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THE DIGITALTHE DIGITAL
REVOLUTION?REVOLUTION?
Dr Bex Lewis Research Fellow in Social Media &
Online Learning, CODEC, Durha...
Session Overview
•Bex:
• The Twitterfall
• Change Happens…
• Old Media and the Digital Age
•Tim:
• Authority
• Privacy
• I...
THE TWITTERFALL
Dr Bex Lewis
Let’s Talk About The Twitterfall:
#MediaLit14
Tweeting in Church?
• Good Thing?
• Bad Thing?
• Why might/might
not people tweet
in church?
• What might
encourage more
‘...
Change Happens…
Dr Bex Lewis
WHAT IS THIS ABOUT?
An incredible new technology enables the
transmission of text on a worldwide base. It
rapidly reduces ...
Gutenberg
Printing Press,
1439
Image Credit: Wikipedia
https://twitter.com/hanelly/status/405754162555944960/photo/1
https://twitter.com/LeistCatalano/status/473076349394255872/photo/1
A moral panic may be
defined as an episode,
often triggered by
alarming media stories
and reinforced by
reactive laws and ...
Right back to Socrates…
This discovery of yours will create
forgetfulness in the learners' souls,
because they will not us...
http://youtu.be/pQHX-SjgQvQ
Technological determinism is
a reductionist theory that
presumes that a society's
technology drives the
development of its...
Core Ideas:
• The development of technology itself follows
a predictable, traceable, inevitable path
largely beyond cultur...
The Medium is the Message
(McLuhan)
"the printing press, the computer, and
television are not therefore simply machines
wh...
Pew Report, 2012
quoting Jeff Jarvis, Journalist
“Before the press … information was passed
mouth-to-ear, scribe-to-scribe...
Even though in practice, face-to-face
communication can, of course, be
angry, negligent, resistant, deceitful
and inflexib...
DISCUSS
All technologies offer
AFFORDANCES,
CONSTRAINTS and change
SOCIAL PRACTICES
e.g.
What has been made possible with...
“Old” Media & the Digital
Age
Dr Bex Lewis
Broadcasting
At its inception, first as a company, in 1922, the BBC broadcast only
on radio. Twenty years later, a televis...
http://www.aspeninstitute.org/policy-work/communications-society/programs-topic/digital-broadcasting-public-interest/broad...
The Price of Plurality (Report,
2008)
This in itself may appear strange as the internet ushers in a
world of choice and di...
https://you.38degrees.org.uk/petitions/bbc-news-stop-this-media-blackout-of-the-green-party/?state=sign
https://www.facebook.com/124563204315456/photos/a.124695450968898.19183.124563204315456/542937682478004/?type=1&theater
Second-Screening
http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/research/technology-research/2014/Second_Screens_Final_report.p...
http://apps.channel4.com/app/the-million-pound-drop/
Potential Drivers
• user desire/need for shared rather than isolated TV
experiences
• a sense of connection with others/co...
24/7 News Culture
• Local TV newsrooms moved into the 24/7 mindset thirty years
ago, when videotape, microwave and satelli...
Newspapers
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-23969887
http://positivenews.org.uk/
Music
The conventional argument:
http://elitedaily.com/music/how-one-generation-was-able-to-kill-the-music-industry/593411/
Industry Voices (2013)
http://video.foxnews.com/v/2160237384001/digital-age-changing-the-music-industry-for-good/#sp=show-...
http://youtu.be/EUmNDKvSPMo
Cinema
http://youtu.be/IP_f4LHi1hc
Sure Fire Blockbusters?
Those days are all but gone. It was while on the press tour
for The Lone Ranger (budget: $200m+) t...
http://youtu.be/BtVeUIy0GyA
http://www.buzzfeed.com/adamdavis/3d-movies-are-the-literal-worst-for-people-with-glasses
The Aesthetics of Cinema
Does the digital era spell the death of cinema as
we know it? Or is it merely heralding its rebir...
