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radiotherapy.pptx

  1. 1. Submitted By: Harmeet Kaur Dept. of Computer Science and Applications (DCSA) Panjab University, Chandigarh – 160014 PUPIN: 18205000930 Supervisor: Dr. Satish Kumar Associate Professor Department of Computer Science and Applications Panjab University SSG Regional Centre Hoshiarpur, Punjab CO-GUIDE;Dr Behgal KS Director BEHGAL CANCER HOSPITAL DR. YAGIYADEEP SHARMA R.S.O BEHGAL HOSPITAL
  2. 2. 1. Introduction i. RT Planning ii. Role of Fusion in RT Planning iii. Image Decomposition iv. Image Fusion Rules v. Image Reconstruction vi. Image Quality Assessment vii. International status viii. National status ix. Research gaps 2. Review of Literature i. Image Decomposition And Reconstruction Techniques ii. Image Fusion iii. Evaluation metrics 3. Problem Statement i. Problem Definition ii. Objectives/ Aims of the proposed research iii. Scope of the proposed research 2
  3. 3. 4. Research Methodology i. Design Methodology ii. Implementation a) Hardware b) Software iii. Database 5. Validation and Testing 6. References 3
  4. 4.  Positron Emission Tomography(PET) image shows good functional information.  Computed Tomography (CT)is used to provide information about the anatomical structure of the organs. CT scanners are used to get the images of dense structures like bones.  Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) gives better soft tissue contrast.  There is a need to fuse the above modalities to assist the expert in taking decisions in treatment planning and diagnosis. 4
  5. 5. CT MRI PET Modality of Images- CT, MRI, PET 5
  6. 6.  Radiotherapy Treatment (RT) Planning is an imperative phase after the confirmation of disease and before the treatment delivery.  Target volume delineation is done i.e. GTV, CTV, PTV, etc. with different colored markers so that the most effected part is perfectly delineated.  Based on target volume delineation, Dose Planning step is carried out. 6
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8.  To provide a better and more complete view of the image content.  To contour the tumor bed in a better way.  To help in decision making process. 8
  9. 9. IMAGE DECOMPOSITION IMAGE FUSION RULE IMAGE RECONSTRUCTION IMAGE QUALITY ASSESSMENT 9
  10. 10. • Decomposition also known as Analysis phase deals with extraction of features on the basis of frequency, wavelet or edge. •Decomposition of an image is done so that the variety of information present in each image is extracted into sub-bands. •The sub-images, thus obtained from decomposition contain more useful information and can be given more weightage as compared to the sub-bands containing undesirable information. •Once the sub-bands are obtained, respective sub-band of each image is fused using fusion technique. •The main motive behind fusion is to inculcate the features into the final fused image. •After successfully fusing the sub-images, single fused image is reconstructed from the fused sub-images. 10
  11. 11. • 1 Multi-resolution analysis • Laplacian Pyramid(LAP) • Pyramid Transform(PT) • Gradient Pyramid(GRP) • 2 Multi-scale geometric analysis/Wavelet Transform • DWT • RDWT • DTCWT • DCxWT • CT • ST • CouT • 3 Color based Method • RGB • Grey Image • IHS • 4 Filter Based • CBF 11
  12. 12. 12
  13. 13. 13
  14. 14. Soft computing based techniques for Medical Image Fusion • Soft computing techniques: Neural network, Fuzzy logic, Genetic algorithm and ANFIS. The neural network works on the principal of learning and adaptation, imprecise and unclear situations are dealt with fuzzy logic, genetic algorithms are used for searching and optimization, and ANFIS combines the features of fuzzy logic with neural network. • The encouragement to authors for using soft computing methods comes from the fact that these techniques have close resemblance with human like decision making and will outperform by learning from human experts followed by rigorous testing and training. • Soft Computing approach acts as a perfect imitator of biological and physical processes and so it is also known as nature inspired strategies. 14
