2013 American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences.

American Transactions on
Engineering & Applied Sciences
htt...
1. Introduction
KDML105 is a rice variety with very good aromatic and soft cooking qualities, and therefore it
is signific...
conditions with the spacing 25 x 25 cm at Khlong 5 of Khlongluang and Khlong 7 of Nongsua in
Pathumthani using the same fe...
Table 1:
Plant height, harvest age, drought tolerance, photo insensitivity of 4 M4 mutated
lines selected under upland and...
this can cause the four lines to have more fertilizer responses viz their seed yields will increase as
the level of fertil...
respectively, while KDML105 gave the lowest seed yields (457.5 and 435.0 kg). Their grain
qualities ie. amylose contents, ...
Vittayatheerarat, P., Purivirojkul, W., and Wuthara, L. (1990). Improvement of RD23 for Blast
resistance by irradiation. R...
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Gamma-ray Induced Mutation of KDML105 for Photo Insensitivity, Short Harvest Age and Drought Tolerance

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Three Thousand M1 seeds of KDML105 induced by 20 k-rad gamma-ray were grown for M1 Plants to produce M2 seeds for growing M2 plants. Segregated M2 plants were selected based on photo insensitivity, short stature, short harvest-age, drought tolerance, good growth with high seed yield under upland conditions. Seventy-two M2 lines were selected and their M3 seeds were grown as hill per line under upland conditions and 12 hills of 70th line were selected. M4 seeds of the selected hills were grown under both upland and transplanting conditions and 4 lines were selected namely KDML105’ 10 GR-TU-70-3, KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-6, KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-8 and KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-10. Their M5 seeds were grown 4 rows per hill under both upland and transplanting conditions at Khlong5 and Khlong7 in Pathumthani. The results showed that all 4 selected lines had regular short statures and harvest ages, and the lines giving higher seed yields per rai (1600sq.m.) than KDML105 from high to low were KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-10 (529.5 and 536.0 kg), KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-8 (522.0 and 528.5 kg), KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-6 (469.0 and 509.0 kg), and KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-3 (465.5 and 505.0 kg), respectively. Their grain amylose contents, gel consistencies, alkali levels, and elongation ratios were 15-17%, 70-80 mm, 6.9-7.0, and 1.7-1.8, respectively while their cooking qualities were aromatic and soft with good taste, the same as KDML105.

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Gamma-ray Induced Mutation of KDML105 for Photo Insensitivity, Short Harvest Age and Drought Tolerance

  1. 1. 2013 American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS Gamma-ray Induced Mutation of KDML105 for Photo Insensitivity, Short Harvest Age and Drought Tolerance Boonhong Chongkid a a* Department of Agricultural Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Thammasat University, Rangsit Campus, Khlongluang, Pathumthani 12121, THAILAND ARTICLEINFO ABSTRACT Article history: Received 06 June 2013 Received in revised form 22 July 2013 Accepted 25 July 2013 Available online 29 July 2013 Three Thousand M1 seeds of KDML105 induced by 20 k-rad gamma-ray were grown for M1 Plants to produce M2 seeds for growing M2 plants. Segregated M2 plants were selected based on photo insensitivity, short stature, short harvest-age, drought tolerance, good growth with high seed yield under upland conditions. Seventy-two M2 lines were selected and their M3 seeds were grown as hill per line under upland conditions and 12 hills of 70th line were selected. M4 seeds of the selected hills were grown under both upland and transplanting conditions and 4 lines were selected namely KDML105’ 10 GR-TU-70-3, KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-6, KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-8 and KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-10. Their M5 seeds were grown 4 rows per hill under both upland and transplanting conditions at Khlong5 and Khlong7 in Pathumthani. The results showed that all 4 selected lines had regular short statures and harvest ages, and the lines giving higher seed yields per rai (1600sq.m.) than KDML105 from high to low were KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-10 (529.5 and 536.0 kg), KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-8 (522.0 and 528.5 kg), KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-6 (469.0 and 509.0 kg), and KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-3 (465.5 and 505.0 kg), respectively. Their grain amylose contents, gel consistencies, alkali levels, and elongation ratios were 15-17%, 70-80 mm, 6.9-7.0, and 1.7-1.8, respectively while their cooking qualities were aromatic and soft with good taste, the same as KDML105. Keywords: gamma-ray; induced mutation; photo insensitivity; short harvest age; drought tolerance. 