Inhalants

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Inhalants

  1. 1. Inhalants
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>DOC in economically depressed areas </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Resistoleros” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ER visits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peak incidence 12-16 years of age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Youngest 4 years old </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Poly substance abuse </li></ul>
  3. 3. Baboon Brain uptake and distribution of IV Toluene. Deep concentrations in striatum A, and cerebellar nuclei B.
  4. 4. Four Categories of Inhalants <ul><li>Volatile hydrocarbons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasoline fumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Toluene, benzene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Paint thinner, Airplane glue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Correction Fluid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighter Fluid </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Aerosols </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hairspray </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vegetable Oil </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spray Pain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lighters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appliances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrous Oxide </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Nitrates (Poppers) <ul><li>Butyl Nitrite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Now illegal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sold as room deodorizer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Video Head Cleaners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leather Cleaners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mail order </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drug shops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adult bookstores </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amyl Nitrite </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual arousal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle relaxation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasodilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contributory factor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opportunistic infections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kaposi sarcoma </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Pharmacokinetics <ul><li>Administration-Sniffed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid CNS absorption from lung to bloodstream- rush < 1 minute </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid CNS depression & vasodilation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dropped BP, HR, & O2 consumption </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marked inebriation, dizziness, floating sensations, exhilaration, intense feeling of well being </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Sudden Sniffing Death Syndrome” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fatal cardiac arrhythmia </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. High Doses Very High Doses <ul><li>Slurred speech </li></ul><ul><li>Sensory distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Bronchial & laryngeal irritations </li></ul><ul><li>Confusion </li></ul><ul><li>Coma </li></ul><ul><li>Blood dyscrasia </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul>
  9. 9. Chronic Inhalant Use <ul><li>Tolerance </li></ul><ul><li>Hepatic and renal toxicity </li></ul><ul><li>Death from cardiac dysrhythmia </li></ul><ul><li>Respiratory failure </li></ul>
  10. 10. Pharmacodynamics <ul><li>Enhance inhibitory function on GABA </li></ul><ul><li>Inhibit the excitatory NMDA glutamate receptors </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce CNS excitation </li></ul><ul><li>Causes behavioral impairment similar to alcohol </li></ul>

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