  15. 15. Existing methods of fusion Results of existing Fusion methods- wfusimg , MIN 15
  16. 16. Results of existing Fusion methods- MAX, PCA, MEAN Existing methods of fusion 16
  17. 17.  The Institute of Cancer Research (ICR), UK: The Radiotherapy Treatment Planning team works on novel methods for targeting tumours with external beam radiation. The necessary imaging technology, calculation of dose distributions and optimization of individualized treatment plans are developed. Techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy, volumetric modulated arc therapy and image-guided radiotherapy are continually being improved.  Olivia Newton-John Cancer Wellness & Research Centre, Australia: The focus is on targeting and molecular imaging of tumours and exploring receptor-based signaling pathways responsible for cancer cell growth through the development of innovative strategies for molecular imaging of cancer  National Cancer Institute, US: National Cancer Institute’s CIP (Cancer Imaging Program) supports research on the use of imaging techniques to noninvasively diagnose cancer and the identification of disease subsets in patients, among other research areas. Other opportunities in imaging include the development of better tools for imaging tumors and for reading and interpreting scans. 17
  18. 18.  Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, US: The Center for Biomedical Imaging in Oncology of this institute is focused to use state-of-the-art preclinical and clinical imaging in order to accelerate translational research and develop new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for patients with cancer. The Center has two primary components: the Lurie Family Imaging Center and a clinical research program. The Lurie Family Imaging Center is a preclinical imaging facility equipped with a 7T MRI, micro PET/CT, ultrasound, bioluminescence, and fluorescence imaging instruments, along with radiochemistry and radiotherapy capabilities. Imaging Design, Evaluation, and Analysis (IDEA) lab, a multidisciplinary functional imaging laboratory that provides study design, imaging protocol development, PET/CT scanner evaluation and qualification, quality control/archival of imaging data, diagnostic review of images, quantitative image analysis, and scientific interpretation of final imaging results for numerous institutional, national, and global multicenter cancer therapeutic trials. 18
  19. 19.  Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education & Research, Chandigarh : ONCENTRA  Rajiv Gandhi Cancer Institute & Research Centre, Delhi : ECLIPSE  Delhi State Cancer Institute, Delhi : COBALT  AIIMS DELHI : MONACCO  Behgal Cancer Institute (IT & Radiation Technology), Mohali :ONCENTRA 19
  20. 20. The research gaps, as per the literature survey are as follows:  The appropriate decomposition levels are required to find the coarse details of the image. • A Fusion method is required which should be capable of differentiating between the edge and non-edge regions. Unlike many existing fusion methods, the new proposed method will consider the neighboring pixels also. • Contouring: Treatment planning involves contouring and it will determine the success of fusion process. If the fusion is carried out properly, the tumor area will be maximally covered. 20
  21. 21. IMAGE DECOMPOSITION AND RECONSTRUCTION MULTI RESOLUTION ANALYSIS COLOR BASED FILTER BASED MULTISCALE GEOMETRIC ANALYSIS CBF 21