2013 Am. Trans. Eng. Appl. Sci. *Corresponding author (B. Chongkid). Tel/Fax:+66-2-5644488 E-mail address: boonhong@tu.ac.th. 2013. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 2 No. 4 ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V02/269-275.pdf 269
  2. 2. 1. Introduction KDML105 is a rice variety with very good aromatic and soft cooking qualities, and therefore it is significantly favorite to Thai and foreign consumers around the world. However, its weakpoints are photo sensitivity causing being able to be grown only one crop in the wet season, long harvest age of 120-150 days causing high investment in cultural practices, tall stature causing lodging when applied with a high fertilizer level, and low-moderate drought tolerance causing farmers to use a lot of water in growing it. Improvement of KDML105 for photo insensitivity, short harvest age, short stature and more drought tolerance is therefore essential for growing more than one crop a year, using less water under upland and lowland conditions and this can result in increasing farmers’ income and agricultural sustainability. One of good methods in improvement of rice varieties for such better characteristics is seed induced mutation with the gamma-ray at 20 k-rads (Dasananda et al., 1968). RD6 glutinous rice variety was derived from KDML105 irradiated with the gamma-ray and it has been grown widely by Thai farmers (Department of Agriculture, 1980). RD15 was derived from KDML105 irradiated with the gamma-ray and it has been grown widely because of its short stature with lodging tolerance and brown planthopper resistance (Chongkid, 2004). RD9, RD7 and PTT60 were irradiated with the gamma-ray to induce their grain protein levels, Blast resistance and short stature, respectively (Vittayatheerarat et al., 1990). The fast neutron-ray was also used to induce RD1 to produce RD10 which has photo insensitivity and good cooking quality (Khambanonda, 1981). The two high yielding rice varieties in China, Yuanfen Qzao and Zhefu 802 were derived from irradiating some Chinese rice varieties and they have been widely grown in China (Wang, 1991). Many successes in inducing mutation by irradiating Japanese rice varieties to obtain their higher grain yields and qualities have been reported as well (Kawai and Amano, 1991). In Australia, there have been some reports in improving some rice varieties for their tolerance to some adverse environmental conditions and higher grain yields (IAEA, 1980). 2. Materials and Methods Three thousand seeds of KDML105 were irradiated with 20 k-rad gamma-ray and the M1 seeds were derived before being grown in pots with soil using 30 kg/rai (1600 m2) ammonium phosphate (16-20-0) at one day before planting and 20 kg/rai (1600 m2) ammonium sulphate (21%N) at 30 days after planting to produce M2 seeds. The M2 seeds were grown under upland 270 Rohit Sharma, Gurmohan Singh, and Manjit Kaur
  3. 3. conditions with the spacing 25 x 25 cm at Khlong 5 of Khlongluang and Khlong 7 of Nongsua in Pathumthani using the same fertilizers at the same rates and application times as in M1 seeds. M2 plants were selected based on photo insensitivity, short stature not higher than 100 cm, short harvest age not longer than 100 days, good drought tolerance, acid soil tolerance, and dirty panicle disease resistance to produce M3 seeds. The M3 seeds from the selected plants were grown as plant per row in the same two locations with the same methods under upland conditions and reselected based on the same good performances to produce the M4 seeds. The M4 seeds of the selected plants were grown both under upland and transplanting conditions at the same two locations using the same methods as in upland conditions while ammonium phosphate (16-20-0) and ammonium sulphate (21%N) at the same rates used in upland conditions were applied at one day before transplanting and 30 days after transplanting, respectively. Good single rows of M4 plants were selected and separately harvested from row to row to get M5 seeds of the selected M4 plants. The M5 seeds of the selected plants were grown as 4 rows per hill for performance observation using the same methods as in the M4 plants under both upland and transplanting conditions in 5 replications of RCB design at the same two locations. Some parts of seeds from the M5 selected plants were grown to evaluate for drought tolerance and grain qualities based on amylose content, gel consistency, alkali test, elongation ratio, aroma level and cooking quality following the methods of Naivikul (2004), Cagampang et al. (1973) and Juliano (1985) in order that the mutated lines with good performances and characteristics could be selected. KDML105 was also grown for the comparison with all mutated generations selected. 