administration of agents

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administration of agents

  1. 1. Administration of Pharmacologic Agents Prescription Elements/ Abbreviations Five Rights Dosage Routes & Forms The ALLERGY Reaction
  2. 2. Compliance
  3. 3. Prescription Orders <ul><li>RX </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Telephone orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Written orders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-fill </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Prescription Elements ~~~ <ul><li>Patient’s name, address, phone #, dob </li></ul><ul><li>Date the Rx was written </li></ul><ul><li>Name of the drug/device </li></ul><ul><li>Strength, amount & refills </li></ul><ul><li>Signa – directions for use </li></ul><ul><li>Prescriber’s name, title, address, phone # </li></ul><ul><li>Calif. License #, DEA number </li></ul><ul><li>DAW (Dispense as Written) </li></ul><ul><li>Prescriber’s signature </li></ul>
  5. 5. Pharmacy Abbreviations ~~~ <ul><li>Measurement (Amounts) </li></ul><ul><li>Bodily Functions (Conditions) </li></ul><ul><li>Route </li></ul><ul><li>Form (Delivery System) </li></ul><ul><li>Drug References </li></ul><ul><li>Time of Administration </li></ul><ul><li>Site of Administration (Part of the Body) </li></ul><ul><li>Pharmacy Instruction </li></ul>
  6. 6. Five Rights of Drug Administration <ul><li>Right M edicine </li></ul><ul><li>Right A mount </li></ul><ul><li>Right T ime </li></ul><ul><li>Right R oute </li></ul><ul><li>Right Patient </li></ul><ul><li>#6! Right Documentation </li></ul>MATR 'It matters to the patient'
  7. 7. Reasons for Different Routes of Administration <ul><li>Convenience </li></ul><ul><li>Preferred route is unavailable </li></ul><ul><li>Rapid onset of action is desired </li></ul><ul><li>Target delivery of drug to specific site of action </li></ul><ul><li>Prolong duration of action </li></ul>
  8. 8. Dosage Routes Forms <ul><li>Oral (by mouth) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Swallowed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buccal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parenteral (injection) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IV,IM,SQ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Topical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Applied to surface of skin or mucous membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tabs, caps, sol, elix, susp, lozenges, etc.. </li></ul><ul><li>Solutions & suspensions </li></ul><ul><li>Ung, crm, ltn, otic, opth, inhalants, suppos </li></ul><ul><li>Rectal/vaginal </li></ul><ul><li>Nasogastral </li></ul>
  9. 10. The ALLERGIC Reaction 1st exposure No physical response BUT Memory Stage stimulated (IgG immunoglobulin on mast cell) 2nd exposure REACTION Minutes (rash, hives, nasal stuffiness) Delayed (coma, vascular collapse, coma)
  10. 11. Four Type of Allergic Reactions <ul><li>Type I (anaphylactic reaction) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate reaction that occurs in a previously sensitized person. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sudden, severe bronchospasm & hypotension, followed by rapid death. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>N/V/convulsions, cyanosis, vascular collapse, cardiac arrest. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sample drugs: penicillins and cephalosporins. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TX: antihistamines, epinephrine & bronchodilators. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Type of Allergic Reactions cont. <ul><li>Type II (cytotoxic reaction) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Autoimmune response involving drug and IgG or IgM. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs: methyldopa, PCN, quinidine, procainamide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>TX- remove medication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type III (immune complex-serum sickness) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delayed fever, angioedema, swollen lymph nodes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drugs: PCN, Sulfas, Phenytoin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Type IV (delayed hypersensitivity reaction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct skin contact inflammatory reaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poison ivy/oak </li></ul></ul>
  12. 13. The ALLERGIC Response Antigen (pollen) mast cell IgE/M/G plus antigen Activation ! Mast cell degranulates---releases histamine and other nasty mediators--domino effect
  13. 15. Natural Chemicals & Response Leukotrienes * edema *increase mucus secretions *10-1000 times more potent than Histamine Prostaglandins * uterine spasms *relax arterial smooth muscle *decrease BP *increase HR/CO/RBF *increase loss of H20 and Na+ *increase GI secretions *increase pain & inflammation Histamines *blood vessels dilate *increase capillary permeability/edema *uticaria/dermatitis *rhinitis *decrease vascular resistance/blood pressure *increase GI secretions *bronchial constriction
  14. 16. Summary Slide <ul><li>Understand the 5 /6 rights </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize common dosage forms </li></ul><ul><li>Know routes of administration </li></ul><ul><li>Factors that influence drugs effects </li></ul><ul><li>Natural chemicals action & response </li></ul>Rx Rememberal 10mg #365 i po qd

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