  22. 22. Sr. No. Paper Title AUTHOR METHOD MODALITIES ANALYSED SOURCE Evaluation Metrics Used 1 Image fusion using hierarchical PCA. Patil et al.[9] Multi-resolution analysis MRI, CT www.fusion.org Quantitative quality and subjective quality analysis 2 Union Laplacian pyramid with multiple features for medical image fusion J. Du et al. [13] Multi-resolution analysis MRI-CT, MRI- PET,PET- SPECT Whole brain website of Harvard medical school Quantitative quality and subjective quality analysis, Histogram analysis 3 Medical Image Fusion with Laplacian Pyramids A. Sahu [14] Multi-resolution analysis MRI-T2, MR- PD, CT - Quantitative and qualitative analysis 4 Fusion of Medical Sensors Using Adaptive Cloud Model in Local Laplacian Pyramid Domain W.Li et al.[17] Multi-resolution analysis MRI, PET, SPECT Real time database Quantitative and subjective analysis 5 Multi-Modality Medical Image Fusion using Discrete Wavelet Transform Bhavana V. et al.[19] Multi-scale geometric analysis/Wavel et Transform MRI, PET Whole brain website of Harvard medical school Quantitative Analysis22
  23. 23. Sr. No. Paper Title AUTHOR METHOD MODALITIES ANALYSED SOURCE Evaluation Metrics Used 6 Medical image fusion by wavelet transform modulus maxima G. Qu et al. [20] Multi-scale geometric analysis/Wavel et Transform CT, MRI - Mutual information (MI) 7 Pixel based medical image fusion techniques using discrete wavelet transform and Stationary wavelet transform K. P. Indira et al. [22] Multi-scale geometric analysis/Wavel et Transform CT, PET Real time database Objective analysis 8 Fusion of multimodal medical images using Daubechies complex wavelet transform - A multiresolution approach R. Singh et al. [31] Multi-scale geometric analysis/Wavel et Transform CT, MRI, MR- T1, MRA www.imagefusi on.org Quantitative and subjective analysis 9 Edge Preserving Image Fusion Based on Contourlet Transform A. Khare et al. [41] Multi-scale geometric analysis/Wavel et Transform Multifocus and medical images Standard database Objective analysis 23
  24. 24. Sr. No. Paper Title AUTHOR METHOD MODALITIES ANALYSED SOURCE Evaluation Metrics Used 10 PET and MRI brain image fusion using wavelet transform with structural information adjustment & spectral information patching Huang et al.[44] Color based Method PET, MRI www.med.harva rd.edu Objective analysis 11 MRI and PET image fusion by combining IHS and retina-inspired models Daneshvar et al.[42] Color based Method PET, MRI HARVARD WEBSITE Visual analysis, statistical assessment 12 Filter for biomedical imaging and image processing [45] Filter based Method MRI, PET Real time database Quantitative and subjective analysis 13 Medical Image Fusion Based on Rolling guidance filter and Spiking Cortical Model L. Shuaiqi et al.[46] Filter based Method CT, MRI, ULTRASOUND, SPECT Real time database Quantitative and subjective analysis 14 Image Fusion based on Pixel Significance using Cross Bilateral Filter Kumar et al. [47] Filter based Method IR-VISIBILE, MULTIFOCUS, ,MEDICAL www.imagefusi on.org Quantitative and subjective analysis 24
  25. 25. IMAGE FUSION MULTI VIEW IMAGE FUSION MULTI MODAL IMAGE FUSION MULTI TEMPORAL IMAGE FUSION MULTI FOCUS IMAGE FUSION MULTI MODAL MEDICAL IMAGE FUSION 25
  26. 26. S.No. Paper Authors Level of fusion Technique Verification methods 1 Pixel-level image fusion with simultaneous orthogonal matching pursuit B. Huang et al. [57] Pixel level Signal sparse representation theory Objective metrices 2 Hybrid Pixel-Based Method for Cardiac Ultrasound Fusion Based on Integration of PCA and DWT S. Mazaheri et al.[58] Pixel level Hybrid – PCA and DWT Quantitative analysis and subjective analysis 3 MRI and PET images fusion based on human retina model D. Sabalan et al.[59] Feature level Retina based model Objective metrices 4 Simultaneous image fusion and super-resolution using sparse representation H. Yin et al. [60] Pixel level Sparse representation Objective metrices and subjective analysis 26
