaving the LIEs to their fate. In the 11th MP (2016-2020), Malaysian Government plans to provide 240,000 units of LCH via various programmes. In Nigeria, there is no template or figure to show what the federal plans to do, only few states came up with shoddy plans that is not financial viable and social accessible to the LIEs. For example, Lagos State, can LIEs afford to buy a house of N10,000,000:00 (Ten Million Naira Only) (Akintomide, 2016)? The Nigerian Government has a lot to do if this LCH policy would succeed. The Nigerian Federal Government LCH scheme from 1962-2010 was 95,594 for a population of over 170 million, refer to Table 3, 148 Andrew Ebekozien a*, b, Abdul-Rashid Bin Abdul-Aziz b, and Mastura Bin Jaafar
  26. 26. while the Malaysian Federal Government LCH scheme only from 1971-2010 was 604,517 for a population of 31.7million (Abdul-Aziz, Tah, Olanrewaju, & Ahmed, 2017). However, the implementation and monitoring of the open registration system (ORS) of both countries are weak. In the case of Nigeria, we need to start afresh while in the case of Malaysia, there is need to resuscitate the existing ORS, most especially at state level. The relevance of database in planning and implementation of policies and programmes cannot be over emphasised. Table 4: Similarities and Differences of Both Countries LCH Policies. (Compilation from Asek (2007), Aigbokhan (2008), Aribigbola (2008), Ibimilua and Ibitoye (2015), 11th Malaysia Plan (2016), Abdul-Aziz et al. (2017), Ebekozien et al. (2017A), (2017B), World Bank (2017)) Theme Malaysia Nigeria Similarities 1.Development category Developing country but aiming to become a developed nation by 2020 (feasible). Developing country, in 2000, started aiming to become developed nation by 2020 (not feasible) 2.Policy target Low-income earners in the country. Low-income earners in the country. 3.Government system/colonisation The federal system, colonised by British Government, and independence in 1957. The federal system, colonised by British Government, and independence in 1960. 4.National Housing Policy (NHP) National Housing Policy 1991, 2011, faulty open registration system (ORS). NHP 1991, 2002, 2006, 2012, faulty open registration system (ORS), no database. 5.Land admin. State matters. State matters. 6.Aim of policy Make home affordable and accessible to the LIEs. Make home affordable and accessible to the LIEs. Differences 1.Providers of LCH Public and private developers More of self-help, few public and private developers 2.Ceiling price, target income, sales within moratorium. RM 42, 000 per unit for household income not exceeding RM 2,500/month, cannot sell within 10 years. No established parameter. It is free for all, can sell same day if lucky to acquire one. There is no regulation and anti-poor. 3.Price control and cross subsidisation These two concepts are to address the needs of the LIEs. Although not very effective but in operation. The federal government does not know if the poor needs home, only a few states but price control and cross subsidisation are missing. 4.Institutional and regulatory framework There is LCH Institutional and regulatory framework policy, although need to be strengthened for better efficiency. Lacks LCH Institutional and regulatory framework policy, hence give room for “anything can go syndrome”. 5.Government role The federal provide grant and loan for housing while states complement with their various LCH programmes for the LIEs. The federal and state government gives subsidies to qualified persons, hence reduced rejection rate. Table 3 reveals that LIEs is on their own, few projects that are supposed to be for the LIEs are sold to the highest bidders. There is no control like Malaysia, hence, of no resultant effect to the LIEs. 6.Private developer’s role The law of the land direct private developer to construct 30% of LCH for 10 acres and above. This varies from state to state. It is free for all, so private developers do what they like even if the development area is 50 acres. 7.Individual role The participation of individual is low. The participation of individual is high. Most LIEs acquired their homes via this method. 7.Leakages in LCH provision Evidence of leakages in LCH provision (Ebekozien et al., 2017B). No parameter for measurement, hence, leakage is an understatement. 8.Building plan approval The districts/local authorities are the ones in charge of building plan approval. The state governments housing and planning ministry is the one in charge of building plan approval. 9.Level of LCH Policy implementation Five years housing plan (every five years), guided by NHP 2011, implementation above 50%. The NHP last reviewed was 2012, implementation only on paper, less than 10%. 