Skill of Set Induction (Motivation) and Skill of Introducing a Lesson (Slide 6-9)Skill of Stimulus Variation (Slide 10- 13)Skill of Explaining (Slide 14- 17)Skill of Black Board Writing (Slide 18- 21)Skill of Questioning (Slide 22- 26)Skill of Probing Questions (Slide 27- 30)Skill of Reinforcement (Slide 31- 34)Skill of achieving closure (Slide 30 -33)Skill of Illustration (Slide
Use of Previous Knowledge (UPK) Previous knowledge of students refers to the level of achievements from previous experiences. Testing the previous knowledge of students helps the teacher to establish integration between the pre-existing knowledge of the student and the new knowledge that the teacher wants to impart. Through this skill, the teacher knows the status of motivation, intellectual abilities and socio-cultural background of the student.Preliminary Attention Gaining (PAG) In the beginning of a lesson, the students may not be in an attentive mood being mentally unprepared for learning. The teacher’s duty is to create desire for learning among the students. The teacher attracts the students towards his teaching by doing some attractive activity and creating curiosity. To gain attention at the preliminary stage interest or curiosity should be aroused among the students. The teacher can employ different attention attracting activities such as telling a story, recalling the previous experiences etc.Use of Appropriate Device (UAD)The teacher should make use of appropriate devices or techniques while introducing a lesson to motivate the students. The teacher creates such a situation by use of different types of devices such as QuestioningUse of examples, analogies, similaritiesStory telling, describing related instancesLecturing, describing, narratingUse of A.V aidsRole-playing, dramatization Demonstration, experimentation etc.In order to motivate the learners, the use of such devices should be suitable to the age, experience, maturity, etc. of the learner. The devices could be relevant only if they are related to the aims of the lesson/content. Unrelated devices confuse the learners and do not contribute towards establishing a healthy rapport with them.Arousing Motivation (AM)The teacher should link the required previous knowledge of the present knowledge with motivation of the present knowledge with motivation in introducing a lesson. The teacher should use the questions or activities to motivate the students towards the current topic or concept before declaring the topic or lesson.Relevance and Continuity or Sequencing of questions and Statements (RC)The teacher should use relevant and sequence questions to recall previous knowledge, to generate motivation towards the lesson and attract attention of the students.Topic Declaration (TD)The teacher should declare the topic or lesson after introducing the lesson. It indicates the beginning of presentation of the lesson. By this topic declaration, the students understand what they are going to be learning in that period.
Movements : Making movements from one place to another with some purpose. (For writing on the black board; to conduct experiment; to explain the chart or model; to pay attention to the pupil who is responding to some question etc.)Gestures : These include movements of head, hand and body parts to arrest attention, to express emotions or to indicate shapes, sizes and movements. All theseacts are performed to become more expressive.Change in Speech Pattern : When the teacher wants show emotions or to put emphasis on a particular point, sudden or radical changes in tone, volume or speed of the verbal presentation are brought out. The change in the speech pattern makes the pupils attentive and creates interest in the lesson.Change in Interaction Style : When two or more persons communicate their views with each other, they are said to be interacting.In the classroom the following three styles of interaction are possible :1. Teacher ↔ class (Teacher talks to class and vice versa)2. Teacher ↔ Pupil (Teacher talks to pupil and vice versa)3. Pupil ↔ pupil (Pupil talks to pupil)All types of interaction should go side by side to secure and sustain pupils’ attention.Focusing : The teacher draws the attention of the pupils to the particular point in the lesson either by using verbal or gestural focusing. In verbalfocusing the teacher makes statements like, “look here” “listen to me” “note it carefully”. In gestural focusing pointing towards some object with fingers or underlining the important words on the black board.Pausing : This means “stop talking” by the teacher for a moment. When the teacher becomes silent during teaching, it at once draws the attention of the pupils with curiosity towards the teacher. The message given at this point is easily received by the pupils.Student’s physical participation: Variation in physical involvement of the students. Examples: Student moves towards the blackboard to work out a problem, Student holds the chart, Student helps the teacher in demonstrating an experiment.Oral-Visual Switching : The teacher gives information to the class verbally about something. This is called oral medium. When the teacher is showing maps, charts and object without saying something. This is called visual medium. If the teacher is giving information to the pupils through any one medium (oral, visual, oral visual) for a long time., it is possible that the students may lose attention to what the teacher is conveying to them. Therefore it is essential for the teacher to change medium rapidly in order to secure and sustain pupils’ attention to what he says. There are three types media :Oral ⇄ oral –visual :- when the teacher while speaking shows objects, charts and models and explains their various parts. It is switching from oral to oral-visual.Oral ⇄ visual :- when the teacher while speaking, shows objects, maps, charts, globe etc. It is switching form oral to visual.Visual ⇄ oral – visual when the teacher demonstrates the experiment silently and then explains the phenomenon with the help of charts, maps, diagram etc. It is visual-oral switching.These devices are used interchangeably to secure and sustain pupils’ attention to the lesson.