  27. 27. S.No. Paper Authors Level of fusion Technique Verification methods 5 Pixel-level image fusion scheme based on steerable pyramid wavelet transform using absolute maximum selection fusion rule O. Prakash et al. [62] Pixel level Multi resolution steerable pyramid wavelet transform Quantitative and qualitative metrices 6 Medical images fusion by using weighted least squares filter and sparse representation W. Jiang et al. [67] Pixel level Multi-scale edge preserving decomposition and sparse representation Quantitative analysis and subjective analysis 27
  28. 28. REF TYPE MODALIT Y METRIC METRIC VALUES OBTAINED 5 FATAL STROKE ALZHEIMER MRI CT MRI PET MI,PSNR, QAB/F MI,PSNR, QAB/F 1.7048,20.2037,.5849 1.1666,25.2012,.6259 6 ALZHEIMER SUB ACUTE STROKE BRAIN TUMOR MRI PET MRI SPECT MRI SPECT QMI, QS,QAB/F QMI, QS,QAB/F QMI, QS,QAB/F 1.5017,.7972,.6722 1.3740,.8907,.6278 1.9809,.8248,.6875 23 NORMAL AXIAL NORMAL CORONAL ALZHEIMER MRI PET MRI PET MRI PET MSE,PSNR,AG,SD (W=.5/.7) .02819/.1911,63.6424/55.3184,5.6237/6.8573,8.116/2.2966 .11529/.18589,57.5131/55.4383,5.4715/7.9881,4.9116/2.63 .10509/.19144,58.0621/55.3104,6.7541/10.5855,2.3371/.3808 28 MILD ALZHEIMER MILD ALZHEIMER MILD ALZHEIMER MRI PET MRI PET MRI PET PSNR,ENTROPY, STD 61.8509,3.0617,3.4886 59.5109,2.9238,2.3311 62.2149,2.5149,1.9743 29 NORMAL AXIAL NORMAL CORONAL ALZHEIMER MRI PET MRI PET MRI PET SD,AG(W=.5/.7) 6.7169/7.0019,5.4759/5.5285 7.5140/7.8330,6.3542/6.4355 4.9210/4.9731,5.1964/5.2169 45 NORMAL AXIAL NORMAL CORONAL MRI PET MRI PET MRI PET AVG,O.P,MI, 5.3603,2.3457,.6541 6.2927,1.6104,.6551 5.0353,.9765,.6230 Metrics Assessed On Harvard Database 28
  29. 29. • In the proposed research, the radiotherapy treatment planning is improved by fusing multi-modality images such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), Computed Tomography (CT) etc. • A novel algorithm for image fusion is proposed which helps the radiation oncologist in contouring on a single fused image.  Images are combined such that the fused image contain both(functional and anatomical) information, in a single image  Fusion will directly effect the treatment execution. 29
  30. 30.  Comparing the features of different modality of images.  Analysis of various image decomposition and reconstruction techniques already available in the literature (Multi Scale Geometric Analysis, Color based).  To study various image fusion techniques available in the literature(PCA, Averaging method, Weighted average, Fuzzy logic, ANN).  To propose a Fusion method which will aid Contouring.  Image Fusion Quality Assessment: Subjective as well as Objective comparison methods are used for assessing the quality of the output image. 30
  31. 31.  Registered MRI, CT, PET, etc. images are taken as input  In decomposition phase, only Multi Decomposition Analysis, Filter based or color based techniques are considered.  Minor need based change depending on the outcome of experimentaltheoretical study are made.  Fusion technique from the following, are explored: a) Principal component analysis (PCA). b) Averaging method c) Weighted average d) Wavelet Transform e) Fuzzy logic f) ANN g) ANFIS 31
  32. 32. 32
  33. 33. Hardware • For implementation, operating system with standard peripherals will be required. • Operating system : Windows 7( 32-bit operating system), X86 based PC • Processor Intel(R) Core-TM i3-3110M CPU@ 2.40GHz, 2400Mhz, 2-Core(s), 4-Logical Processor/processors. • RAM: Physical Memory installed-4.00GB 33
  34. 34. • Software • MATLAB 7.9.0(R2009b)- 64 bit or higher version is used for pre-processing, image decomposition and reconstruction, and fusion i.e. the codes are designed using MATLAB. • Various tools available in MATLAB software are used. • The functions from the library of other software tools are used. • For Graphical User Interface(GUI) - GUIDE will be used 34
  35. 35. • The experiments are performed on imaging data taken from Whole Brain Atlas database, available online. • The Whole Brain Atlas is a benchmark database for evaluating the performance of multi-modal medical image fusion methods, which was established by Keith A. Johnson and J. Alex Becker at Harvard Medical School. Importantly, all the images of the database are co- aligned. 35