3. Results and Discussion Seventy-two lines of M2 plants were selected based on photo insensitivity, short harvest age not longer than 100 days, short stature not higher than 100 cm, drought tolerance, good growth and good seed yield components. Twelve hills of 70th line of selected M3 plants were selected under upland conditions based on the required characteristics and the four lines of M4 plants were selected under both upland and transplanting conditions namely KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-3, KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-6, KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-8 and KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-10 as in Table 1. *Corresponding author (B. Chongkid). Tel/Fax:+66-2-5644488 E-mail address: boonhong@tu.ac.th. 2013. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 2 No. 4 ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V02/269-275.pdf 271
  4. 4. Table 1: Plant height, harvest age, drought tolerance, photo insensitivity of 4 M4 mutated lines selected under upland and transplanting conditions at Khlong 5 and Khlong 7 of Pathumthani 1 plant height (cm) Harvest age (day) photo insensitivity upland transplanting upland transplanting upland transplanting Line conditions conditions conditions conditions      98 96 95 95 96 95 93 92 91 91 88 87 98 97 95 96   154 151 156 167   KDML105’10GR-TU-70-6 KDML105’10GR-TU-70-8 KDML105’10GR-TU-70-10 KDML105  = photo insensitivity  : conditions  KDML105’10GR-TU-70-3 1 conditions = photo sensitivity The four selected M5 lines could give more regular short plant heights and significantly yielded higher than that of KDML105. In addition, they also had low amylose content percentages (15-17), high gel consistencies (70-80 mm), high alkali levels (6.9-7.0), elongation ratios (1.7-1.8) and moderate aroma level (2) as same as those of KDML105 as well as moderately high drought tolerance (2) as in Table 2. Table 2 : Seed yield per rai (1600 m2), grain quality and drought tolerance of 4 selected M5 lines. 1 Line KDML105’10GR-TU70-3 KDML105’10GR-TU70-6 KDML105’10GR-TU70-8 KDML105’10GR-TU70-10 KDML105 1 : 2 : : : 3 : 4 : seed yield/rai (1600 m2) (kg) upland conditions transplanting conditions 4 K5 K7 X K5 K7 X 464 b 467 b 465.5 504 b 506 b 505.5 2 physical grain quality AC GC ATL ER AL 468 b 470 b 469.0 508 b 510 b 520 a 524 a 522.0 528 a 528 a 531 a 529.5 419 c 416 c 457.5 3 (%) (mm) 17 70 6.9 1.7 2 drought tolerance (0-7) 3 509.0 15 80 7.0 1.7 2 2 529 a 528.5 15 80 7.0 1.8 2 2 534 a 538 a 536.0 15 80 7.0 1.8 2 2 432 c 438 c 435.0 15 79 7.0 1.7 2 3 The same superscript letter in each column denotes no significant Difference with 95% confidence limit (P<0.05) rai is an area unit in Thai, 1 rai = 1600 m2 X = mean AC = amylose content, GC = gel consistency, ALT = alkali test level, ER = elongation ratio, AL = aroma level (Pathumthani Rice Research Center, 2007) drought tolerance levels, the lower number denotes more drought tolerance (IRRI, 1988) K5 = Khlong5, K7 = Khlong7 From Tables 1 and 2, all four mutated lines had lower plant heights than that of KDML105 and 272 Rohit Sharma, Gurmohan Singh, and Manjit Kaur
  5. 5. this can cause the four lines to have more fertilizer responses viz their seed yields will increase as the level of fertilizers is increased without lodging as different from KDML105. The short harvest ages of the four lines can reduce the production cost and risks from diseases, insect pests, weeds and drought conditions whereas their photo insensitivity will let farmers grow them more than one crop a year. In terms of seed yield per rai (1600 m2), the four selected lines could give more seed yield than KDML105 under both upland and transplanting conditions and the three selected lines performed better drought tolerance than KDML105 while only KDML105’10 GR-TU-70-3 performed the same level of drought tolerance as KDML105. In grain quality point of view, all four mutated lines occupied as same good grain qualities as KDML105, meaning that their cooking qualities are as good as that of KDML105. In addition, their high alkali level and elongation ratio denotes their shorter time in cooking and their higher cooked rice