A class in not homogeneous group. Some pupils are intelligent some have normal intelligence, some are mature and others are immature. But the teacher has to impart knowledge to all. To present the subject matter in the simplified form before the pupils and making it acquirable is called the skill of explanation. It is necessary in all the subjects. In its absence the presentation of the subject matter is not possible. In the skill of explanation, such words are used in the statements by which the statements exhibit the clarity of their meanings.
Refer this website for explaining the content for this slide.http://www.vkmaheshwari.com/WP/?p=209Beginning Statement : The purpose of this statement is to create readiness among the pupils to pay attention to the point being explained. It is the introductory statement to begin explanation. Clarity: State concepts clearly, define new terms and concepts, use simple language, maintain logical sequence and continuity of ideas, use suitable examples and illustrations, voice modulation to emphasis important points. Develop the explanation from:Known UnknownExamples Rule (or)Rule Examples Rule Fluency: Use appropriate vocabulary, Use simple language, Easy flow of ideas.Use of Link words : These are words and phrases which are mostly conjunctions and prepositions and are generally used by the teachers to make his explanation effective. These are : the result of the cause of such thatthe consequence of the function of hereafterdue to so that as a result ofthis is how therefore beforein order to hence aftersince but thus because the purpose of next Concluding Statement : This is the statement made at the end of the explanation. It includes the summary of all the main results of the explanation.Questions to Test Pupils' Understanding : These are short questions put to the pupils to test their understanding of the concept after the explanation. The main purpose is simply to judge whether the pupils have understood or not.Irrelevant Statements : These are statements sometimes made by the teacher during explanation which have nothing to do with the present concept. These statements do not contribute to understanding rather create confusion in the minds of the students.Lacking in Continuity : It happens when the sentences remain incomplete or are reformulated in the middle of the statement and there are other causes also like :· a statement is not logically related to the previous statement.· when a topic of previously taught content is referred without showing the relationship to what is being explained.· when there is no sequence of space or place.· use of inappropriate vocabulary of technical terms which are quite unknown to pupils.· use of vague words and phrases.Some of these words and phrases are :some much seemsmany something somewhatthings probably the resta little perhaps almostmight may types of few in fact actually In addition to these words there are words and phrases like “you see”, “Okey”, “correct” etc. which are parts of teachers' mannerism.
Legibility of Handwriting:Adequate spacing between two lettersAdequate spacing between two wordsThe size of the letter is large enough to be read from the far end of the roomThe Size of the capital letter is just bigger than the small letterAll the capital letters are same sizeAll the small letters are of the same size The slantness of each letter should be nearly verticalThickness of the lines should be of same width.Neatness in black board writing:Straightness of lines :The neatness of the black board increases if you write in straight lines parallel to the base of the black board.Adequate Spacing between the Lines : The words/sentences should be written in straight lines parallel to the base of the black board. There should be adequate spacing between the lines.Avoidance of Overwriting : In order to keep the black board work neat and clean there should be no over writing.Focusing the Relevant Matter : In order to keep the black board neat and clean :Erase the unrelated and irrelevant work and work not required and Retain the relevant matter.Appropriateness of Written work on the Blackboard:Continuity in points :The points of the lesson should be logically arranged one after the other in a sequence.Brevity and simplicity :Write only the salient points in a simple and clear language.Drawing attention and Focusing :Underline the important points or use coloured chalk for drawing the pupils’ attention.Illustrations and Diagrams :Illustrations and diagrams should be simple, large and clear to convey the idea easily and conveniently. As this skill needs long practice to achieve the goal and so no micro-lesson plan is given.