  36. 36. • For the image fusion quality assessment we need to go for subjective as well as objective comparison methods. • In case of subjective method, visual evaluation is done. • For the objective evaluation we have many performance measures like entropy (EN), Average Gradient(AG), Standard Deviation (SD), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), QAB/F , LAB/F , NAB/F etc. • The results of the research will be tested and validated on the available images. 36
  37. 37. 37
  38. 38. • The Fuzzy Logic uses fuzzy sets to deal with the vague values logically. • The comparison is made with wavelet based fusion in which the three stages are followed to apply fusion. • The first stage is decomposition, in which the acquired images are decomposed into sub-bands called approximate and details. • These sub-bands from each source image are then fused using fuzzy logic. • The last step is reconstruction; in which inverse of decomposition is done to finally obtain a single image from sub-bands. 38
  39. 39. • The proposed method is implemented on CT, MRI modalities and is based on 2 input and 1 output fuzzy inference systems with defined fuzzy rules. • The decomposition method is DWT and min rule is applied on approximate sub-bands, max rule is applied on the detailed sub-bands. • Finally reconstruction is done by taking inverse of DWT. • T-S type fuzzy system is implemented. The fuzzy rules are defined based on the pixel intensity of each source image. 39
  40. 40. Algorithm for image fusion using fuzzy logic // IMGCT = CT image. // IMGMRI = MRI image. // SBapprox. = Approximate sub-bands. // SBdetail = Detail sub-bands. // FUZZYout= Fuzzy inference output or Fused image // IMGrecont= Reconstructed image. STEP 1: Input two images (IMGCT, IMGMRI). STEP 2: Decompose images to extract approximate and detail sub-bands. DWT(IMGCT, IMGMRI) //min rule to extract approximate sub-bands. //max rule to extract detail sub-bands. STEP 3: Fuse sub-bands obtained after decomposition. FUZZYout = Fuzzy_Logic (SBapprox., SBdetail ) // 9 fuzzy rules are defined to obtain the result from T_S Fuzzy Inference System. STEP 4: Reconstruction of Image. IMGrecont = Inverse(FUZZYout) // Inverse of decomposition method or varied reconstruction method 40
  41. 41. • RULE 1: IF (CT == MF1) & (MRI == MF1) => MF1 • RULE 2: IF (CT == MF1) & (MRI == MF2) =>MAX (MF1; MF2) • RULE 3: IF (CT == MF1) & (MRI == MF3) =>MAX (MF1; MF3) • RULE 4: IF (CT == MF2) & (MRI == MF1) =>MAX (MF1; MF2) • RULE 5: IF (CT == MF2) & (MRI == MF2) => MF2 • RULE 6: IF (CT == MF2) & (MRI == MF3) =>MAX (MF2; MF3) • RULE 7: IF (CT == MF3) & (MRI == MF1) =>MAX (MF1; MF3) • RULE 8: IF (CT == MF3) & (MRI == MF2) =>MAX (MF2; MF3) • RULE 9: IF (CT == MF3) & (MRI == MF3) => MF3 41
  42. 42. • The experiments were carried out on the images from Harvard database. From the various modalities available, the CT and MRI images were the candidate images to be fed to fuzzy logic for fusion. • After successful implementation of FIS, the results are compared with the fusion results obtained from wavelets. • The evaluation is done in two ways; using metrics calculation and visual inspection. • The evaluation is done using Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) and Mean Square Error (MSE) metrics, taking reference image to be MRI. • After this, in the next step, CT image is taken as reference image. The table shows PSNR value 8.5366 with reference image MRI, PSNR value 10.8427 with reference image CT. • Similarly the SNR is 4.2605 with reference image MRI and with reference image CT, SNR is 6.4822. The MSE is 9.1079e+04 with reference to MRI and with reference to CT, MSE is 1.2185e+04. 42
  43. 43. METRIC USED FUSION STRATEGY FUZZY LOGIC WAVELETS PSNR (IREF= MRI) 8.5366 9.0325 PSNR (IREF= CT) 10.8427 11.1386 PSNR (IREF= MRI) 4.2605 4.7563 PSNR (IREF= CT) 6.4822 6.7781 PSNR (IREF= MRI) 9.1079e+04 8.1251e+037 PSNR (IREF= CT) 1.5449e+03 1.2185e+04 Evaluation of Results 43