10. Policies Housing policies promote pro-poor growth and reduce disparities in access to financial credit. Housing policies promote inequality between the poor and rich. Also, there is a high disparity in access to financial credit. 11. Land/Housing units (1962-2010) Limited land and 604,517 units, government lead by example. Surplus land, no policy direction and 95,594 units, poor commitment from government. 12. Poverty lines 3.8 as at 2009, 0.6 as at 2014. 46 as at 2009. This calls for concern. 5. Conclusion Although there are limitations from both countries LCH policies, this paper concluded that the Nigerian Government has a lot to learn from the Malaysian LCH policies. In the Nigerian context, *Corresponding author (Yasser Arab).. E-mail: yasserarab2005@yahoo.com. ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/139.pdf. 149
  27. 27. LCH policy strategy should be government-driven with a functional institutional framework for implementation and monitoring. This should be backed-up with necessary legislative laws and funding for better efficiency and continuity. Also, Nigerian Government should as a matter of urgent necessity embarks on cost-effective and LCH reforms to create opportunities for the poor, and thereby promote pro-poor home-ownership policies just like the Malaysia approach. There is need for the Nigerian Government to study the Malaysian LCH Policies, if genuinely, the wishes of the masses to be sheltered is their goal. In the Malaysian context, there is need for more cooperation, consultation, sharing knowledge within the stakeholders, setting aside politics to getting the Malaysian LCH provision to the global standard and a resultant effect of making homes available to every Malaysian household before the year 2020. Provision of Malaysian LCH by private developers should henceforth be based on targeted cumulative acres/units as it applies to state by state as against per project. This would put to check developers that have over the years tactically avoided the provision of LCH by “project splitting”. Also, Malaysian Government should create an agency/unit/department within the Ministry of Housing with sole responsibility to coordinate all sales, auctions and rental issues with LCH. The unit among others will ensure that only LIEs should be eligible to participate in auction/sales/rent of LCH. This unit should be back-up with legislative power and well funded to buy LCH auctioned property and recycle via the waiting eligible list. This measure would mitigate illegal transactions and profiteering that takes place in LCH market. There is the need for both countries to revamp their open registration system to ensure easy monitoring and implementation of policies. This paper has succeeded in given useful and practicable housing policies to the Nigerian Government to solve problems confronting LIEs in the society. Therefore, sustainability of LCH provision for LIEs is inevitable; hence, LCH policies and programmes should be economically viable, socially acceptable, and technically feasible with all parties genuinely involved. This paper therefore recommends a further study to test the suggested new measures in the field that would strengthen and improve the Malaysian LCH Policies. 6. References Abdul-Aziz, A-R., & Kassim, P. S. (2011). Objectives, success and failure factors of housing public- private partnerships in Malaysia. Habitat International, 35(1), 150-157. Abdul-Aziz, A-R., Tah, J. H. M.., Olanrewaju, A. L., & Ahmed, A. U. (2017). The nexus between government and private developers in Malaysia housing sector. In Sengupta, U., and Shew, A. (Eds.). Country of age: trends and issues in housing in Asia Cities. London: Routledge. Abdullahi, C. B. (2013). Low-income housing policy: a comparative study of Malaysia and Nigeria. PhD Thesis submitted to University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Abdullateef, O., Seong, Y., & Lee, L. (2016). Rethinking affordable housing delivery: an analytical insight. MATEC Web of Conferences. Aigbokhan, E. B. (2008). Growth, inequality and poverty in Nigeria. Economic Commission for Africa. ACGS/MPAMS Discussion Paper No.3, held in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. 150 Andrew Ebekozien a*, b, Abdul-Rashid Bin Abdul-Aziz b, and Mastura Bin Jaafar
