Software Concepts
Dr. Ashish K. GuptaDr. Ashish K. Gupta
MBBS, MS-Surgery, PGDHHM, MBA-HCA (FMS) Gold
Medalist, MAHA, PG i...
Study Objectives:
1. What is Software?
2. Software Program
3. The History of Software
4. Software Categories
A. System &
B...
What is Software?What is Software?
• Hardware is essential but by itself it is not sufficient to be of
any practical use
•...
Software ProgramSoftware Program
• A software program is a
series of statements or
instructions to the computer
• It is th...
The History of SoftwareThe History of Software
• Software is the element that drives the hardware to perform
specific task...
• The users of computer
systems today never
interact with the hardware
directly
• They interact with the
hardware through ...
Software CategoriesSoftware Categories
SOFTWARE
Saturday, August 10, 2013
drashishkgupta@gmail.com
09811114879
7
System
So...
System & Application SoftwareSystem & Application Software
DefinedDefined
• System Software: Is a set of generalized progr...
Language TranslatorsLanguage Translators
• A type of system software. They act as:
– Interpreters (compiles likewise) It i...
Language TranslatorsLanguage Translators
• The most elemental form of programming uses only binary
digits 0, 1 which is di...
Language TranslatorsLanguage Translators
• High Level Languages that are close to English overcame the
drawback of machine...
HardwareHardware-- Software RelationshipSoftware Relationship
System Software
Application Software
Users Application Softw...
SYSTEM SOFTWARE
Saturday, August 10, 2013
drashishkgupta@gmail.com
09811114879
13
• System software which we
find already installed if we
buy a new computer,
enables the application
software to interact w...
Basic Components of SystemBasic Components of System
SoftwareSoftware
1. Operating systems: is the principle component of ...
1. Operating System (OS)1. Operating System (OS)
• An OS is the most important system software & is required to
operate a ...
1. Operating System (OS)1. Operating System (OS)
• This drawback or idling the CPU was overcome by the
introduction of ove...
1. Operating System (OS)1. Operating System (OS)
• Other OSs that are popular today are:
– Multi-processing OSs: Here syst...
1. Operating System (OS)1. Operating System (OS)
• Is the computer system’s chief manager
• OS:
1. Provides locations in p...
Operating System (OS)Operating System (OS)
• OS allows you to
concentrate on your
own task or applications
rather than on ...
OS CapabilitiesOS Capabilities
• OS capabilities like
– multiprogramming,
– virtual storage,
– time sharing &
– multiproce...
OS CapabilitiesOS Capabilities
Multi-
programming
Multiple programs can share a computer system’s
resources at any one tim...
OS CapabilitiesOS Capabilities
Time
Sharing
Allows many users to share computer processing
resources simultaneously by all...
2. Utilities2. Utilities
• These are programmes that are very often requested by many
application programmers.
• E.g.
– SO...
3. Special Purpose Software3. Special Purpose Software
• These are intended to extend the capability of OSs to provide
spe...
Questions?
Saturday, August 10, 2013
drashishkgupta@gmail.com
09811114879
26
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MIS software concepts, Dr. Ashish K. Gupta

  1. 1. Software Concepts Dr. Ashish K. GuptaDr. Ashish K. Gupta MBBS, MS-Surgery, PGDHHM, MBA-HCA (FMS) Gold Medalist, MAHA, PG in Quality Management & AHO, Consultant Surgeon, Hospital Consultant, NABH-Assessor, CMD Blue Ocean Consultants Director Programs AHA
  2. 2. Study Objectives: 1. What is Software? 2. Software Program 3. The History of Software 4. Software Categories A. System & B. application Software C. Language Translators 5. Hardware- Software Relationship 6. SYSTEM SOFTWARE 7. Basic Components of System Software A. Operating systems: B. Device drivers C. Utility programs 8. OS Capabilities A. Multi-programming B. Virtual Storage C. Time Sharing D. Multi- processing 9. Utilities 10. Other software (Study Duration= 1 Hour) 1. What is Software? 2. Software Program 3. The History of Software 4. Software Categories A. System & B. application Software C. Language Translators 5. Hardware- Software Relationship 6. SYSTEM SOFTWARE 7. Basic Components of System Software A. Operating systems: B. Device drivers C. Utility programs 8. OS Capabilities A. Multi-programming B. Virtual Storage C. Time Sharing D. Multi- processing 9. Utilities 10. Other software Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 2
  3. 3. What is Software?What is Software? • Hardware is essential but by itself it is not sufficient to be of any practical use • To play a useful role in the firm’s information technology infrastructure, computer hardware requires computer software • We can only feel but neither see or touch it • Computer Software is defined as the detailed instructions that control the operations of a computer system • Any software is essentially a set of instructions that the hardware can understand & execute • Selecting appropriate software for the organization is a key management decision • Hardware is essential but by itself it is not sufficient to be of any practical use • To play a useful role in the firm’s information technology infrastructure, computer hardware requires computer software • We can only feel but neither see or touch it • Computer Software is defined as the detailed instructions that control the operations of a computer system • Any software is essentially a set of instructions that the hardware can understand & execute • Selecting appropriate software for the organization is a key management decision Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 3
