The growing burden of
cancer in India
M.Phil (Regenerative Medicine)
Assistant Director (Medical), SBTC,WB
Epidemiology and social context
•1million new cases of cancer diagnosed each
year in 1.2 billion population.
•1.7 million by 2035
•600 000- 700 000 deaths in India were
caused by cancer.
•Male and female ratio
•Tobacco and alcohol use
Tobacco And Alcohol:
•It is estimated that
tobacco smoking and
combined account for
approximately ¾ of
all oral and
•India is home to 10% of the worlds smokers
•India has 120 million tobacco users ( GATS-
•Cigarette and bidi smoking causes about 5%
of all deathes in women and 20% of all deaths
in men aged 30-69 years.
• WHO estimates
causes 600 000 deaths
• One third of those
killed are children
,who are often exposed
to smoke at home
Relationship Between Cell Events and Lesion
DNA AdductsSmoking Environmental
Oral Leukoplakia [White Lesions]
Erythroplakia [Red Lesions]
Oral Carcinoma Malignant
• is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide
• it is the leading cause of cancer-related death for women in
• In the United States, cervical cancer is relatively uncommon.
it continues to rise in many developing countries.
Causes of cervical cancer
• What is breast cancer?
re sEarly epidemiological data demonstrated a direct causal relationship
between cervical cancer and sexual activity.
• Major risk factors include:
• sex at a young age,
• multiple sexual partners,
• promiscuous male partners,
• history of sexually transmitted diseases.
• the search for a potential sexually transmitted carcinogen had been
unsuccessful until breakthroughs in molecular biology enabled scientists to
detect viral genome in cervical cells
• ome Causes and risks?
• What are the Symptoms?
• How about some Epidemiology?
• What’s the deal with BRCA1 and BRCA2?
• Are there Early Detection and Treatments?
• Do I have a check list I can follow?
• the first symptom is abnormal vaginal bleeding, usually
• Vaginal discomfort, malodorous discharge, and dysuria are
• abnormal Papanicolaou test result.
• The tumor grows by extending upward to the endometrial
cavity, downward to the vagina, and laterally to the pelvic
• It can invade the bladder and rectum directly
• Strong evidence now implicates human papillomaviruses (HPVs)
as prime suspects.
• HPV viral DNA has been detected in more than 90% of squamous
intraepithelial lesions (SILs) and invasive cervical cancers
compared to a consistently lower percentage in controls.
• Both animal data and molecular biologic evidence confirm the
malignant transformation potential of papilloma virus–induced
• SILs are found predominantly in younger women,
• while invasive cancers are detected more often in women aged 10-
15 years older, suggesting slow progression of cancer.
When you hear the
term breast cancer,
what does it
mean to you?
THE GLOBAL BREAST CANCER CRISIS
Somewhere in the world…
• A case of breast cancer is diagnosed
every 19 seconds
• A woman dies from breast cancer every 60
Over the next 25 years…
• Another 42 million new cases are
• Another 13 million people worldwide will
die from breast cancer
What is Breast Cancer?
Breast cancer is a disease where cells in the breast tissue
divide and grow without normal controls.
Many changes occur over a woman’s lifetime.
10/7/15 Confidential & Proprietary
Breast Structure & Anatomical Changes
Benign Breast Conditions
• Benign = not cancerous
• Fibrocystic changes
• Common benign changes:
- Fibroadenomas Calcifications
Women Breast Self – Awareness Messages
1. Know your risk
2. Know what is normal for you
3. Get screened
4. Make healthy lifestyle choices
Key Message – Know Your Risk
Talk to your mother’s and father’s
families about your family health
• Talk to a doctor about your risk of
Breast Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Key Message – Make Healthy
Maintain a healthy weight
• Add exercise into your routine
• Limit alcohol intake
• Limit menopausal hormone use
• Breastfeed, if you can