volumes, respectively, as compared with KDML105. rice plants rice brown seeds rice grains Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 1: Rice plant of KDML105’10GR-TU-70-10 Figure 2: Seeds of KDML105’10GR-TU-70-10 Figure 3: Seeds, brown rice grains, and white milled rice grains of KDML105’10GR-TU-70-10 4. Conclusion Four lines of mutated KDML105 were selected because of their photo insensitivities, short statures not higher than 100 cm, short harvest ages not longer than 100 days, and higher seed yields than that of KDML105. The four selected lines giving seed yields per rai (1600 m2) under both upland and transplanting conditions from high to low ranking were KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-10 (529.5 and 536.0 kg), KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-8 (522.0 and 528.5 kg), KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-6 (469.0 and 509.0 kg), and KDML105’ 10GR-TU-70-3 (465.5 and 505.0 kg), *Corresponding author (B. Chongkid). Tel/Fax:+66-2-5644488 E-mail address: boonhong@tu.ac.th. 2013. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 2 No. 4 ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V02/269-275.pdf 273
  6. 6. respectively, while KDML105 gave the lowest seed yields (457.5 and 435.0 kg). Their grain qualities ie. amylose contents, gel consistencies, alkali levels, and elongation ratios were 15-17%, 70-80 mm, 6.9-7.0, and 1.7-1.8, respectively, while their cooking qualities were aromatic and soft with a good taste as same as those of KDML 105. 5. Acknowledgements The author would like to express sincere gratitude to Thammasat University for partly financial support and to Ministry of Science and Technology for the rice seed treatment with gamma-ray. Special thanks are due to the anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments. 6. References Cagampang, G.B., Perez, C.M., and Juliano, B.O. (1973). A gel consistency test for eating quality of rice. J.Sci. Food Agrc.24 : 1589-1594. Chongkid, B. (2004). Rice and Production Technology. Thammasat University Printing Houses, Pathumthani. Dasananda, S., Lusanandana, B., Pongsiriwathana, C., and Khambanonda, P. (1968). Induction of mutation in Thai rice varieties and subsequent selection and testing of beneficial mutant lines. Technical Reports. Series No.86. IAEA, Vienna. Department of Agriculture. (1980). Rice varietal improvement by radiation and chemical substances. Genetic Documents by Rice Division, Bangkok. IAEA. (1970). Rice Breeding with Induced Mutation. IAEA, Vienna. IAEA. (1988). Standard Evaluation System for Rice (SES). IRRI, Los Banos. Juliano, B.O. (1985). Criteria and tests for rice grain qualities, pp. 443-524. In B.O. Juliano, ed. Rice : Chemistry and Technology, 2nd ed. The American Association of Cereal Chemists, Inc., St. Paul, Minnesota. Kawai, T., and Amano, E. (1991). Mutation Breeding in Japan: Plant Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement. IAEA, Vienna. Khambanonda, P. (1981). Glutinous promising lines derived from irradiating RD1 with fast neutron. Research Report 1981. Rice Division, Dept. of Agriculture, Bangkok. Naivikul, O. (2004) Rice : Science and Technology. Kasetsart U. Printing House, Bangkok. Pathumthani Rice Research Center. (2007). Handbook for Seed and Grain Quality Standards. Pathumthani Rice Research Center, Pathumthani. 274 Rohit Sharma, Gurmohan Singh, and Manjit Kaur
  7. 7. Vittayatheerarat, P., Purivirojkul, W., and Wuthara, L. (1990). Improvement of RD23 for Blast resistance by irradiation. Research Report 1990. Pathumthani Rice Research Center, Bangkok. Wang, L.Q. (1991). Induced mutation for crop improvement in China : A Review of Plant Mutation Breeding for Crop Improvement. IAEA, Vienna. Dr.Boonhong Chongkid is an Associate Professor at Department of Agricultural Technology of Thammasat University. His teaching and researching involve plant breeding with emphasis on rice breeding. He received his B.Sc. in Agriciculture from Kasetsart University, Thailand; M.Sc. in Plant Breeding and Genetics from University College of Wales,. Aberystwyth, U.K.; and Ph.D in Plant Breeding from Kasetsart University Thailand, and Post Ph.D in plant Breeding and Genetics from University of Missouri-Columbia, USA. Peer Review: This article has been internationally peer-reviewed and accepted for publication according to the guidelines given at the journal’s website. *Corresponding author (B. Chongkid). Tel/Fax:+66-2-5644488 E-mail address: boonhong@tu.ac.th. 2013. American Transactions on Engineering & Applied Sciences. Volume 2 No. 4 ISSN 2229-1652 eISSN 2229-1660 Online Available at http://TuEngr.com/ATEAS/V02/269-275.pdf 275

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