  4. 4. Software ProgramSoftware Program • A software program is a series of statements or instructions to the computer • It is the ‘LIFE’ of a computer • The process of writing or coding programs is termed Programming • Individuals who specialize in this task are called Programmers • A software program is a series of statements or instructions to the computer • It is the ‘LIFE’ of a computer • The process of writing or coding programs is termed Programming • Individuals who specialize in this task are called Programmers Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 4
  5. 5. The History of SoftwareThe History of Software • Software is the element that drives the hardware to perform specific tasks for the user • In infancy of computers there was a time when the entire wiring of the computer was done in such a way as to represent a series of instructions. Such computers were KA ‘Hardwired’, as the set of instructions was wired in the hardware itself • Such systems were dedicated & had a very narrow scope of usage • As the complexity & size of instructions increased, to do the same hardware do more, there was a need to provide enough storage to it, therefore instructions had to move out to high capacity storage devices like floppies, hard disks & CDs • Software is the element that drives the hardware to perform specific tasks for the user • In infancy of computers there was a time when the entire wiring of the computer was done in such a way as to represent a series of instructions. Such computers were KA ‘Hardwired’, as the set of instructions was wired in the hardware itself • Such systems were dedicated & had a very narrow scope of usage • As the complexity & size of instructions increased, to do the same hardware do more, there was a need to provide enough storage to it, therefore instructions had to move out to high capacity storage devices like floppies, hard disks & CDs Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 5
  6. 6. • The users of computer systems today never interact with the hardware directly • They interact with the hardware through the software • Software is the intermediary, an interpreter, through which we communicate with the hardware-the machine • The users of computer systems today never interact with the hardware directly • They interact with the hardware through the software • Software is the intermediary, an interpreter, through which we communicate with the hardware-the machine Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 6
  7. 7. Software CategoriesSoftware Categories SOFTWARE Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 7 System Software Language Translators Application Software
  8. 8. System & Application SoftwareSystem & Application Software DefinedDefined • System Software: Is a set of generalized programs that manage the computer’s resources, such as central processor, communication links & peripheral devices – Only handful of systems software are available – Programmers who write system software are KA System Programmers • Application Software: Describes the programs that are written for or by the users to apply the computer to a specific task. E.g. Software for processing an order or generating a mailing list – Hundreds of application software packages are available – Programmers who write application software are KA Application Programmers • System Software: Is a set of generalized programs that manage the computer’s resources, such as central processor, communication links & peripheral devices – Only handful of systems software are available – Programmers who write system software are KA System Programmers • Application Software: Describes the programs that are written for or by the users to apply the computer to a specific task. E.g. Software for processing an order or generating a mailing list – Hundreds of application software packages are available – Programmers who write application software are KA Application Programmers Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 8
  9. 9. Language TranslatorsLanguage Translators • A type of system software. They act as: – Interpreters (compiles likewise) It is a translator that interprets statement by statement, any program written in high language. Very useful for programming as it checks for error statement by statement in an interactive mode – Compilers (compiles program-wise) It reads the entire program written in high language & converts it to machine language codes – Assemblers (converts semi-machine language, macro instructions to machine language) • They convert programming languages into machine language that can be understood by the computer & utility programs that perform common processing tasks • A type of system software. They act as: – Interpreters (compiles likewise) It is a translator that interprets statement by statement, any program written in high language. Very useful for programming as it checks for error statement by statement in an interactive mode – Compilers (compiles program-wise) It reads the entire program written in high language & converts it to machine language codes – Assemblers (converts semi-machine language, macro instructions to machine language) • They convert programming languages into machine language that can be understood by the computer & utility programs that perform common processing tasks Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 9
  10. 10. Language TranslatorsLanguage Translators • The most elemental form of programming uses only binary digits 0, 1 which is directly understood by the electronic circuits. A programme written using only binary digits is called a Machine Language Programme • Assembly language provides a significant improvement over machine language. These are written using mnemonic codes like ADD, STORE etc. rather than machine language, making programming easier. However it needs to be translated into machine language codes. This translation is done by assemblers • Both machine language & assembly language programme is machine dependent i.e. program written for one machine cannot be used in another machine • The most elemental form of programming uses only binary digits 0, 1 which is directly understood by the electronic circuits. A programme written using only binary digits is called a Machine Language Programme • Assembly language provides a significant improvement over machine language. These are written using mnemonic codes like ADD, STORE etc. rather than machine language, making programming easier. However it needs to be translated into machine language codes. This translation is done by assemblers • Both machine language & assembly language programme is machine dependent i.e. program written for one machine cannot be used in another machine Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 10
