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Sustainable
Road Maintenance
Dragos Andrei, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE
45th Annual MSA Conference
September 2013
About Dragos
• Associate Professor, Civil Engineering, California
State Polytechnic University
• Previous experience with Fugro and MACTEC
• P.E. California, Texas
• Ph.D. Arizona State University, M.S. University of
Maryland
• Director, Pavement Recycling and Reclaiming
Center at Cal Poly Pomona
• Principal Engineer and Partner, West Coast
Engineering Consultants
Outline
• State of the Pavement
• Sustainability and Sustainable Roads
• “Green” Asphalt Maintenance/Rehabilitation
Strategies
• “Green” Strategies for Concrete and Other
Pavements
• Implementation of Sustainable Maintenance
Strategies
Section 1

STATE OF THE
PAVEMENT
Source: California Local Streets and Roads Needs Assessment, January
2013, http://www.savecaliforniastreets.org/
2011:
Source: Caltrans State of the
Pavement
2011, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/
maint/Pavement/Pavement_Progr
am/PDF/2011_SOP.pdf

2007:
Bottom Line
• We inherited a vast road network:
~ 50,000 lane miles state roads
~ 200,000 lane miles local roads

• More than 50% of these pavements are “at risk”
• For local roads, the funding available for
maintenance and rehabilitation is less than half
the funding required to maintain the current
condition.
• Traffic (demand) will continue to increase
• $$$ Needs will continue to increase
How Did We Get Here?
• Build, build, build … but how about the future?
– Don’t think about the future, enjoy the present …

• Who will maintain these pavements?
– Not my problem … I will be retired by then

• Who will pay for this?
– Don’t worry, THEY will find money, things will never
change …

• How are THEY going to rebuild these pavements?
– Don’t worry, there’s plenty of oil, cement, aggregate …
Section 2

SUSTAINABILITY
AND SUSTAINABLE ROADS
Sustainability Paradigm
Sustainable Roads: Key Features
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Durability
Low maintenance
Low emissions/energy
Recyclable
Permeable
Cool
Smooth
Quiet
Complete, aesthetically pleasing.
Pavement Condition Index (PCI)

VERY GOOD
GOOD
FAIR

POOR

M&R Immediate Effect

Without M&R, Pavements Will Fail …

Life Extension
due to M&R

Original Service Life

VERY POOR

M&R Effect

Do Nothing
Curve
Time/Traffic
Long-Life, Low-Maintenance Roads
Low-Emissions/Energy Construction
and Maintenance
• Energy = fuel consumption = fossil fuels =
emissions
• Greenhouse Gases (GHG): water vapor, carbon
dioxide, methane, nitrous
oxide, ozone, CFC, other
• Carbon Footprint: measure of carbon dioxide
and methane emissions expressed in CO2e
(carbon dioxide equivalent for 100 years
global warming potential)
Source: The Environmental Road of the Future, Colas 2003
Carbon Footprint Categories:
• “Cold” M&R strategies: emulsion-based
seals, cold recycling, full-depth
reclamation, soil stabilization, etc.
• “Warm”: warm mix asphalt, maintenance
treatments with warm mix additive, etc.
• “Hot”: hot in-place recycling, hot mix
asphalt, etc.
• “Big Foot”: portland cement concrete (due to
the manufacturing of cement and steel)
Road Recycling - Asphalt

Store for later use in:
Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)
Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA)
Crushed Miscellaneous Base (CMB)

Hot In-Place Recycling (HIR)
Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR)
Cold Central Plant Recycling (CCPR)
Full Depth Reclamation (FDR)
Road Recycling – Portland Cement
Concrete

Store for later use in:
Portland Cement Concrete (PCC)
Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)
Crushed Miscellaneous Base (CMB)

Rubblization:
Break and Seat
Crack and Seat
RAP, RCA Management
• Both concrete and asphalt are 100% recyclable
• Avoid contamination of RAP/RCA stockpiles by
using good management practices:
– Use single-source stockpiles
– Separate stockpiles by size (fractionating)
– Ensure drainage and cover stockpiles to prevent
excessive moisture
– Use low slope to prevent segregation

• More information: http://www.morerap.us/
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/recycling/rca.cfm
Recyclable Import
•
•
•
•
•
•

