Transverse section thro’ upper part of pons
Sup.Cereb.Peduncle
Mid.Cereb.
Peduncle
Main.sens.N.Trig.
Lat.Lemn.
(Cochlear N...
DIENCEPHALON
Pars Dorsalis
Hypothalamic sulcus
Pars Ventralis
01.Thalamus (Dorsal thalamus)
02.Metathalamus – Med Gen. Bod...
Thalamus = Gk - inner room
Midline paired structure within brain
Between cerebral cortex and brain stem
(Both in location ...
Two thalami on each side of slit like cavity of 3rd ventricle
3 cms length x 1.5 cms breadth
Long axis 30 deg. oblique to ...
Cingulate gyrus
Corpus CallosumBody of caudate
nucleus
TT
Hypothalamus
Stria Terminalis
Thalamostriate Vein
Third Ventricle
External features
Two ends
1. Anterior end – Tubercle of Thalamus
2. Posterior end – Pulvinar – Overhangs
Med & Lat.Gen.Bo...
Thalamus
Internal capsule
Cad. Nucleus
Lat.Ventricle
Lat.Ventricle
Cad. Nucleus
Optic radiation
Lateral surface of Thalamu...
Stria medullaris Thalami
or Habenular stria
Taenia Thalami
Stria Terminalis
Thalamostriate vein
Body of caudate
nucleus
WHITE MATTER - THALAMUS
Stratum Zonale
External Medullary
Lamina
Internal Medullary
Lamina
Nuclei of Thalamus
Anterior Nucleus
Hypothalamus
Medial Dorsal
(Large)
Medial Ventral
(Small)
Lateral Dorsal
Lateral Ventr...
Functional group nuclei
1. Specific
2. Non-specific
3. Reticular
1. Specific - Input from certain specific ascending tratc...
Functional group nuclei
1. Specific group -
Nucleus Afferent Efferent Relay station
Ventral
anterior
Globus pallidus
(subt...
Functional group nuclei
2. Non - Specific group
Do not receive afferents from ascending
Tracts, but have abundant connecti...
Functional group nuclei
3. Reticular nuclei
Reticular nucleus,
Intralaminar nuclei &
Median nuclei
(Paraventricular nucleu...
Dorsal nerve root
N. of spinal tract of Trig. nerve
NG & NC
Sup. Sens. N. of Trigeminal
Dentate Nucleus
Sup. Cereb. Pedunc...
Premotor cortex
Area 6
Motor cortex
Area 4
Sensory cortex
Area 3,1,2
Superior parietal lobule
Parietal,
Temporal
Occipital...
Functions of Thalamus
1. Sensory integration relay station for all sensory pathways
(Except olfaction)
2. Capable of recog...
METATHALAMUS
1. Medial Geniculate body – Relay station for auditory pathway
2. Lateral Geniculate body – Relay station for...
METATHALAMUS
1. Lateral Geniculate body – Relay station for visual pathway
Afferents – Lateral root of optic tract – retin...
Sensory fibres are mostly thalamocortical fibre, radiate from thalamus
In different directions to reach wide spread areas ...