Film Piracy
http://www.theguardian.com/media/2009/apr/02/film-piracy
Publishing
…with 15 percent to 25 percent of book sales shifting to
digital format by 2015 the book industry is heading in...
http://blog.youversion.com/2014/04/why-friendships-in-bible-app-5-are-different/
What is the future for publishers?
Polly Courtney (Self-published)
1. Fragmented readership –
few books/sell big = doesn’t...
Discuss
• What is your ‘lived experience’ of how
‘traditional’ media has changed?
• Any other media you want to mention?
•...
AUTHORITY
Dr Tim Hutchings
Who do you listen to,
online?
“Hierarchies and networks are two
very different systems and the Internet
was really developed for only one of
them.”
- Ch...
But nothing is ever quite that
simple…
“The fluidity and transience of online
environments poses challenges to
traditional authority structures, roles,
and tools...
New authorities…
“The internet serves as a spiritual hub,
allowing practitioners to select from a vast
array of resources and experience in...
The proliferation of web sites calling themselves Catholic
creates a problem… it is confusing, to say the least, not
to di...
… and old authorities
But is authority really about
people and institutions?
PRIVACY
Dr Tim Hutchings
What do these
three have in
common?
So should we put up with
being someone else’s products?
IS IT A REVOLUTION?
Dr Tim Hutchings
Event Publicity, 2010:
“There is a revolution sweeping across the globe, driven by the
massive growth of the internet and ...
The electric technology is within the
gates, and we are numb, deaf, blind,
and mute about its encounter with
the Gutenberg...
Image Credit: iStockphoto
@drbexl
@tim_hutchings
http://www.slideshare.net/drbexl/
The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings
The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings
The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings
The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings
The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings
The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings
The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings
The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings
The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings
The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings
The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings
The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings
The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings
The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings
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The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings

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The Digital Revolution? For #MediaLit14, with @drbexl & @tim_hutchings

  1. 1. THE DIGITALTHE DIGITAL REVOLUTION?REVOLUTION? Dr Bex Lewis Research Fellow in Social Media & Online Learning, CODEC, Durham University Dr Tim Hutchings William Leech Research Fellow, CODEC, Durham University @drbexl @tim_hutchings #MediaLit14 Image Credit: Stockfresh
  2. 2. Session Overview •Bex: • The Twitterfall • Change Happens… • Old Media and the Digital Age •Tim: • Authority • Privacy • Is it a revolution?
  3. 3. THE TWITTERFALL Dr Bex Lewis
  4. 4. Let’s Talk About The Twitterfall: #MediaLit14
  5. 5. Tweeting in Church? • Good Thing? • Bad Thing? • Why might/might not people tweet in church? • What might encourage more ‘engagement’? Image Credit: Stockfresh
  6. 6. Change Happens… Dr Bex Lewis
  7. 7. WHAT IS THIS ABOUT? An incredible new technology enables the transmission of text on a worldwide base. It rapidly reduces production and distribution costs and for the first time allows large numbers of people to access text and pictures in their own homes.
