Instructional design


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Instructional design

  1. 1. What is Instructional Design? A Science The science of creating detailed specifications for the development, implementation, evaluation, and maintenance of situations that facilitate the learning of both large and small units of subject matter at all levels of complexity. A Discipline: The branch of knowledge concerned with research and theory about instructional strategies and the process for developing and implementing those strategies. A Process: The systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction…the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional 2
  2. 2. What is Instructional Design? Instructional Design allows you to analyze the learning needs of an end-user and develop a course that will allow you to meet its objectives. These needs can be for varied audiences, and at each point you need to ensure that you are meeting these requirements. 3
  3. 3. Instructional Systems Design After the Second World War, the U.S. military was looking for a systematic way of creating training programs quickly and efficiently. These efforts resulted in the development of some basic Instructional Systems Design (ISD) models, which were taught at the Florida State University. 4
  4. 4. Instructi onal Design Model ADDIE Rapid prototyp ing Dick & Carey Instructio nal Developm ent Learning System (IDLS) Kemp design A.S.S.U. R.E ARCS 5 Instructional Designing Models
  5. 5. 6 DAY 1
  6. 6. The ADDIE Model Analysis Design DevelopmentImplementation Evaluation 7
  7. 7. ADDIE - Analysis WHY am I teaching this course? WHO am I teaching it to? Analysis Design DevelopmentImplementation Evaluation 8
  8. 8. HOW am I going to teach it? ADDIE - Design 9 Analysis Design DevelopmentImplementation Evaluation
  9. 9. WHAT exactly am I going to teach? ADDIE - Development 10
  10. 10. HOW should I deliver the course? ADDIE - Implementation 11
  11. 11. HOW was the course? ADDIE - Evaluation 12 Analysis Design DevelopmentImplementation Evaluation
  12. 12. Instructional Design Process Analyze Design Develop Implement Evaluate Determine the problem Define course goals Analyze audience Analyze the tasks Identify conditions and constraints Review past experiences Translate course goals into objectives Determine topics to be covered and time Choose most appropriate delivery method Identify instructional strategies Identify assessment strategies Develop an outline Build course structure Content creation Visual, handouts, resources Review existing materials and repurpose Expectations Initiate instruction Interaction Formative evaluation Summative evaluation External evaluations Personal reflection Ideas for improvements A D D I E 13
  13. 13. ADDIE sample tasks and outputs 14
  14. 14. Analysis Task analysis The purpose of a task analysis is to determine exactly what learners need to know in order to achieve a certain goal that has been set for them. It helps to decide:  Content areas  Sequence of instruction  Method of teaching Audience Analysis is finding out relevant information about the learners for whom the training is being developed. Audience analysis helps to:  Determine the current ability of the learners  Spot learner characteristics  Make decisions about how to teach effectively Content Depth and Complexity Examples/Scenarios Method of Instruction Tone/Language Used Feedback Style Audience analysis 15
  15. 15. How to do task analysis? List tasks. Break down tasks into smaller subtasks. List the conditions and performance standards under which tasks are performed. Categorize tasks as prerequisite/Entry tasks, Main tasks, Advanced tasks. 16
  16. 16. How to do audience analysis? Who is my audience – teachers/ students ? Why would they need/read this content? Is it really going to be useful when compared with the books or what edge does it provide to the learner? Do you know of the prior knowledge of the learner? Have you thought how computer savvy they are? 17
  17. 17. Other Analysis Needs Assessment: The purpose of a needs assessment is to answer the following questions: • What is the problem? • What is the need/learning gap? • Is an instructional solution required? Context Analysis: The purpose of a context analysis is to examine the conditions in which the learner works, such as the technology used in the workplace, physical location, tools, or job aids. 18
  18. 18. 19
  19. 19. o Select a chapter from your subject o Plan broadly the tasks to be done under each stage of ADDIE 20 Exercise