  28. 28. Akintomide, D. (2016). Only 5% of Nigerian housing stock affordable; building for LIE not profitable, experts react. Nigerian News Direct. Retrieved from www.nigeriannewsdirect.com/only. Aribigbola, A. (2008). Housing policy formulation in developing countries: Evidence of Programme Implementation from Akure, Ondo State-Nigeria. Journal of Human Ecology 23(2), 125-134. Asek, B. M. (2007). The people housing programme: a study on the implementation of Federal Government housing in Peninsular Malaysia. Unpublished PhD. Thesis, University of Malaya, Malaysia. Bahare, F. (2017). Evaluation of national policy toward providing low-cost housing in Malaysia. International Journal of Social Sciences, 6(1), 9-19. Bakhtyar, B., Zaharim, A., Sopian, K., & Moghimi, S. (2013). Housing for poor people: a review on low-cost housing process in Malaysia. WSEAS Transactions on Environment and Development, 2(9), 126-136. Ebekozien, A., Abdul-Aziz, A-R, & Jaafar, M. (2017A). Federalism in low-cost housing provision in Malaysia. Proceedings of 2nd USM-International Conference on Social Sciences (USM- ICOSS) 2017, held 23-25 August, p.153-160, at The Gurney, Resort Hotel and Residence, Penang, Malaysia. Ebekozien, A., Abdul-Aziz, A-R, & Jaafar, M. (2017B). Leakages in low-cost housing provision in Malaysia. Proceedings of 2nd USM-International Conference on Social Sciences (USM- ICOSS) 2017, held 23-25 August, p.161-168, at The Gurney, Resort Hotel and Residence, Penang, Malaysia. Eleventh Malaysia Plan. (2016). Eleventh Malaysia Plan 2016-2020. Kuala Lumpur: Percetaken Nasional Malaysia Berhad. Ibem, E. O., Anosike, M. N., & Azuh, D. E. (2011). Challenges in public housing provision in the post- independence era in Nigeria. International Journal of Human Sciences, 8(2), 421-443. Ibem, E. O., Opoko, A. P., & Aduwo, E. B. (2013). The challenges of public housing in a democratic Nigeria: a case study of the Presidential Mandate Housing Scheme. Scottish Journal of Arts, Social Sciences and Scientific Studies, 9(1), 23-39. Ibimilua, A. F., & Ibitoye, O. A. (2015). Housing policy in Nigeria: an overview. American International Journal of Contemporary Research, 5(2), 53-59. Mohammed, Y. U., David, M., & Seow, T. W. (2012). The current practices of the Malaysian formal low-cost housing provision system. Proceedings of international conference of technology management, business and entrepreneurship, 211-237. Odunsi, W. (2017, August 28). CBN reveals how Nigerians can own a new home, pay within 25 years. Daily Post. Retrieved from www.dailypost.ng/2017/08/28/cbn Olawale, S. B., Lawal, A. A., & Alabi, J. O. (2015). Nigeria housing policy: any hope for the poor? American Research Journal of Humanities and Social Sciences, 1(4), 29-35. Olorode, O., & Igbolo, A. M. (2015). Determinants of the outcomes of the 2015 general elections in Nigeria. The real issues and their implications. A paper presented at the Conference of the Electoral Institute, Abuja, Nigeria. Olotuah, A. O. (2002) Towards meeting low-income earners housing needs in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria Journal of the Nigerian Institute of Town Planners. 15, 15-24. Olukotun, A. (2015, May 29). Will Buhari break the jinks of underperformance? The Punch, p.96. *Corresponding author (Yasser Arab).. E-mail: yasserarab2005@yahoo.com. ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/139.pdf. 151
  29. 29. Onibokun, A. G. (1985). Housing needs and responses: A planner’s viewpoints. In A. G. Onibokun (ed.). Housing in Nigeria. Ibadan: Nigerian Institute for Social and Economic Research. Shuid, S. (2013). Low medium cost housing in Malaysia: Issues and challenges. ResearchGate, 1-13. Stone, M. E. (2006). What is housing affordability? The case for the residual approach. Housing Policy Debate, 17(1), 151-184. Tenth Malaysia Plan. (2011). Eleventh Malaysia Plan 2011-2016. Kuala Lumpur: Percetaken Nasional Malaysia Berhad. The Sun Malaysia. (2016, October 24). Bringing affordable housing to the people. The Sun Malaysia. Retrieved from http://www.pressreader.com UN-HABITAT. (2006). National trends in housing – production practices Volume 4: Nigeria, Nairobi: United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. Abuja: Author. UN-HABITAT. (2010). The State of African Cities 2010-governance, inequality, urban land markets, Nairobi: United Nations Human Settlements Programme. Abuja: Author. Wahab, E. (2006). Independent judiciary and sustainable democracy. In challenges of sustainable democracy in Nigeria, 209-234. Ibadan: John Archers. World Bank. (2017). Poverty headcount ration at national poverty lines (% of population). Retrieved from https//data.worldbank.org/indicator Zaid, M. S. (2015). Measuring operational affordability of public low-cost housing in Kuala Lumpur. A case study of people’s housing programme public low-cost housing in Kula Lumpur. International Journal of Social Science, 4(4), 54-74. Andrew Ebekozien is a senior lecturer at Auchi Polytechnic Auchi, Edo State, Nigeria. He earned his bachelor degree from Federal University of Technology Akure (FUTA). He is taking a graduate study at Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia. His research is related to low-cost housings. Professor