  44. 44. Input images in a-b, result of Fuzzy Logic in c and result using wavelets in d. 44
  45. 45. 45
  46. 46. • Scale as well as orientation based decomposition is performed before the fusion process begins. To fetch the low frequency component low pass filter is performed and to fetch high frequency sub-bands, high pass filters is applied. • Hence a complete representation of the image in the decomposed parts is obtained where smoothing is a process of convolution of image with Uniform/Gaussian kernel. • The Cross Bilateral Filter has the edge preservation ability which makes it a likely acceptable candidate for extraction of features in the decomposed sub- bands. The medical images require strict attention at the boundaries as well as the volume within, the need for an algorithm to serve the same purpose arise. • In the CBF, two factors radiometric and geometric sigma are used to fine tune the cbf components. The Cross bilateral filter accomplish edge preserved smoothing by modifying the kernel based on the indigenous contents which is impossible to achieve using Gaussian kernel. Using cross-bilateral filter based decomposition; detailed coefficients are obtained. 46
  47. 47. • The Cross Bilateral Filter (CBF) is widely used by authors for fusion. CBF is used for decomposing the images, which is a pre-fusion requirement. • On applying CBF, image is decomposed into 2 components namely, cbf component and detail component. Subtracting the cbf component from original image gives detail component. • This detail component is used for further processing. The detail component of each modality is given as input to ANFIS for fusion. • CBF is used in order to enhance the multi-modality medical image fusion results by providing edge preservation. • The proposed work is compared with the techniques available in MATLAB Toolbox. • The purpose is to make improvements in the fusion which will ease the oncologist to make decisions on the resultant image obtained. 47
  48. 48. • The CBF component is calculated for each input image (ACBF, BCBF) while tuning the radiometric sigma and geometric sigma. Euclidean distance calculation is done to consider the neighboring pixels as well. When these CBF components are subtracted from their respective original images, detailed components are obtained, having equation: ADETAIL=A-ACBF BDETAIL=B-BCBF 48
  49. 49. 49
  50. 50. 50
  51. 51. • Input: A (MR-T1) , B (MR-T2) • Decomposition: Deducing kernel weights from one image and applying it on the second image and hence ACBF, BCBF are produced. • Fetching the detailed image: For this, output obtained from the above step is subtracted from original image to get the details ADETAIL, BDETAIL. • Wavelet Selection: From the family of wavelets, Biorthogonal wavelet (bior 2.2) transform is applied on the source images A, B. • Fusion Strategy: Fuzzy inference system and average rule is performed on the decomposed parts. Fuzzy Logic is applied on the detailed components. • To deal with the approximate components, the average rule is followed to fuse the low-low, high-low and low-high subbands. The details obtained from the CBF is fed to the Fuzzy Inference system of Mamdani type for fusion with two input variables and one output variable with Gauss membership function for each input and output is defined. • 25 Fuzzy rules are defined to fuse the pixels with min as AndMethod, max as OrMethod. For implication, min is used, max rule is used for aggregation and centroid for defuzzification. • Reconstruction: This is the last step in which inverse wavelet transform is performed to reconstruct the final fused image. Fused subcomponents are combined into a single image which is expected to be more informative for radiotherapy treatment planning. 51