  11. 11. Language TranslatorsLanguage Translators • High Level Languages that are close to English overcame the drawback of machine dependence. • These are FORTRAN, BASIC, PASCAL, COBOL etc. • These languages relieve a programmer from being machine specific • However a programme written in a high level language needs to be translated into machine language codes before execution. This is done through compilers or through interpreters • High Level Languages that are close to English overcame the drawback of machine dependence. • These are FORTRAN, BASIC, PASCAL, COBOL etc. • These languages relieve a programmer from being machine specific • However a programme written in a high level language needs to be translated into machine language codes before execution. This is done through compilers or through interpreters Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 11
  12. 12. HardwareHardware-- Software RelationshipSoftware Relationship System Software Application Software Users Application Software: •Programming languages •Assembly language FORTRAN; COBOL; BASIC; PASCAL; C Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 12 SHardware
  13. 13. SYSTEM SOFTWARE Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 13
  14. 14. • System software which we find already installed if we buy a new computer, enables the application software to interact with the computer & helps the computer manage its internal & external resources • System software which we find already installed if we buy a new computer, enables the application software to interact with the computer & helps the computer manage its internal & external resources Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 14
  15. 15. Basic Components of SystemBasic Components of System SoftwareSoftware 1. Operating systems: is the principle component of system software in any computing system. It: a) Schedules computer events b) Allocates computer resources, including disk space, memory, CPU time allocation & peripheral devices c) Monitors events & system activities 2. Device drivers: help the computer control peripheral devices 3. Utility programs: are generally used to support, enhance or expand existing programs in a computer system 4. Special Purpose Software 1. Operating systems: is the principle component of system software in any computing system. It: a) Schedules computer events b) Allocates computer resources, including disk space, memory, CPU time allocation & peripheral devices c) Monitors events & system activities 2. Device drivers: help the computer control peripheral devices 3. Utility programs: are generally used to support, enhance or expand existing programs in a computer system 4. Special Purpose Software Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 15
  16. 16. 1. Operating System (OS)1. Operating System (OS) • An OS is the most important system software & is required to operate a computer system • OS became a part of computer software with the second generation computers. Advancements in computer hardware have also contributed to more efficient operating systems • First OS was called Batch Processing (serial) OS was developed for second generation computers. The OS executes the jobs serially one after the other from a batch of jobs submitted. The CPU is kept busy only during the processing cycle of a lob & it idles during the input & output operations • An OS is the most important system software & is required to operate a computer system • OS became a part of computer software with the second generation computers. Advancements in computer hardware have also contributed to more efficient operating systems • First OS was called Batch Processing (serial) OS was developed for second generation computers. The OS executes the jobs serially one after the other from a batch of jobs submitted. The CPU is kept busy only during the processing cycle of a lob & it idles during the input & output operations Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 16
  17. 17. 1. Operating System (OS)1. Operating System (OS) • This drawback or idling the CPU was overcome by the introduction of overlap processing • Similar consideration gave rise to the concept of multi- programming, that handles multiple jobs simultaneously by overlapping the input, output & processing cycles of various jobs • This OS was introduced along with Third generation computers & is still popular. It has replaced earlier batch processing OS • Multi-programming OS is more complex & requires more powerful hardware to support it • This drawback or idling the CPU was overcome by the introduction of overlap processing • Similar consideration gave rise to the concept of multi- programming, that handles multiple jobs simultaneously by overlapping the input, output & processing cycles of various jobs • This OS was introduced along with Third generation computers & is still popular. It has replaced earlier batch processing OS • Multi-programming OS is more complex & requires more powerful hardware to support it Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 17