  8. 8. Gutenberg Printing Press, 1439 Image Credit: Wikipedia
  9. 9. https://twitter.com/hanelly/status/405754162555944960/photo/1
  10. 10. https://twitter.com/LeistCatalano/status/473076349394255872/photo/1
  11. 11. A moral panic may be defined as an episode, often triggered by alarming media stories and reinforced by reactive laws and public policy, of exaggerated or misdirected public concern, anxiety, fear, or anger over a perceived threat to social order. http://www.ashgate.com/pdf/SamplePages/Ashgate-Research-Companion-to-Moral-Panics-Intro.pdf Image Credit: Stockfresh
  12. 12. Right back to Socrates… This discovery of yours will create forgetfulness in the learners' souls, because they will not use their memories; they will trust to the external written characters and not remember of themselves…you give your disciples not truth, but only the semblance of truth; they will be hearers of many things and will have learned nothing. (Phaedrus, Benjamin Jowett trans.) http://bigthink.co Image Credit: Wikipedia
  13. 13. http://youtu.be/pQHX-SjgQvQ
  14. 14. Technological determinism is a reductionist theory that presumes that a society's technology drives the development of its social structure and cultural values. Wikipedia
  15. 15. Core Ideas: • The development of technology itself follows a predictable, traceable, inevitable path largely beyond cultural or political influence, a continual journey of progress • Technology in turn has inherent "effects" on societies, rather than socially conditioned or produced by society, where it has organised itself to support and further develop a new technology
  16. 16. The Medium is the Message (McLuhan) "the printing press, the computer, and television are not therefore simply machines which convey information. They are metaphors through which we conceptualize reality in one way or another. They will classify the world for us, sequence it, frame it, enlarge it, reduce it, argue a case for what it is like. Through these media metaphors, we do not see the world as it is. We see it as our coding systems are. Such is the power of the form of information.” Neil Postman, Teaching as a Conserving Activity (1979), p. 39 Neil Postman
  17. 17. Pew Report, 2012 quoting Jeff Jarvis, Journalist “Before the press … information was passed mouth-to-ear, scribe-to-scribe; it was changed in the process; there was little sense of ownership and authorship. In the five-century-long Gutenberg era, text did set how we see our world: serially with a neat beginning and a defined end; permanent; authored. Now, we are passing out of this textual era and that may well affect how we look at our world. That may appear to change how we think. But it won't change our wires.”
  18. 18. Even though in practice, face-to-face communication can, of course, be angry, negligent, resistant, deceitful and inflexible, somehow it remains the ideal against which mediated communication is judged as flawed. Prof Sonia Livingstone, Children and the Internet: Great Expectations and Challenging Realities. 2009, p26
  19. 19. DISCUSS All technologies offer AFFORDANCES, CONSTRAINTS and change SOCIAL PRACTICES e.g. What has been made possible with the introduction of mobile phones? How have mobile phones limited our activities? How have our social practices/habits, etc. changed since mobile phones? Image Credit: The Worship Cloud
  20. 20. “Old” Media & the Digital Age Dr Bex Lewis
  21. 21. Broadcasting At its inception, first as a company, in 1922, the BBC broadcast only on radio. Twenty years later, a television channel was added. Today, it provides 8 distinct TV services, 10 national and dozens of local radio stations and operates in a world of hundreds of channels with thousands of content providers. It runs one of the most visited websites in the world; the BBC’s international news websites now record over 230 million page impressions a month. The BBC World Service continues to maintain its position as the world’s leading broadcaster, transmitting programmes in English and 42 other languages to 146 million listeners per week. Digital TV has reached more than two-thirds of homes, and by 2012 the whole country will be receiving television in this way. And for millions, the convergence of media is already a reality. A Public Service for All: the BBC in the digital age (2006) https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/272256/6763.pdf
  22. 22. http://www.aspeninstitute.org/policy-work/communications-society/programs-topic/digital-broadcasting-public-interest/broadcasting- Citizenship and Community The market, being by definition the mere aggregation of individual decisions, takes no account of community and of the complex relations between citizenship, culture, and community. In particular, the fragmentation of audiences that pure market-driven broadcasting may produce could undermine both communities and cultures by limiting our shared experiences.
