Psychedelics

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Psychedelics

  1. 1. Psychedelics and Hallucinogens Acetylcholine Psychedelics Catecholamine-like Serotonin-like Anesthetics/Club Drugs
  2. 2. Definitions <ul><li>Hallucinogen </li></ul><ul><li>Psychotomimetic </li></ul><ul><li>Phantasticum or Psychedelic </li></ul><ul><li>Entactogens </li></ul>
  3. 3. Classification of Psychedelic Drugs <ul><li>Anticholinergic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scopalamine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Catecholamine Like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mescaline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ecstacy(MDMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Myristin, Elemicin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Serotonin Like </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LSD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DMT </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psilocybin, Psilocin, Bufotenine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oliluiqui </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmine </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Classification of Psychedelic Drugs continued <ul><li>Glutaminergic NMDA </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Phencyclidine (PCP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ketamine (Ketalar) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dextromethorphan </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Opioid Kappa Receptor Agonist </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvinorin A </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Anticholinergic Psychedelics <ul><li>ACh receptor blockers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scopolamine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyoscyamine </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peripheral Nervous System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticholinergic Syndrome </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Plant Sources of ACh Psychedelics <ul><li>Solanaceae , family of potato and tomato </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atropa belladonna , deadly nightshade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Datura stramonium , jimsonweed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mandragora officinarum, mandrake </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Toxic Doses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Hot as a hare, blind as a bat, dry as a bone, red as a beet, mad as a hen!” </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Catecholamine-like psychedelics <ul><li>Looks like the catecholamine NTs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Norepinephrine and dopamine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cocaine and amphetamine, but they have additional CH3-O (methoxy) groups which confers the psychedelic properties. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alphabet Soup! DOM, MDMA, MMDA etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Catecholamine agonists complex dance between DA, 5HT </li></ul><ul><li>Psychedelic effects from the augmentation of serotonin neurotransmission </li></ul>
  8. 8. Agents <ul><li>Mescaline </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peyote Cactus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teas, capsules </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Prodrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>N/V/D, abd pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SANS stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>T1/2 6 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Renal elimination </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break from reality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional breakdown </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Synthetic Derivatives Designer Drugs <ul><li>Designer Drugs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>MDMA/Ecstasy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Crystalline powder </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tea or capsules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>n/v/d abdom pain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SANS stimul </li></ul></ul><ul><li>T 1/2 = 6 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Serotonin Neurotox </li></ul>
  10. 10. Myristin and Elemicin <ul><li>What are these? </li></ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacokinetics </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Adverse Effects </li></ul>
  11. 12. The Discovery of LSD <ul><li>Ergotism </li></ul><ul><li>Atropa Belladonna </li></ul><ul><li>Lysergic Acid </li></ul>
  12. 13. Serotonin-like Psychedelics <ul><li>Acid, Cubes, Purple Haze </li></ul><ul><li>Injected, swallowed tabs/blotter paper </li></ul><ul><li>CNS Effects Onset 20 minutes </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>HTN, dilated pupils, hyperthermia, tachycardia, enhanced alertness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Psychoactive Effects Onset 1-2 hr </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heightened perceptions, distortions of the body, visual hallucinations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mood unpredictable </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 14. LSD Experiences <ul><li>LSD Psychosis </li></ul><ul><li>Toxic delirium </li></ul><ul><li>Flashbacks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>15-77% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bad Trip </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Talk down </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medications </li></ul></ul></ul>
  14. 15. Psilocybin <ul><li>Magic or Mexican Mushrooms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serotonin-like psychedelics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hallucinogens, Schedule I </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shorter duration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Onset 30-60 min </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Duration 5-6 hrs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Religious Rituals
  16. 17. Is Toad-Licking an Urban Legend? <ul><li>Orally administered bufotenine is not hallucinogenic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not cross the BBB </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5-methoxyDMT, found in Bufo alvarius rather than Bufo marinus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hallucinogenic when smoked. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Bufotenine: Highly toxic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reported psychedelic effects may be due to peripheral toxicity </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Glutaminergic NMDA Receptor Antagonists <ul><li>PCP - Phencyclidine </li></ul><ul><li>(Sernyl/Sernylan) & Ketamine (Ketalar) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>PCP, angel dust, crystal, dust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmacokinetics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smoked, inhaled, injected, swallowed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmacodynamics </li></ul></ul>
  18. 19. Effects <ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NMDA-glutamate complex: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Slurred speech, blurred vision </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Impaired perception, memory </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Confusion, agitation, aggression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Violent psychosis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dissociation State </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toxicity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Treatment of Intoxication </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Dextromethorphan <ul><li>DMX </li></ul><ul><li>Analgesic </li></ul><ul><li>Drug of Abuse </li></ul><ul><li>OTC </li></ul><ul><li>MOA </li></ul><ul><li>Effects </li></ul>
  20. 21. Opioid Kappa Receptor Agonist <ul><li>Magic Mint </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Salvinorin A </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pharmacokinetics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pharmacodynamics </li></ul><ul><li>Psychospiritual Awakening </li></ul>
  21. 22. Date Rape Drugs <ul><li>GHB </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gamma hydroxy butyrate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Liquid ecstacy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Ketamine </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Special K </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Forget Pill </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Coaster! </li></ul>

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