  18. 18. 1. Operating System (OS)1. Operating System (OS) • Other OSs that are popular today are: – Multi-processing OSs: Here system uses multiple CPUs to process multiple jobs – Real Time OSs: This system is a very different type of OS as it is used for different type of applications i.e. real time applications like railway reservations, process control etc. • Other OSs that are popular today are: – Multi-processing OSs: Here system uses multiple CPUs to process multiple jobs – Real Time OSs: This system is a very different type of OS as it is used for different type of applications i.e. real time applications like railway reservations, process control etc. Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 18
  19. 19. 1. Operating System (OS)1. Operating System (OS) • Is the computer system’s chief manager • OS: 1. Provides locations in primary memory for data & programs 2. Controls the input & output devices such as printers, terminals & telecommunication links 3. Also coordinates the scheduling of work in various areas of the computer so that different parts of different jobs can be worked on at the same time 4. Keeps track of each computer job & may also keep track of who is using the system, of what programs have been run & of any unauthorized attempts to access the system • Is the computer system’s chief manager • OS: 1. Provides locations in primary memory for data & programs 2. Controls the input & output devices such as printers, terminals & telecommunication links 3. Also coordinates the scheduling of work in various areas of the computer so that different parts of different jobs can be worked on at the same time 4. Keeps track of each computer job & may also keep track of who is using the system, of what programs have been run & of any unauthorized attempts to access the system Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 19
  20. 20. Operating System (OS)Operating System (OS) • OS allows you to concentrate on your own task or applications rather than on the complexities of managing the computer • OS allows you to concentrate on your own task or applications rather than on the complexities of managing the computer Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 20
  21. 21. OS CapabilitiesOS Capabilities • OS capabilities like – multiprogramming, – virtual storage, – time sharing & – multiprocessing enable the computer to handle many different tasks & users at the same time • OS capabilities like – multiprogramming, – virtual storage, – time sharing & – multiprocessing enable the computer to handle many different tasks & users at the same time Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 21
  22. 22. OS CapabilitiesOS Capabilities Multi- programming Multiple programs can share a computer system’s resources at any one time through concurrent use of the CPU. Only one program is actually using the CPU at any given moment, but the input/output needs of other programs can be serviced at the same time Multiple programs can share a computer system’s resources at any one time through concurrent use of the CPU. Only one program is actually using the CPU at any given moment, but the input/output needs of other programs can be serviced at the same time Virtual Storage Handles programs more efficiently by breaking down the programs into tiny sections that are read into memory only when needed. The rest of each program is stored on disk until it is required. Virtual storage allows very large programs to be executed by small machines, or a large number of programs to be executed concurrently by a single machine Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 22
  23. 23. OS CapabilitiesOS Capabilities Time Sharing Allows many users to share computer processing resources simultaneously by allocating each a tiny slice of computer time to perform computing tasks & transferring processing from user to user. This arrangement permits many users to be connected to a CPU simultaneously, with each receiving only a tiny amount of CPU time Allows many users to share computer processing resources simultaneously by allocating each a tiny slice of computer time to perform computing tasks & transferring processing from user to user. This arrangement permits many users to be connected to a CPU simultaneously, with each receiving only a tiny amount of CPU time Multi- processing Links together two or more CPUs to work in parallel in a single computer system. The OS can assign multiple CPUs to execute different instructions from the same program or from different programs simultaneously, dividing the work between the CPUs Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 23
  24. 24. 2. Utilities2. Utilities • These are programmes that are very often requested by many application programmers. • E.g. – SORT/MERGE: For sorting large volumes of data & merging them into a single sorted list – Transfer Programmes: For transforming contents from one medium to another e.g. disk to tape, tape to disk etc. • These are programmes that are very often requested by many application programmers. • E.g. – SORT/MERGE: For sorting large volumes of data & merging them into a single sorted list – Transfer Programmes: For transforming contents from one medium to another e.g. disk to tape, tape to disk etc. Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 24
  25. 25. 3. Special Purpose Software3. Special Purpose Software • These are intended to extend the capability of OSs to provide specialized services to application programmes • E.g. – Spreadsheet software like LOTUS, VISUAL etc. – Data Management software like dBase III, DBMS etc. • These are intended to extend the capability of OSs to provide specialized services to application programmes • E.g. – Spreadsheet software like LOTUS, VISUAL etc. – Data Management software like dBase III, DBMS etc. Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 25
  26. 26. Questions? Saturday, August 10, 2013 drashishkgupta@gmail.com 09811114879 26

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