Different types of questionsCompliance QuestionsRhetorical QuestionsPrompting QuestionsProbing QuestionsRecall/Knowledge questionsComprehension QuestionsApplication QuestionsAnalysis QuestionsSynthesis QuestionsEvaluation QuestionsNarrow Questions (Direct Narrow Questions and Centered Narrow Questions)Broad Questions (Open Ended and Valuing Questions)
Prompting technique : This technique means to go deep into the pupil’s response when it is incorrect or no response. Then a series of hints or prompts are given to pupil through step by step questioning in order to lead the pupil to the desired correct response. Let us take the following example :Example : T : What are the functions of Municipality ?P : No response.T : Who supplies water to the city ?P : Municipality.Seeking Further Information : This technique is used when the response of pupil is incomplete or partially correct. The teacher helps the pupil to clarify or elaborate or explain his initial response by asking more small questions or creating situation in which the pupil is made to think and respond.Example :T : What are the functions of Municipality ?P : To supply water to the whole city.T : What are the other functions ?Redirection : This technique involves asking the same question from another pupil. The main purpose of this technique is to increase more and more pupil participation. When the situation is of no response or incorrect response prompting should be preferred to redirection.Example :T : What are the characteristic of oxygen ?Ram : No responseSohan : It helps burning (Redirection)Refocusing : It is used when the pupil’s response is correct. This involves comparing the phenomena in his response with other phenomena either for similarity/difference or relationship between the two situations. How one thing in point is different from the other thing ? How one response of the pupil is related to any other point ? How one thing is similar to another thing ? Such type of questions are put to the pupil.Increasing Critical Awareness : This technique is used when the pupil’s response is correct. The teacher puts higher order questions to stimulate the pupil to think beyond what the pupil knows. This involves the ‘how’ and ‘why’ and sometimes ‘what’ type of questions on the point under discussion.Example :1. Why oxygen is necessary for living beings ?2. How oxygen helps in burning ? etc.
Positive -Verbal Reinforcement : These are the positive comments given by the teacher on the correct response of the pupil. They are : (i) Using words and phrases like, “good”, “very good” and excellent.(ii) Repeating and rephrasing pupil’s response.(iii) Using pupils idea in the development of the lesson.(iv) Using extra-verbal cues, like “um”, “um”, “aha” to encourage pupils.(v) Using prompts like carry on, think again etc. to help the pupil give correct response.Positive Non -Verbal Reinforcement : The teacher gives comments to pupils on their correct response without using words : This he does by : nodding the head, smiling, patting, looking attentively at the responding pupil, writing pupil’s answer on the black boards. The teacher encourages the pupils to participate maximally in the development of the lesson.Negative Verbal Reinforcement : The teacher gives comments on the incorrect or partially incorrect response by telling that the pupil’s response is incorrect or making sarcastic remarks like “idiots”, “stupid” etc. Such behaviour of the teacher discourages pupil-participation and should not be used.Negative Non -Verbal Reinforcement : The teacher shows his disapproval without using words. This involves, frowning, staring, looking angrily at the responding pupil, when he gives wrong response. This type of behaviour of the teacher creates fear in the minds of the pupil and decreases pupil-participation.Wrong use of Reinforcement : This is the situation, where the teacher does not give reinforcement when the situation is demanding encouragement.Inappropriate use of Reinforcement : This is the situation when the teacher does not encourage the pupil with respect to quality of his response. He uses same type of comment for every response.
Consolidation of Major Points (CMP) The teacher should consolidate the major points of his presented content matter at the closure or recapitulation process. It helps in remembering important points of the lesson.Providing Opportunity to apply new knowledge to new situation or indifferent situations (OP) Whatever the students gain new knowledge in the lesson taught, they apply their knowledge in a new situation or different situations in the recapitulation. That opportunity is felt at the closure of a lesson. Without providing this opportunity, the students are unable to apply their gained knowledge to new or different situations.Linking previous knowledge to new knowledge and new knowledge to future knowledge of the students (LK) The teacher establishes a link from the previous knowledge to new knowledge and from the new knowledge to future knowledge by taking different examples.Home Work or Assignment (HW)Home work or Assignment is an important task in closure. At the end of his teaching, the teacher provides homework or assignment to recall or to apply or to learn different situations.