  52. 52. Contouring on MRI and fused medical image 52
  53. 53. METRIC USED CONVENTIONAL EVALUATION METRICS Proposed method Image fusion based on pixel significance using cross bilateral filter An efficient adaptive fusion scheme for multifocus images in wavelet domain using statistical properties of neighborhood A modified statistical approach for image fusion using wavelet transform Multifocus and multispectral image fusion based on pixel significance using multiresolution decomposition A novel multifocus image fusion scheme based on pixel significance using wavelet transform API 48.2381 54.7351 46.3165 36.4330 40.1711 44.1301 SD 63.6862 57.6902 52.3071 51.3242 46.8869 51.3010 FS 1.9995 1.6142 1.6899 1.7651 1.7126 1.6880 CC 0.7182 0.6565 0.6374 0.5563 0.6185 0.6011 53 Evaluation of Results
  54. 54. METRIC USED OBJECTIVE EVALUATION METRICS Proposed method Image fusion based on pixel significance using cross bilateral filter. An efficient adaptive fusion scheme for multi focus images in wavelet domain using statistical properties of neighborhood . A modified statistical approach for image fusion using wavelet transform. Multi focus and multispectral image fusion based on pixel significance using multi-resolution decomposition. A novel multi focus image fusion scheme based on pixel significance using wavelet transform. QAB/F 0.8940 0.8932 0.8065 0.6900 0.7760 0.7300 LAB/F 0.0929 0.0961 0.1856 0.2776 0.2137 0.2531 NAB/F 0.0131 0.0950 0.0735 0.2172 0.0924 0.1310 SUM 1 1 1 1 1 1 54 Evaluation of Results
  55. 55. • Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) is a class of adaptive networks. • This class of networks in ANFIS is functionally equivalent to Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS). • The T-S(Takagi-Sugeno) is fine-tuned using hybrid learning method. • For modeling training data set, combination of least-squares and back- propagation gradient descent methods are used. • The basic structure of ANFIS is depicted having two inputs with five membership functions for each input, set of 25 rules and single output i.e. fused image. ANFIS contains adaptive networks with fuzzy rules. 55
  56. 56. ANFIS basic structure of proposed method Fuzzy Inference Architecture 56
  57. 57. Surface viewer of the rules Shows the performance of ANFIS with testing data Shows the performance of ANFIS with Training data 57
  58. 58. Structure of ANFIS model 58
  59. 59. Algorithm for proposed image fusion technique • // IMG1 = CT, MRI,MR-Gad, MR-T2, PET/SPECT image. • // IMG2 = CT, MRI, MR-Gad, MR-T2, PET/SPECT image. • //ACBF = CBF component of image1. • //BCBF = CBF component of image2. • //ADETAIL= Detail componets of image1. • //BDETAIL = Detail componets of image2. • // ANFISout= Final fused image. • //Fout =Fused output of detail components. • //Gout: Fused output of approximate componets. • STEP 1: Input any two images (IMG1 , IMG2) • //Input the medical image with modality CT, MRI,MR-Gad, MR-T2, PET/SPECT. • STEP 2: Decompose images using CBF and DWT • ACBF =CBF(IMG1) • BCBF =CBF(IMG2) • ADETAIL=A-ACBF • BDETAIL=B-BCBF • AHH,BHH=DWT(ADETAIL , BDETAIL) • Step3: DWT(IMG1, IMG2) • // extract the approximate components and average fusion is applied. • Gout= FusionAverage(ALL,LH,HL, BLL,LH,HL) • STEP 4: Fout=ANFIS(AHH,BHH) • //fusion of detail components using ANFIS. • STEP 5: Reconstruction of Images • //Sub-images are reconstructed into a single image using inverse of DWT • ANFISout= DWT-1 (Fout,Gout) 59
  60. 60. 60
  61. 61. Subjective evaluation metrics Subjective evaluation metrics 61
  62. 62. Objective evaluation metrics 62
  63. 63. Case1: Source images in (a) and (b), fused output in (c-h) Case1: Sarcoma with fusion of CT modality with MRI modality 63
  64. 64. CASE1:- Showing CT image, MRI image and fused output 64
  65. 65. Case2: Metastatic Adenocarcinoma with fusion of MR-Gad modality with MR-T2 65 Case2: Source images in (a) and (b), fused output in (c-h)