Dr.Abdul-Rashid Bin Abdul-Aziz is a Professor at the School of Housing Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia. Professor Rashid holds a B.Sc Hons. in Quantity Surveying from University of Reading, M.Sc. Construction Management from Brunel, and Ph.D. from Reading. His area of interests are International Contracting and Foreign Work. Professor Sr. Dr. Mastura Bin Jaafar is a Professor and currently attached to the Quantity Surveying program at the School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia. She earned her BSc (Building Economic and Management), MSc (Project Management), and PhD (Strategic Management) from Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia. Her areas of research, publication, and supervision interests include strategic management in the construction, housing, and tourism industries, entrepreneurship, project management and procurement management. Note: The original work of this article was reviewed, accepted, and orally presented at the 3rd International Conference-Workshop on Sustainable Architecture and Urban Design (ICWSAUD 2017), a joint conference with the 3rd International Conference on Engineering, Innovation and Technology (ICEIT 2017), held at Royale Ballroom at the Royale Chulan Penang Hotel, Malaysia, during 13-15th November 2017. 152 Andrew Ebekozien a*, b, Abdul-Rashid Bin Abdul-Aziz b, and Mastura Bin Jaafar
  30. 30. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies http://TuEngr.com A Study on Kevin Lynch’s Urban Design Elements: Precinct 9 East Putrajaya Norul Fazlina Khashim a* , Mazran Ismail a , Ahmad Sanusi Hassan a and Najib Taher Al-Ashwal a a School of Housing, Building and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia,11800 Penang, MALAYSIA A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T RA C T Article history: Received 31 August 2017 Received in revised form 17 November 2017 Accepted 25 November 2017 Available online 01 December 2017 Keywords: Built environment; Mental mapping; Mental Image; Urban Modern; . Urban design elements are very important in defining a place, intended for people to easily understand what opportunities it offers. This paper presents a case study of the urban design elements in Precinct 9, Putrajaya which refers to physical form by defining and examining five urban design elements i.e. paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks. This paper discusses the relationship and the quality of these variables to evaluate response towards urban context in connects between people and the places. This research is used qualitative analyses method by studying the urban elements through the inventory of the layout plan, observations and interview the residents to determine its characteristics and to evaluate on the response of the community. The main findings of this research showed that Precinct 9, Putrajaya has successfully applied these urban design elements in its planning and play a specific role in turning urban areas functional, vibrant and attractive. This study showed that urban development with quality urban design elements in Precinct 9, Putrajaya managed to connects between people and the places. © 2017 INT TRANS J ENG MANAG SCI TECH. 1. Introduction The built environment includes buildings, streets and elements is functions to shape to integrate the urban form. Urban design core objective is based from structural, functional and aesthetical form of planned and designed city (Moughtin, 1999). The relationship between people and the place could be established through visual perception and the senses with the urban design elements. It also became an important part to build the environment of a neighbourhood, town or city. At various parts in Malaysia, urban design directions are low compared to the modern designed city. The authority already takes some initiatives to improve the social and economic but the urban design direction still poor in the physical quality aspects. Based on the research by Hall (2014), the planning of a city must be based and focused on the making of spatial order. It is believed to be a ©2017 International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. *Corresponding author (N.F.Khashim). Tel: +60-19-3331174 E-mail: norulfazlina@student.usm.my ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/153.pdf. 153