Thalamus, anatomy of thalamus, Thalamus PPT
Thalamus, anatomy of thalamus, Thalamus PPT
Thalamus, anatomy of thalamus, Thalamus PPT
Thalamus, anatomy of thalamus, Thalamus PPT
Thalamus, anatomy of thalamus, Thalamus PPT
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Thalamus, anatomy of thalamus, Thalamus PPT

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Thalamus, Anatomy of Thalamus, Thalamus PPT

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Thalamus, anatomy of thalamus, Thalamus PPT

  1. 1. Transverse section thro’ upper part of pons Sup.Cereb.Peduncle Mid.Cereb. Peduncle Main.sens.N.Trig. Lat.Lemn. (Cochlear N. to Inf.Colliculi) Spinal.Lemn. (ant.&Lat spinothalmic tracts) Pain, Temp, Crude touch Trig.Lemn. (Chief sens.& spinal N.) Pain & Temp – face Proprioception – Muscles of Mast. Medial.Lemn. (Gr. & Cun. N.) Touch,vibration poprioception0 MLF – integrates 3, 4, 6, 8 cranial nerves
  2. 2. DIENCEPHALON Pars Dorsalis Hypothalamic sulcus Pars Ventralis 01.Thalamus (Dorsal thalamus) 02.Metathalamus – Med Gen. Body - Lat. Gen. Body 03.Epithalamus - Pineal body - Habenular Nuclei - Habenular Commissure - Post. Commissure - Stria Medullaris Thalami 01.Subthalums (Ventral Thalamus) – Sub-thalamic Nucleus - Zona Inserta 02.Hypothalamus -
  3. 3. Thalamus = Gk - inner room Midline paired structure within brain Between cerebral cortex and brain stem (Both in location & neurological connections) Sends fibres out to cerebral cortex in all directions FUNCTIONS Relay of sensation (Except olfactory system) Spatial sense Regulation of consciousness Regulation of sleep and alertness Main largest product of embryonic diencephalon Great sensory gateway to cerebral cortex Damage to thalamus can lead to permanent coma
  4. 4. Two thalami on each side of slit like cavity of 3rd ventricle 3 cms length x 1.5 cms breadth Long axis 30 deg. oblique to midline Interthalamic adhesion
  5. 5. Cingulate gyrus Corpus CallosumBody of caudate nucleus TT Hypothalamus Stria Terminalis Thalamostriate Vein Third Ventricle
  6. 6. External features Two ends 1. Anterior end – Tubercle of Thalamus 2. Posterior end – Pulvinar – Overhangs Med & Lat.Gen.Bodies Sup.Colliculi & their brachia Surfaces 01.Sup. Surface – Lat. Part forms central part of lat. Vent. Med. Part is covered by tela choroidea of 3rd ventricle. 02.Inf. Surface - Ant. part fused with subthalamus - Post. part free – inf. part of Pulvinar 03.Med. Surface – Greater part of Lat. wall of 3rd ventricle 04.Lat. Surface - Med.boundary of Post. Limb of internal capsule Subthalamus
  7. 7. Thalamus Internal capsule Cad. Nucleus Lat.Ventricle Lat.Ventricle Cad. Nucleus Optic radiation Lateral surface of Thalamus – Medial boundary of Post. Limb of Int.Capsule
  8. 8. Stria medullaris Thalami or Habenular stria Taenia Thalami Stria Terminalis Thalamostriate vein Body of caudate nucleus
  9. 9. WHITE MATTER - THALAMUS Stratum Zonale External Medullary Lamina Internal Medullary Lamina
  10. 10. Nuclei of Thalamus Anterior Nucleus Hypothalamus Medial Dorsal (Large) Medial Ventral (Small) Lateral Dorsal Lateral Ventral LD, LP, Pulvinar – Dorsal Tier nuclei VA, VL, VPL, VPM – Ventral Tier nuclei VPL VPM CMN ILN PVN EXT.Med.Lam Ret.N LGB MGB Stratum Zonale MEDIALLATERAL
  11. 11. Functional group nuclei 1. Specific 2. Non-specific 3. Reticular 1. Specific - Input from certain specific ascending tratcs Project specific cortical areas Ventral tier, Med & Lat. Geniculate bodies Ventral Posterior Nucleus: VPM VPL Nucleus Afferent Efferent Relay station VPM Trigeminal lemniscus Solitariothalamic tract Post central gyrus (3,1 & 2) Impulses from face & head Taste buds VPL Medial lemniscus Spinal lemniscus Post central gyrus (3,1 & 2) Exteroception (Pain,Tocuh & Temp) Proprioception from whole body except face & head
  12. 12. Functional group nuclei 1. Specific group - Nucleus Afferent Efferent Relay station Ventral anterior Globus pallidus (subthalamic fasciculus) Premotor cortex area 6 & 8 Striatal impulses Ventral lateral Cerebellum (dentato-rubro-thalamic fibres) (Dentato-thalamic fibres) Motor & premotor areas Area 4 & 6 Cerebellar impulses MGB Auditory fibres from Inferior Colliculus Primary auditory area 41 & 42 Auditory impulses LGB Optic tract Primary visual cortex area 17 Visual impulses
