Objectives :1. Definition of Depression.2. Burden of Depression .3. Causes .4. Risk Factors.5. Diagnosis Criteria.6. Prevention .7. Summary .
Depression What is depression? Depressed mood. Common mental disorder. Loss of pleasure. Feelings of guilt. A depressive disorder is a syndrome. Disturbed sleep or appetite. Chronic or recurrent. Poor concentration.4 Consequences if untreated .http://www.who.int/mental_health/management/depression/definition/en/
What are the different forms of depression? Major depressive disorder. Dysthymic disorder. Psychotic depression. Postpartum depression. Seasonal affective disorder5 (SAD).http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/publications/depression/complete-index.shtml#pub2
Depression What is the Burden of Depression? Loss of 850 000 lives every year. 4th leading contributor to the 121 million global burden of disease (DALYs) people in 2000. worldwide. Now the 2nd cause 2020 2nd place of the ranking of of DALYs. DALYs.6http://www.who.int/mental_health/management/depression/definition/en/
Depression Modifiable Risk FactorsAge :• Incidence with age.• in 25-44 years.• Atypical in elderly persons.Gender and Ethnicity :• More commonly in women.• Less in the black populationFamily history :Genetic susceptibility
Depression Diagnosis The DSM-IV-TR diagnostic B. Symptoms do not meet criteria for criteria: a mixed episode. A. At least 5 of the following, during the same 2-week C. Symptoms cause clinically period, representing a change significant impairment of from previous functioning; must functioning. include either (a) or (b): (a) Depressed mood D. Symptoms are not due to a (b) Diminished interest . substance or a general medical (c) Significant weight loss or gain condition. (d) Insomnia or hypersomnia (e) Psychomotor agitation or E. Symptoms are not better accounted retardation (f) Fatigue or loss of energy for by bereavement. (g) Feelings of worthlessness (h) Diminished ability to think. (i) Recurrent thoughts of death, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, or specific plan for suicidehttp://emedicine.medscape.com/article/286759-overview
Depression Prevention• Primary Prevention : • Anti depressive Health Promotion : • Living conditions and environment . • Risk factors . • Health Education .
Depression PreventionHelping Children Avoid DepressionCan Some Foods Fight Depression?How Your Weight Affects Depression?Stay active.Stay connected.Find an outlet.Watch your alcohol intake.Plan ahead.Be positive .
Adults ChildrenSocially isolated Antisocial behaviorSubstance abuse, such as alcohol or street Diminished school performancedrugs Withdrawal from friends or social activitiesLoss of interest in sexual activity Excessive weight gain or lossExperiencing major life changes Substance abuse, such as alcohol or street drugsFinancial strain AggressionImpoverished home environment Agitation or irritability Screening Risk Groups Medical non specific symptomatology First-degree Patient. Two or more chronic diseases. Elderly age Obesity. Pregnant or postpartum Chronic pain. Multiple vague symptoms. Fatigue or sleep disturbance.
Age Group Name of the Test No. of Duration to Items complete (minutes).Children and Childrens Depression Inventory (CDI 27 10 to 15adolescentsAdults Beck Depression Inventory-II 21 5 to 10 Center for Epidemiological Studies 20 5 to 10 Depression (CES-D). http://counsellingresource.com/quizzes/cesd /index.htmlElderly Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) 30 10 to 15 Geriatric Depression Scale-short 15 5 to 15Post natal Edinburgh Postnatal Depression 10 less than 5 Scale
Depression Prevention Tertiary Prevention :Interventions that reduces disability, enhance rehabilitation andprevent relapses and recurrences of the illness.