  31. 31. unique form of planning as it focuses on the spatial plans and their application. Putrajaya, known as the federal administrative center of Malaysia, are located about 30 km south of Kuala Lumpur and it is named after the first Prime Minister, Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra. Putrajaya is designed as a smart city and a town in modern garden city, has started its project in 1990s and began operating when the federal administrative center was shifted from Kuala Lumpur in 1999 because of overcrowding and congestion. Putrajaya is the focus of strategic planning by the surroundings with landscaped streets, beautiful gardens and a monument in the middle of greenery in urban areas. Precinct 9 is a residential area where there are many public amenities located near one another. All the amenities are within a short walking and driving distance. Public transport is also readily available and a monorail project has been planned to be made here. The design of housing here is very modern with western-style features with no fence or gates around the house. Although there is doubt in terms of the supervision and safety, residential areas here are regularly patrolled by local police forces. Most of the population is made up of civil servants from various government agencies. The residential areas are surrounding the government building which is the workplace for most residents, it provides easy access for the residents commuting from home to work. Furthermore, recreational facilities and social and community complex nearby residents here make life more comfortable, well-planned and organized. Lynch, K. (1960) analyzed on the way a citizen can successfully function in his own environment as well as interacting with the other citizens. By defining a legible city as a characterized visual quality of clear space, he believed in the importance of a city’s public image. He concluded that the way finding for the individual inside the city must be an easy and quick movement as the city creates a mental image. This paper presents a case study of the urban design elements in Precinct 9, Putrajaya which refers to physical form by defining and examining five urban design elements i.e paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks. Researcher make judgements on the quality and how the elements can produce connections between people and the places, movement and urban physical form into the formation of places with the goal of making urban areas functional, vibrant and attractive. From the study, it is expected to find out whether the site successfully adapt the urban design elements not only on its usage, but the also the urbanity of the space. it could be used as a standard to measures the quality of the urban design fabrics in relation to their space characteristics. The following objectives are incorporated in the study: i. To determine on how the urban design elements are being implemented in Precinct 9, Putrajaya. ii. To measure the effectiveness of the urban design elements used in urban planning. The reasons of choosing the site are: (1) it is a relatively new development and symbolizes Malaysia’s ideology and aspirations for new urbanism and (2) it can be easily accessed for the purpose of conducting this study. Furthermore, this would help to obtain specified results in the 154 N. F. Khashim, M. Ismail, A.S. Hassan and N.T. Al-Ashwal
  32. 32. study of the application of urban design elements in Precinct 9, Putrajaya. 2. Literature Review Mental image or mental mapping has an important influence on our experience about the city. According to (Sulsters (2005), Brettel, (2006) and McAndrew (1993)), the formation of mental image comes from the field of science cognitive psychology. It can bring strong response and perception in attracting people to pleasant places. Image is the set of beliefs, ideas, and impressions that a person holds regarding a city (Kotler, 1993). Therefore, image is the mental picture that people hold about that city. Understanding these mental pictures is important because ‘‘people’s attitudes and actions toward a city are highly conditioned by that city’s image (Kotler, 1997; Jaffe & Nebenzahl, 2006). Kevin Lynch (1960) has introduced the urban design elements from his research over a five- year study of Jersey City, Los Angeles and Boston on his observation towards information of a city and use it to create a mental map. Lynch's conclusion was that people formed mental maps of their surroundings consisting of five basic elements. The five kinds of basic urban design elements which people create their mental images of a city are paths, edges, districts, nodes and landmarks. Based on Lynch (1960), path is considered as the most important elements in urban design and it is the first element designed in planning. Path is defined as the passages that experiences from the people moves: walkways, streets, transit line, railroads and canals. This is the most important element in people's mental image toward the city. While, edges are defined as the boundaries that separate the continuity which is not use as paths: shores, railroad cuts, edges of development, walls. Districts