  23. 23. The Price of Plurality (Report, 2008) This in itself may appear strange as the internet ushers in a world of choice and diversity such that the world of analogue television could never have imagined. Even so, as communities become more disconnected, the debate over what makes a shared culture amidst diversity of individual choice has become closely linked to the issue of how public values will be reflected in broadcasting in the future. As a result, plurality has become the meeting point for a number of arguments about the future of our broadcasting institutions – the BBC licence fee, the public status of Channel 4, and the PSB status of ITV and Five. http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/broadcast/reviews-investigations/psb-review/psbplurality.pdf
  24. 24. https://you.38degrees.org.uk/petitions/bbc-news-stop-this-media-blackout-of-the-green-party/?state=sign
  25. 25. https://www.facebook.com/124563204315456/photos/a.124695450968898.19183.124563204315456/542937682478004/?type=1&theater
  26. 26. Second-Screening http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/research/technology-research/2014/Second_Screens_Final_report.pdf
  27. 27. http://apps.channel4.com/app/the-million-pound-drop/
  28. 28. Potential Drivers • user desire/need for shared rather than isolated TV experiences • a sense of connection with others/community • social comparisons (validation) • curiosity in seeking out others’ views • getting more information • getting access to content at a convenient time and place • to influence/interact with content • sense of acknowledgement from others • interest in debate/discussion (social inclusion, fun, information). http://stakeholders.ofcom.org.uk/binaries/research/technology-research/2014/Second_Screens_Final_report.pdf
  29. 29. 24/7 News Culture • Local TV newsrooms moved into the 24/7 mindset thirty years ago, when videotape, microwave and satellite technology made it possible to broadcast live or just-recorded video reports anytime, and from just about any place. Technology changed the culture and the content of TV news. Reporters could now “go live” from a legislative debate or a police chase; they could alert communities to a dangerous chemical spill or break news of a fatal car crash even before the next-of-kin knew it had happened. • Overnight ratings and viewer research told stations which stories and coverage attracted viewers, and drove more “live, local and late-breaking” reports. a diet of accidents, fires and crime; of too many events and too few issues.Media critics at newspapers lamented the resulting TV news menu: http://www.poynter.org/how-tos/leadership-management/what-great-bosses-know/80865/247-culture-tips-from-the-best-and-worst-of-tv/
  30. 30. Newspapers http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/entertainment-arts-23969887
  31. 31. http://positivenews.org.uk/
  32. 32. Music The conventional argument:
  33. 33. http://elitedaily.com/music/how-one-generation-was-able-to-kill-the-music-industry/593411/
  34. 34. Industry Voices (2013) http://video.foxnews.com/v/2160237384001/digital-age-changing-the-music-industry-for-good/#sp=show-clips
  35. 35. http://youtu.be/EUmNDKvSPMo
  36. 36. Cinema http://youtu.be/IP_f4LHi1hc
  37. 37. Sure Fire Blockbusters? Those days are all but gone. It was while on the press tour for The Lone Ranger (budget: $200m+) that director Gore Verbinski lamented the fact that the current Hollywood system supports small movies (courtesy of studios' marquee labels, such as Sony Classics) and massive blockbusters. To warrant a wide release of anything in between - a film that isn't a comedy - is increasingly tricky. After all, to pay for distribution and sufficient marketing to a get a film noticed is a heavy burden for a studio. Marketing strategies thus tend to be big, broad and wide, or slow builders. And where are you supposed to position a mid-budget feature in the midst of that? http://www.denofgeek.com/movies/blockbusters/27405/10-big-problems-with-modern-day-blockbuster-cinema-needs-intro#ixzz34FaCgQbI
  38. 38. http://youtu.be/BtVeUIy0GyA
  39. 39. http://www.buzzfeed.com/adamdavis/3d-movies-are-the-literal-worst-for-people-with-glasses
  40. 40. The Aesthetics of Cinema Does the digital era spell the death of cinema as we know it? Or is it merely heralding its rebirth? Are we witnessing the emergence of something entirely new? Cinema in the Digital Age examines the fate of cinema in this new era, paying special attention to the technologies that are reshaping film and their cultural impact. Examining Festen (1998), The Blair Witch Project (1999), Timecode (2000), Russian Ark (2002), The Ring (2002), among others, this volume explores how these films are haunted by their analogue past and suggests that their signature element are their deliberate imperfections, whether those take the form of blurry or pixilated images, shakey camera work, or other elements reminding viewers of the human hand guiding the camera. Weaving together a rich variety of sources, Cinema in the Digital Age provides a deeply humanistic look at the meaning of cinematic images in the era of digital perfection.
