New Fertility drugs and IVF treatmentshttp://www.delhi-ivf.comFertility drugs are often the first thing and alternative treatment for women who arent ovulating. Theywork in the same way as the bodys own hormones, triggering the ovaries to release eggs.This method, known as ovulation induction, can sometimes lead to conception after a few monthswithout further intervention. Possible side effects include premenstrual symptoms such as nausea,headaches and weight gain.Such drugs are also used as part of other more complicated treatments, such as in vitro fertilization andintrauterine insemination (see below). Other drugs - to help control the menstrual cycle or thicken thelining of the womb to prepare it for pregnancy, for example - may also be used. These can also causeside effects, such as hot flushes, headaches, nausea and swollen breasts.There are other methods:Assisted reproduction treatmentsIntrauterine insemination (IUI)Intrauterine insemination, also known as artificial insemination, involves inserting sperm into the wombat the time of ovulation using a catheter (a very fine needle or probe). The woman may need to takefertility drugs to stimulate egg production. The sperm used may be her partners or donated.In vitro fertilization (IVF)Women Eggs and sperm are collected and fertilized in the laboratory before the resulting embryo istransferred to the womb. The woman takes fertility drugs to stimulate the production of eggs. Oncethese are mature, theyre collected by the doctor, using ultrasound to guide the collecting tube. Theman produces a sperm sample, which is prepared before being put with the eggs in a Petri dish and leftfor a few days to see if fertilization takes place. If a healthy embryo develops, this is placed in the wombusing a catheter (a very fine needle or probe). Usually, no more than one or two are placed. Anyremaining embryos suitable for freezing may be stored for future use. The sperm and/or eggs used maybe the couples own or donated.Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI)When a man has less sperm that are good for fertilization then A single sperm is injected into thecytoplasm or centre of a single egg. This is then transferred to the womb using the same process as IVF.Why its used: to treat male factor infertility, such as low sperm count or poor motility (mobility ormovement) or abnormally shaped sperm. ICSI may also be used following previous unsuccessful
attempts at fertilization using IVF and when sperm has been retrieved directly from the epididymis orthe testicles (see Sperm extraction, below).Success rate: as for IVF, about 25 per cent per cycle, sometimes more.Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT)What is it? Gametes - eggs and sperm - are collected as for IVF. Instead of mixing sperm and eggstogether in the laboratory, theyre immediately transferred to one of the womans fallopian tubes sofertilization takes place inside the body. Only a few clinics offer this in the UK.Why its used: unexplained infertility.Success rate: lower than IVF, but it’s difficult to be certain as sometimes it’s offered to couples for whomIVF has already failed.Sperm extractionWhat is it? A small operation that removes sperm from the epididymis (the tube where sperm mature inthe mans body) or the testicles (where sperm cells are made) for use in ICSI or another treatment.There are several different methods of sperm extraction like:PESA (percutaneous epididymal sperm aspiration) involves guiding a small needle into the epididymis todraw out fluid containing sperm.TESE (testicular sperm extraction) MESA (microsurgical sperm aspiration) uses a small needle to extractmature sperm from the epididymis.Why its used: when a man cant produce sperm - for example, after a vasectomy or failed reversal.Success rate: when used in ICSI, about 25 per cent per cycle.Embryo freezingWhat is it? The HFEA stipulates that (with certain strict exceptions) only two embryos may betransferred to the womb at a time in fertility treatments. However, because IVF often creates moreembryos than can be transferred in a single cycle, most clinics will freeze any remaining healthy embryosfor use in future IVF treatments, with the patients consent.Why its used: to avoid the need for further fresh IVF cycles involving invasive processes of eggstimulation and collection.Success rate: normally only 60 per cent of embryos survive the freeze/thaw process and those that dosurvive have a lower rate of implantation and so a lower pregnancy rate than fresh embryos.