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Micro teaching skills


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Micro teaching skills

  1. 1. Higher order questions Divergent questions Recognizing attending behavior Illustrating and use of examples Lecturing Planned repetition Completeness of Communication Stimulus Variation Set induction Closure Silence and non-verbal cues Reinforcement of student participation Fluency in asking questions Probing questions
  2. 2. Silence and non-verbal cues. Reinforcement Increasing pupil participation Using black-board Achieving closure Recognising attending behaviour Writing instructional objectives Introducing a lesson Fluency in questioning Probing questions Explaining Illustrating with examples Stimulus Variation
  3. 3. • Writing instructional objectives • Organizing the content PLANNING STAGE • Introducing the lessonINTRODUCTORY STAGE • Presentation skills • Questioning skills • Aid using skills • Management skills PRESENTATION STAGE • Achieving closure • Giving assignments • Evaluating the pupil’s progress • Diagnosing pupil learning difficulties and taking remedial measures CLOSING STAGE
  4. 4. Skill of Reinforcement Skill of Introduction Skill of Probing Questions Skill of Stimulus Variation Skill of Explaining Skill of using Black-board Skill of Achieving Closure Skill of Questioning (Click on each skill to know more)
  5. 5. Set stage New knowledge to be integrated with the previous knowledge for effective learning Ensure students’ willingness to learn Prepare the minds of the students to receive new knowledge
  6. 6. Establish a cognitive and affective rapport with the pupils Recall and integrate previous knowledge with new knowledge Maintain continuity and logical links Arouse and maintain the student interest
  7. 7. Use of previous knowledge (UPK) Preliminary attention gaining (PAG) Use of appropriate device (UAD) Arousing motivation (AM) Relevance and Continuity or Sequencing of questions and Statements (RC) Topic Declaration (TD) Don'ts: • Lack of continuity • Making irrelevant statements or asking irrelevant questions
  8. 8. Stimulus variation is described as deliberate change in the behaviors of the teacher in order to sustain the attention of his learners throughout the lesson. Stimulus variation determines teacher liveliness in the classroom. This skill is concerned with three main areas of teaching, they are: The manner, voice and teaching style of the teacher The media and materials used during teaching The teacher/ pupil relationship during the class.
  9. 9. It is known on the basis of psychological experiments that attention of the individual tends to shift from one stimulus to other very quickly. It is very difficult for an individual to attend to the same stimulus for more than a few seconds. Therefore, for securing and sustaining the attention of the pupils to the lesson it is imperative to make variations in the stimulus. This is because attention is the necessary pre-requisite for learning.
  10. 10. Movements Gestures Change in speech pattern Focusing Change in the interaction style Pausing Student’s physical participation Oral visual switching
  11. 11. Explanation is a key skill. Explaining involves giving understanding to another. Explaining is concerned with answering the question “why” The skill of explanation is complex - Explanation is to explain or to give understanding to another person. It leads from the known to the unknown, it bridges the gap between a person’s knowledge or experience and new phenomena, and it may also aim to show the interdependence of phenomena in a general sable manner. It assists the learner to assimilate and accommodate new data or experience. In a classroom, an explanation is a set of interrelated statements made by the teacher related to a phenomenon, an idea:, etc. in order to bring about or increase understanding in the pupils about it.
  12. 12. The explanation serves two purposes: to introduce the subject by giving some background about its usefulness and application; and to describe the subject in a simple, complete, and tantalizing way
  13. 13. Beginning Statement Clarity Fluency Use of link words Covering essential points Concluding statements Stimulating questions Relevant and interesting examples appropriate media Use of inducts, deductive approach, it can be functional, causal or sequential Don’ts • Irrelevant statement • Lacking in continuity • Vague words and phrases. • Inappropriate vocabulary • Lacking in fluency
  14. 14. Blackboards, being the visual aids, are widely used in all aspects of education and training, and are most suitable for giving a holistic picture of the lesson. A good blackboard work brings clearness in perception and the concepts being taught, and adds variety to the lesson.
  15. 15. Clarity in understanding of concepts Reinforcement of the ideas which is being verbally presented Conveying the holistic picture of the content Adding variety to the lesson and drawing attention of the pupils to the key concept.