are the medium-to-large sections of the city which the observer mentally enters "inside of," and which are recognizable as having some common, identifying character (Lynch, 1960). Node is a point, the strategic and important spot which are the intensive foci in a city. They may be primarily concentrations or junctions. In another word, nodes can be defined as the gathering point in the city. In addition, the location of nodes determines their utilization as placing nodes on the main routes can make the movement more efficient than those located far away from the main routes. Landmarks also can be defined as another type of point-reference, but it’s only can be seen from the external. It is usually defined as a physical object: sign, mountain, store or building. The legibility of a city usually depends on landmarks as they act as very important cues in way finding process for every individual in the city (Lynch, 1960). 3. Research Methodology This study adopts case study approach in which fieldwork in undertaken. Observation technique are used to ensure that maximum capacity of information can be collected and to be free to observe the urban elements more detail based on the five urban design elements that identified by Kevin Lynch theories. The visual quality that forms the urban physical character were observed in *Corresponding author (N.F.Khashim). Tel: +60-19-3331174 E-mail: norulfazlina@student.usm.my ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/153.pdf. 155
  33. 33. detailed on the selected location of this study. There is only one site selected that are used as a pilot study. The most rational single case in the research need confirmation, challenge or extend theory (Yin, 1994). A single case study approach had been used to examine the applicability of the use of mental image technique by observation. A qualitative research is chosen for the reasons: (1) to explore the urban design elements in Precinct 9, Putrajaya to understand the site fully, (2) to understand the context of the site by observing and collecting data in person and (3) to give a clear explanation on the five elemental components of urban design by using residential survey to help form the hypothesis. This observation was conducted within a period of one week starting from the 1st to 7th April 2017 and from 8.00 am to 5.00 pm. The information obtained from this observation technique will be described through several diagrams accurately by category of the urban design elements which has been listed on this study. A literature review of secondary printed sources such as books, journals, and articles was conducted to gain a background understanding of urban design elements. Others than that, the analysis of quantitative and qualitative data collected via non-structure interview will be analyzed and documented. Random face-to-face non-structure interviews were conducted on-site. The interviews provided a more in-depth understanding of the residents towards the perception of their neighbourhood unit. They were conducted informally with the residents at random while doing site inventory. Such materials as photographs, clinical record case, video, movies, memos, letters, diaries were use as the supportive documents for interviews and observations (Bogdan, R.C., & Biklen, S.K, 1998). 4. Study Results 4.1 Description of the Site Area Based on stern et al. (2013) the movement of a garden city has been among the main factors in the urban planning of a city. The city is separated by 20 precincts with the goals of garden city as its direction, already well-planned with five areas in the core area which comprise of government, commercial, civic, mixed development as well as sports and recreational. The remaining fifth teen precinct is designed as functional support of core area known as peripheral area and others twelve of the precinct is dedicated for residential neighbourhood. Malaysia has experienced spectacular urban spatial transformation from traditional water village, British colonialism to pre- & post- independent and now the fast growing modern urban design (Hassan, 2005). Putrajaya is known as the major intelligent garden city in Malaysia, 30% from the 14,780 hectares if the area is specifically build for administrative center with the remaining the build for the urban garden city. In the early 1990s the Malaysian government had decided to build Putrajaya to be the administrative capital for the federal government of Malaysia (Moser, 2009). The city located about 25km south of Kuala Lumpur on the highway between Kuala Lumpur and the International Airport and this location gave her extra importance and viability as a new city (Ariffini, 2003). The selected area of Precinct 9 which was chosen as a case study in this research is the east of Putrajaya city 156 N. F. Khashim, M. Ismail, A.S. Hassan and N.T. Al-Ashwal