Formulating Simple Example : A simple example is one which is related to the previous knowledge of pupils. It should be according to the age level, grade level and the background of pupils.Formulating Relevant Example : An example is relevant to the concept, when the concept or the rule can be applied to it. This means to say that the rule is explained by the example.Formulating Interesting Example : An example is interesting if it can arouse curiosity and interest of pupils. This can be judged by the attending behaviour of students. If the pupils keenly attend to the example, it is really interesting.Using Appropriate Media for Examples : Appropriateness of media refers to its suitability to age level, grade level, maturity and to the unit taught. The decision about the nature of media, whether verbal or non verbal depends on the nature of concept.Using Examples by Inducto-Deductive Approach : This involves the teacher giving examples relating to the concept or rule to clarify it. The pupils on the basis of the examples given, formulate the rule. After this the teacher asks the pupils to give examples to test whether the pupils have rightly understood the concept or not.
Micro teaching skills
Higher order questions
Recognizing attending behavior
Illustrating and use of examples
Silence and non-verbal cues
Reinforcement of student
Fluency in asking questions
Silence and non-verbal cues.
Increasing pupil participation
Introducing a lesson
Fluency in questioning
Illustrating with examples
• Writing instructional objectives
• Organizing the content
• Introducing the lessonINTRODUCTORY STAGE
• Presentation skills
• Questioning skills
• Aid using skills
• Management skills
• Achieving closure
• Giving assignments
• Evaluating the pupil’s progress
• Diagnosing pupil learning difficulties and
taking remedial measures
Skill of Reinforcement
Skill of Introduction
Skill of Probing
Skill of Stimulus
Skill of Explaining
Skill of using Black-board
Skill of Achieving
Skill of Questioning
(Click on each skill to know more)
to be integrated
with the previous
Prepare the minds
of the students to
Establish a cognitive and affective rapport with the pupils
Recall and integrate previous knowledge with new knowledge
Maintain continuity and logical links
Arouse and maintain the student interest
Use of previous knowledge (UPK)
Preliminary attention gaining (PAG)
Use of appropriate device (UAD)
Arousing motivation (AM)
Relevance and Continuity or Sequencing of
questions and Statements (RC)
Topic Declaration (TD)
• Lack of continuity
• Making irrelevant
statements or asking
Stimulus variation is described as deliberate change in the
behaviors of the teacher in order to sustain the attention of his
learners throughout the lesson. Stimulus variation determines
teacher liveliness in the classroom.
This skill is concerned with three main areas of teaching, they
The manner, voice and teaching style of the teacher
The media and materials used during teaching
The teacher/ pupil relationship during the class.
It is known on the basis of psychological experiments that
attention of the individual tends to shift from one stimulus to
other very quickly. It is very difficult for an individual to attend to
the same stimulus for more than a few seconds. Therefore, for
securing and sustaining the attention of the pupils to the lesson
it is imperative to make variations in the stimulus. This is because
attention is the necessary pre-requisite for learning.
Change in speech pattern
Change in the interaction style
Student’s physical participation
Oral visual switching
Explanation is a key skill.
Explaining involves giving understanding to another.
Explaining is concerned with answering the question “why”
The skill of explanation is complex - Explanation is to explain or
to give understanding to another person. It leads from the
known to the unknown, it bridges the gap between a person’s
knowledge or experience and new phenomena, and it may also
aim to show the interdependence of phenomena in a general
sable manner. It assists the learner to assimilate and
accommodate new data or experience.
In a classroom, an explanation is a set of interrelated
statements made by the teacher related to a phenomenon, an
idea:, etc. in order to bring about or increase understanding in
the pupils about it.