  66. 66. Case2:- Showing MRI-GAD image, MR-T2 image and fused output 66
  67. 67. Case3: Meningioma with fusion of CT modality with MR-T2 modality 67 Case3: Source images in (a) and (b), fused output in (c-h)
  68. 68. Case3:- showing CT image, MR-T2 image and fused output 68
  69. 69. Case4: Meningioma with fusion of CT modality with MR-Gad modality) 69 Case4 : Source images in (a) and (b), fused output in (c-h)
  70. 70. Case4:- Showing CT image, MRI-GAD image and fused output 70
  71. 71. Case5: Astrocytoma with fusion of MR-Gad with PET-FDG modality 71 Case5: Source images in (a) and (b), fused output in (c-h)
  72. 72. Case5:- Showing MRI-GAD image, PET-FDG image and fused output 72
  73. 73. Comparison of fusion algorithms based on conventional metrics for Case 1 to Case 5 73
  74. 74. Comparison of fusion algorithms based on objective metrics (Case1 to Case5) 74 Comparison of fusion algorithms based on objective metrics for Case 1 to Case 5
  75. 75. Graph-1 Average Pixel Intensity (API) calculation. Graph-2 Average Gradient (AG) calculation. 75
  76. 76. Graph-3 ENTROPY calculation. Graph-4 Mutual Information of fused image (MIF) calculation. 76
  77. 77. Graph-5 Fusion Symmetry (FS) calculation. Graph-6 Cross Correlation calculation. 77
  78. 78. Graph-7 Spatial Frequency calculation Graph-8 Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) calculation. 78
  79. 79. Graph-9 Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) calculation Graph-10 Total Fusion Performance, QAB/F calculation. Performance visualization 79
  80. 80. Graph-11 Fusion Loss, LAB/F calculation. Graph-12 Fusion Artifacts, NAB/F calculation. 80
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  85. 85. 1.Harmeet Kaur, Satish Kumar, (2018) “Comparative Analysis of the Decomposition/ Reconstruction Methods for Fusion of Medical Images”, 12th Chandigarh Science Congress (CHASCON 2018) February 12-14, 2018. 2.Harmeet Kaur, Satish Kumar, (2018) “A Review of methods used for fusion of images”, International Conference on Science and Technology: Trends and challenges, ICSTTC, 2018, April 16-17, 2018 in collaboration with Punjab Academy of Sciences, Patiala. 3.H. Kaur and S. Kumar, “Fusion of Multi-Modality Medical Images: A Fuzzy Approach,” in Proceedings on 2018 IEEE 3rd International Conference on Computing, Communication and Security, ICCCS 2018, 2018. 4.H. KAUR, K. S. BEHGAL, and S. KUMAR, “Multi-Modality Medical Image Fusion Using Cross Bilateral Filter with Fuzzy Logic,” INFOCOMP J. Comput. Sci., vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 141–150, 2020. 85
  86. 86. 5.Harmeet Kaur; Satish Kumar (2020) "A Review on Decomposition/Reconstruction methods for Fusion of Medical Images". International Research Journal on Advanced Science Hub, 2, 8, 2020, 34-40. 6.Harmeet Kaur, Satish Kumar, Kuljinder Singh Behgal, Yagiyadeep Sharma, "Multi-modality medical image fusion using cross-bilateral filter and neuro-fuzzy approach" published in "Journal of Medical Physics", 2021;46:263-77. 7.Harmeet Kaur; Satish Kumar, "Role of AI Techniques in Enhancing Multi- Modality Medical Image Fusion Results", in "Predictive Modelling in Biomedical Data Mining and Analysis" Elsevier book. 86
  87. 87. 87
  88. 88. 88 • Conclusion • Cbf
  89. 89. 89
  90. 90. 90 Spatial and Range parameter ratio
  91. 91. 91 • The research work included modeling of a system to fuse the modalities, making it competent for analysis and treatment. • The verification includes mathematical calculation and visual inspection by oncologist and radiation safety officer. • The experts validated the performance of the proposed method in terms of presence of information, noise removal and edge preservation • In future, the performance of proposed method can be upgraded by tuning the ANFIS. • New metrics can be developed to measure the performance of fusion methods.
  92. 92. 92

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