  41. 41. Film Piracy http://www.theguardian.com/media/2009/apr/02/film-piracy
  42. 42. Publishing …with 15 percent to 25 percent of book sales shifting to digital format by 2015 the book industry is heading into wholly new territory… Whatever the sector, the emergence of new reading devices suggests an interesting evolution in writing itself. Creating long-term value will not come from simply reformatting print content into digital words. Rather, the greatest opportunity lies in experimenting with such new formats as nonlinear, hybrid, interactive and social content, electronic modes that add motion, sound and direct reader interactions through technologies we will discuss below http://www.bain.co.uk/bainweb/PDFs/cms/Public/BB_Publishing_in_the_digital_era.pdf
  43. 43. http://blog.youversion.com/2014/04/why-friendships-in-bible-app-5-are-different/
  44. 44. What is the future for publishers? Polly Courtney (Self-published) 1. Fragmented readership – few books/sell big = doesn’t work 2. Risk-averse: publishers looking for sure-fire hits 3. Uses eBook sales data to adapt price re: demand 4. 3/1self-published/ published – who is undertaking quality control? Richard Charkin (Bloomsbury) 1. Slim, but ever-present chance of success = exciting 2. Shift in kind of risk taken: more books being published than ever before. 3. Agreed, but thought the product itself being devalued. 4. Even positive review in New York Sunday Times = 200 sales. Word of mouth = key. http://www.bytethebook.com/news/report-charkin-courtney
  45. 45. Discuss • What is your ‘lived experience’ of how ‘traditional’ media has changed? • Any other media you want to mention? • Are there consistent themes? • Which of those aspects could be seen to be negative? • What do you see that is positive/offering new opportunities? • How does this knowledge affect your ministry role?
  46. 46. AUTHORITY Dr Tim Hutchings
  47. 47. Who do you listen to, online?
  48. 48. “Hierarchies and networks are two very different systems and the Internet was really developed for only one of them.” - Chris Helland, 2005
  49. 49. But nothing is ever quite that simple…
  50. 50. “The fluidity and transience of online environments poses challenges to traditional authority structures, roles, and tools. The result has been that the internet is framed both as a threat to certain established roles and hierarchies and as a tool of empowerment by others.” – Heidi Campbell 2012
  51. 51. New authorities…
  52. 52. “The internet serves as a spiritual hub, allowing practitioners to select from a vast array of resources and experience in order to assemble and personalize their religious behavior and belief. This encourages a convergent form of religious practice online, a process that allows and even encourages users to draw from traditional and new sources simultaneously.” - Heidi Campbell 2012
  53. 53. The proliferation of web sites calling themselves Catholic creates a problem… it is confusing, to say the least, not to distinguish eccentric doctrinal interpretations, idiosyncratic devotional practices, and ideological advocacy bearing a ‘Catholic' label from the authentic positions of the Church… A system of voluntary certification at the local and national levels under the supervision of representatives of the Magisterium might be helpful in regard to material of a specifically doctrinal or catechetical nature. The idea is not to impose censorship but to offer Internet users a reliable guide to what expresses the authentic position of the Church. - “The Church and Internet”, Vatican report, 2002
  54. 54. … and old authorities
  55. 55. But is authority really about people and institutions?
  56. 56. PRIVACY Dr Tim Hutchings
  57. 57. What do these three have in common?
  58. 58. So should we put up with being someone else’s products?
  59. 59. IS IT A REVOLUTION? Dr Tim Hutchings
  60. 60. Event Publicity, 2010: “There is a revolution sweeping across the globe, driven by the massive growth of the internet and internet related technologies. Known as the Digital Revolution it is on par with other great global shifts such as the Agrarian Revolution and the Industrial Revolution. And it is completely changing the landscape of how we communicate, how we influence, how we relate. This isn’t simply about coming to grips with a new technology to assist us in our work, but requires of us a fundamental shift in our processes, our structures and approaches. If we don’t respond then as Eric Hoffer states, we will find ourselves, ‘beautifully equipped to deal with a world that no longer exists.’”
  61. 61. The electric technology is within the gates, and we are numb, deaf, blind, and mute about its encounter with the Gutenberg technology, on and through which the American way of life was formed... Our conventional response to all media, namely that it is how they are used that counts, is the numb stance of the technological idiot. For the "content" of a medium is like the juicy piece of meat carried by the burglar to distract the watchdog of the mind. Marshall McLuhan (again)
  62. 62. Image Credit: iStockphoto @drbexl @tim_hutchings http://www.slideshare.net/drbexl/

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