The explanation serves two purposes:
to introduce the subject by giving some background about its
usefulness and application; and
to describe the subject in a simple, complete, and tantalizing
Use of link words
Covering essential points
Relevant and interesting examples appropriate
Use of inducts, deductive approach, it can be
functional, causal or sequential
• Irrelevant statement
• Lacking in continuity
• Vague words and
• Lacking in fluency
Blackboards, being the visual aids, are widely used in all
aspects of education and training, and are most suitable for giving
a holistic picture of the lesson. A good blackboard work brings
clearness in perception and the concepts being taught, and adds
variety to the lesson.
Clarity in understanding of concepts
Reinforcement of the ideas which is being verbally presented
Conveying the holistic picture of the content
Adding variety to the lesson and drawing attention of the
pupils to the key concept.
Legibility of Handwriting
Neatness of Black Board Work
Appropriateness of Black Board Work
I keep six honest serving men, they taught
me all I know. Their names are:
Types of Questions
Levels of Questions
To stimulate thinking
To channelise the thinking process
To challenge the students
To help them in recalling and relating relevant concepts, facts
To ensure active students involvement in learning
To get the students’ attention focused on the topic
To arouse the interest and their curiosity of the students
Clarity and relevance
Variety: Low order, High order etc
Speed and Pauses
Prompting and probing
Distribution of questions
Probing is used when the students reply is correct but
insufficient, because it lacks depth. Asking a number of
questions about the response given to the first question.
Such techniques that deal with pupil responses to your
question are included in the skill of probing questioning.
To lead the pupils from a ‘no’ or ‘wrong’ response to correct
response by step-by-step questioning
To clarify pupil’s understanding about the concept
To help the pupil to view the response from a broader
To involve more and more pupils in the discussion
To increase critical awareness in the pupils
Seeking further information technique.
Increasing critical awareness technique
Reinforcement: the presentation or removal of something
immediately following a response/skill, which increases the
likelihood that the response/skill will occur again. (Alberto &
Reinforcement is strengthening or weakening the connection
between stimulus and a response.
A student is an individual and may be different in his/her
perception of the reinforcement; so, different reinforcement
may be needed for different students
A reinforcement is highly effective only if it is used at the right
time and the right place; too much repetitive reinforcement may
result in the loss of its effectiveness as the motivating factor
To increase students attention
To motivate students’ and to maintain motivation
To facilitate students’ behavior
To control and modify disruptive students’ behavior
To help the students to develop self management learning
To enable students to evaluate their own learning
To recognize students’ achievements and efforts
• asking the
students to clap
• ‘ Wrong’
• ’ stop it’
• raising the
Extra verbal clues
• Wrong use of
• Inappropriate use
When a teacher delivers lecture and sums up properly and
in an attractive way, the skill is termed as “Closure Skill”. The
lesson/period remains ineffective in the absence of proper
To consolidate the major points covered during the lesson
To provide opportunities to the pupils for
linking the present knowledge with the past knowledge.
applying the knowledge gained during the lesson to the
linking the present knowledge with the pupils’ future
Consolidation of Major points (CMP)
Providing opportunity to link the present knowledge with
the past knowledge
Providing opportunity to apply new knowledge to a new
situation or different situation (OP)
Linking previous knowledge to new knowledge and new
knowledge to future knowledge among the students (LK)
Home work or Assignment (HW)
Formulating simple examples
Formulating interesting examples
Formulating relevant examples
Linking examples with day- to-day life
Using Appropriate Media for Example
Using Examples by Inducto-Deductive Approach.
Bridge the gap between micro teaching and macro teaching
Micro teaching ---- Link Lesson --- Macro teaching
When mastery has been attained in various skills ,the teacher
trainee is allowed to teach the skills together. This separate
training programme to integrate various isolated skills is known as
It helps the trainee to transfer effectively all the skills learnt in
the micro teaching sessions.
It helps to bridge the gap between training in isolated
teaching skills and the real teaching situation faced by a
Desirable Number of Pupils :15-20
Preferable Duration :20minutes.
Desirable Number of Skills :3-4 Skills
Link practice or integration of skills can be done in two ways;
Integration in parts
3 or 4 teaching skills are integrated and transferred them into a
lesson of 15-20 minutes duration. And again 3 or 4 skills are
integrated and are transferred all the skills to one lesson.
Integration as a whole
Student teacher integrates all the individual teaching skills by
taking them as a whole and transferred them into a real