  34. 34. (Figure 1). The Precinct 9 is located in the east of Wilayah Persekutuan Putrajaya, in a modern urban design concept and residential neighbourhood. Precinct 9 offers a proper mix of open space and land uses combined with a range of public realm initiatives that creates a vibrant urban neighbourhood. The selected location of this study area can be seen in Figure 2. Figure 1: The selected area of Precinct 9, East Putrajaya (The case study). Figure 2: The selected location of this study area in the city (Precinct 9) 4.2 Urban Design Elements 4.2.1 Path Paths can be defined as the channel of movement within the city such as alleys, streets, railroads, motorways and canals. The importance of paths can be identified through their identity. This could be achieved by the strength in building facade along the paths as well as specifies features such as pavement textures and plantings. Accessibility to precinct 9, Putrajaya are visible due to main intersections towards the precinct have clear signage and it is easier to people around the precinct to find the way. Furthermore, the colorful and decoration landscape gives the users a *Corresponding author (N.F.Khashim). Tel: +60-19-3331174 E-mail: norulfazlina@student.usm.my ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/153.pdf. 157
  35. 35. sense of welcoming when they enter to the area. Based on the site survey, people can easily find the ways around the precinct without getting lost due to the reason of legibility in designing the paths. Moreover, the paths in the precinct are clearly defined as one enters the site. Figure 3: Paths configurations that showing different type of roads. The selected study site was in the middle of a modern city. Therefore, there is only land route can be accessed through the site (Figure 3). This area can be accessed through the highway of Persiaran Utara. Persiaran Utara is a major highway in Putrajaya. It connects Putrajaya-Cyberjaya Expressway interchange in the west to Putrajaya and interchange of the South Klang Valley Expressway in the north. The major routes that were passable and nearby to the site is from Lebuh Perdana Barat which connects to the Putrajaya roundabout and also Lebuh Sentosa which connects Precinct 11 in the north and to the Core Island of Putrajaya in the south. These three main routes have 3 lanes with minimum road width of 3.5 meter including the shoulder of the road to allowing traffic conditions are always good and safely. 158 N. F. Khashim, M. Ismail, A.S. Hassan and N.T. Al-Ashwal
  36. 36. Furthermore, Persiaran Barat and Jalan P9 become the secondary entrance routes to the site. These roads will be highly or partially congested during 8-9am and 5-6pm. This is because the study area is a residential zone there have the movement of the residents before and after office hours. Each of the main road act as divider to each precinct. The importance of paths is to divide the territory and functions of area. In fact, it generates the different way of architectural values, and density between these two cities. There are varieties of experience feelings by researcher in understanding certain conditions on the route: the narrowness of laneways, high bridges over water, or surfaces which are smooth or rough or sloped or stepped (Lynch, 1960). The strength of the site study is a planned city that is already designed pedestrian pathways at every road which has been separated. The separation of pedestrian pathways from vehicular traffic encourages playful use of public space, and does not merely optimize efficient flows. It allows users to forget the practicalities of watching out for traffic and to focus on the various other sensations available as they move along a path. Figure 4: The edges line within the site study as a separation between two sections that breaks its areas and functions. 4.2.2 Edges Edge is a separation between two sections that breaks its continuity such as sewers, or by a sharp contrast in density or the built environment (Figure 4). Edges is the boundary of an area which is topological, something which an observer can position themselves, rather than the district (Dalton and Bafna, 2003). The planning authority’s attempt to create a green city in Putrajaya seems to reflect onto the precinct edges as it encourages people to explore the precinct. *Corresponding author (N.F.Khashim). Tel: +60-19-3331174 E-mail: norulfazlina@student.usm.my ©2017. International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies. Volume 8 No.3 ISSN 2228-9860 eISSN 1906-9642. Online Available at http://TUENGR.COM/V08/153.pdf. 159

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