  13. 13. Functional group nuclei 2. Non - Specific group Do not receive afferents from ascending Tracts, but have abundant connections with other diencephalic nuclei. Project to cortical association areas in frontal & parietal lobes. Nucleus Afferent Efferent Relay station Anterior nucleus Mamillothalmic tract (Mamillary body) Cingulate gyrus Attention & Recent memory Medial dorsal Other thalamic nuclei & Hypothalamus Prefrontal area Mood & Emotional balance Lateral dorsal Ventral tier of thalamic nuclei Precuneus & Cingulate gyrus Integrate sensory information Lateral posterior Ventral tier of thalamic nuclei Superior parietal lobule Integrate sensory information Pulvinar Ventral tier of thalamic nuclei Association areas in parietal, occipital & temporal lobes Correlates visual & auditory information with other sensations
  14. 14. Functional group nuclei 3. Reticular nuclei Reticular nucleus, Intralaminar nuclei & Median nuclei (Paraventricular nucleus) Connected with Reticular formation Nucleus Afferent Efferent Relay station Reticular Brain stem reticular formation Whole of cerebral cortex Forms part of reticular activating system (RAS) Intralami nar & Centro median Brain stem reticular formation Other thalamic nuclei & Corpus striatum Involved in awareness of painful stimuli at thalamic level
  15. 15. Dorsal nerve root N. of spinal tract of Trig. nerve NG & NC Sup. Sens. N. of Trigeminal Dentate Nucleus Sup. Cereb. Peduncle MB Hypothalamic Nuclei Caudate N. Prefrontal cortex Cingulate gyrus Somesthetic sensory area (3, 1, 2) Parietal cortex Inferior parietal lobule RN Spinal lemniscus (Spinothalamic tract) Trigeminal lemniscus Medial lemniscus VPM VPL VPL Anygdaloid body Main connections of Thalamus
  16. 16. Premotor cortex Area 6 Motor cortex Area 4 Sensory cortex Area 3,1,2 Superior parietal lobule Parietal, Temporal Occipital cortex RN Trigeminal lemniscus Solitariothalamic tract Medial lemniscus Spinal lemniscus Globus pallidus Cingulate gyrusCingulate gyrus Subthalamic fascilulus Connections of ventral and lateral group nuclei
  17. 17. Functions of Thalamus 1. Sensory integration relay station for all sensory pathways (Except olfaction) 2. Capable of recognition of pain, thermal & tactile sensations 3. Influences voluntary movements through basal ganglia & cerebellum – cerebral cortex – cortico-nuclear / cortico-spinal pathways 4. Through ascending activating system – maintains state of wakefulness and alertness 5. Impulses received from hypothalamus projected o prefrontal & cingulate gyrus – Determination of mood 6. Recent memory and emotions 7. Influences electrical activity of cerebral cortex (EEG)
  18. 18. METATHALAMUS 1. Medial Geniculate body – Relay station for auditory pathway 2. Lateral Geniculate body – Relay station for visual pathway 1. Medial Geniculate body Afferents – Through lateral lemniscus – inferior colliculus - brachium of inf. Colliculus Efferents - Geniculocortical fibres project as auditory radiation thru’ sublentiform of int. capsule to primary auditory area in temporal lobe of cerebral cortex (41 & 42) Auditory radiation Inferior thalamic radiation Midbrain Pulvinar
  19. 19. METATHALAMUS 1. Lateral Geniculate body – Relay station for visual pathway Afferents – Lateral root of optic tract – retinal fibres of both eyes (temporal fibres of same side & nasal fibres of opposite side) Efferents - Geniculocalcarine fibres project as optic radiation trhu sublentiform part of int. capsule to visual cortex of occipital lobe (17, 18 & 19) Optic radiation Posterior thalamic radiation Midbrain Pulvinar 6 layers (laminae) of LGB & their afferents 1,4,6 Retina of opp.side 1 4 6 2,3,5 Retina of same side 2 3 5
  20. 20. Sensory fibres are mostly thalamocortical fibre, radiate from thalamus In different directions to reach wide spread areas of cerebral cortex Constitute – thalamic radiations Sup. Thal. Radiation (Ventral tier to frontal & parietal lobes) Inf Thal. Radiation (Auditory radiation) Post.Thal.radiation (Opticradiation– Geniculo-calcarinetract) Ant.Thal.radiation (Ant&Dorsomed.N.toFrontallobe Ant.Thal. Radiation Sup.Thal. Radiation Post.Thal. Radiation

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