  16. 16. Legibility of Handwriting Neatness of Black Board Work Appropriateness of Black Board Work
  17. 17. I keep six honest serving men, they taught me all I know. Their names are: what why when how where & who
  18. 18. Types of Questions Introductory or preliminary questions Developing questions Recaptulatory questions Evaluating or testing questions Levels of Questions Lower Order Level Middle Order Level Higher Order Level
  19. 19. To stimulate thinking To channelise the thinking process To challenge the students To help them in recalling and relating relevant concepts, facts and principles To ensure active students involvement in learning To get the students’ attention focused on the topic To arouse the interest and their curiosity of the students
  20. 20. Structure Clarity and relevance Variety: Low order, High order etc Speed and Pauses Voice Reinforcement techniques Prompting and probing Fluency Distribution of questions
  21. 21. Probing is used when the students reply is correct but insufficient, because it lacks depth. Asking a number of questions about the response given to the first question. Such techniques that deal with pupil responses to your question are included in the skill of probing questioning.
  22. 22. To lead the pupils from a ‘no’ or ‘wrong’ response to correct response by step-by-step questioning To clarify pupil’s understanding about the concept To help the pupil to view the response from a broader perspective To involve more and more pupils in the discussion To increase critical awareness in the pupils
  23. 23. Prompting technique. Seeking further information technique. Redirection technique. Refocusing technique. Increasing critical awareness technique
  24. 24. Reinforcement: the presentation or removal of something immediately following a response/skill, which increases the likelihood that the response/skill will occur again. (Alberto & Troutman, 2003) Reinforcement is strengthening or weakening the connection between stimulus and a response. A student is an individual and may be different in his/her perception of the reinforcement; so, different reinforcement may be needed for different students A reinforcement is highly effective only if it is used at the right time and the right place; too much repetitive reinforcement may result in the loss of its effectiveness as the motivating factor
  25. 25. To increase students attention To motivate students’ and to maintain motivation To facilitate students’ behavior To control and modify disruptive students’ behavior To help the students to develop self management learning To enable students to evaluate their own learning To recognize students’ achievements and efforts
  26. 26. Positive Verbal Reinforcement • ‘Good’ • ‘Fair’ • ‘Excellent’ Positive Non verbal reinforcement • Gesture • Proximity • Contact • asking the students to clap Negative Verbal • ‘No’ • ‘ Wrong’ • ’ stop it’ Negative Non verbal • Beating • raising the eyebrows Extra verbal clues • ‘Humm’ • ‘aha’ Repetition and Rephrasing Don’ts • Wrong use of reinforcement • Inappropriate use of Reinforcement
  27. 27. When a teacher delivers lecture and sums up properly and in an attractive way, the skill is termed as “Closure Skill”. The lesson/period remains ineffective in the absence of proper closure.
  28. 28. To consolidate the major points covered during the lesson To provide opportunities to the pupils for linking the present knowledge with the past knowledge. applying the knowledge gained during the lesson to the new situations. linking the present knowledge with the pupils’ future learning
  29. 29. Consolidation of Major points (CMP) Providing opportunity to link the present knowledge with the past knowledge Providing opportunity to apply new knowledge to a new situation or different situation (OP) Linking previous knowledge to new knowledge and new knowledge to future knowledge among the students (LK) and Home work or Assignment (HW)
  30. 30. Formulating simple examples Formulating interesting examples Formulating relevant examples Linking examples with day- to-day life Using Appropriate Media for Example Using Examples by Inducto-Deductive Approach.
  31. 31. Bridge the gap between micro teaching and macro teaching Micro teaching ---- Link Lesson --- Macro teaching
  32. 32. When mastery has been attained in various skills ,the teacher trainee is allowed to teach the skills together. This separate training programme to integrate various isolated skills is known as ‘Link Practice’ It helps the trainee to transfer effectively all the skills learnt in the micro teaching sessions. It helps to bridge the gap between training in isolated teaching skills and the real teaching situation faced by a student teacher. Desirable Number of Pupils :15-20 Preferable Duration :20minutes. Desirable Number of Skills :3-4 Skills
  33. 33. Link practice or integration of skills can be done in two ways; Integration in parts 3 or 4 teaching skills are integrated and transferred them into a lesson of 15-20 minutes duration. And again 3 or 4 skills are integrated and are transferred all the skills to one lesson. Integration as a whole Student teacher integrates all the individual teaching skills by taking them as a whole and transferred them into a real teaching situation.