RAS: Recycled Asphalt Shingles
Crumb Rubber from Waste Tires
Blast Furnace Slag
Coal Ash
Silica Fume
Others
Permeable Pavements
• Reduce stormwater runoff
• Filter pollutants from water
• Permeable pavements are also “cool”
pavements when wet!
• More information:
– Pervious concrete: http://www.perviouspavement.org/
– Porous asphalt:
http://www.asphaltpavement.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=
article&id=359&Itemid=863

– Permeable pavers: http://www.icpi.org/permeable
Source: A permeable paver demonstration, Austin's Ferry, Tasmania, Australia, J.J.
Harrison, 2011
Cool Pavements
• Reduce the “heat island” effect by:
– Shading
– Increasing Solar Reflectance (Albedo)
• Painting/Coating low albedo materials
• Use high albedo materials
• Apply thin maintenance treatments with high albedo
materials: e.g. microsurfacing and whitetopping

– Increasing Thermal Emittance
• Use permeable pavements, water retentive pavements

– More Info: http://www.epa.gov/heatisland/mitigation/pavements.htm
Quiet Pavements
• Reduce the tire-pavement noise
• Methods:
– Open-graded friction course asphalt (+ rubber)
– Diamond grinding concrete pavements
– Noise barriers, sound walls
– Lowered alignment

• Challenges:
– Texture wears off with time and needs
maintenance/replacement
Source: Washington DOT Quieter Pavement
Research, http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Business/materialslab/quieterpavement
Complete Streets

Source: Complete Streets, http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/completestreets/complete-streets-fundamentals/complete-streets-faq
Section 3

ASPHALT
RECYCLING
IN-PLACE
In-Place Asphalt Recycling Techniques
•Milling
•Micro Milling
•Surface Recycling (Resurfacing)
•Remixing
•Repaving

•Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR)
•Cold Central Plant Recycling (CCPR)
•Pulverization
•Mechanical Stabilization
•Bituminous Stabilization
•Chemical Stabilization
Cold Planing/Milling Process
Cold Planing Applications
• Remove existing asphalt concrete surface
before overlay or for cold recycling (in-place or
central plant)
• Correction of longitudinal profile and crossslopes
• Restore pavement smoothness or help
achieve better smoothness upon resurfacing
• Restore surface friction (micro-milling)
CP Pattern Comparison
• Tool spacing and pattern, drum speed and
advance rate, will influence the final milled
pattern:

Source: Milling for Smoothness, Eric Baker, Roadtec
2013, http://www.arra.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=510&Itemid=157
CP Equipment
CP Project Selection
Pavement Condition Index (PCI)

VERY GOOD

FAIR

Cold
Planing

POOR

Hot
In-Place
Recycling

GOOD

Cold
Recycling

Full Depth
Reclamation

VERY POOR

Time/Traffic
More CP Resources
• Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and
FHWA, Second Edition: expected January 2014
• Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming
Association, http://www.arra.org/presentatio
ns/cold_planing.pdf
Hot In-Place Recycling (HIR): Remixing
Hot In-Place Recycling (HIR): Repaving
HIR Methods
• Recycling: add rejuvenating agent, no additive
• Remixing: add rejuvenating agent and additive:
– Virgin aggregate
– Asphalt cement
– Plant mix HMA

• Repaving: remixing + HMA overlay
• Stages:
– Single: up to 2 inch depth
– Multiple: up to 3 inch depth
HIR Applications
• Purpose: rejuvenate/renew/improve the
asphalt concrete surface, up to 2-3 inches
deep
• Use to address
raveling, weathering, bleeding, other types of
distress confined to the pavement surface.
• Will not mitigate structural problems
• Can be covered with chip seal or other thin
maintenance treatment
HIR Equipment
•
•
•
•

Heating units
Milling/Scarifying unit
Drying/Mixing unit
Paver

• Rollers
• Rejuvenating Agent
• Admixture truck

Source: Martec, http://martec.ca/2010/11/november-2010-ar2000-super-recycler-at-tradeshow/
HIR Train

Source: Brian Hansen, Dustrol, Inc.
HIR Equipment
HIR Project Selection
Pavement Condition Index (PCI)

VERY GOOD

FAIR

Cold
Planing

POOR

Hot
In-Place
Recycling

GOOD

Cold
Recycling

Full Depth
Reclamation

VERY POOR

Time/Traffic
More HIR Resources
• Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and FHWA, Second Edition:
expected January 2014
• Construction Inspection Checklist #11 Hot In-Place Asphalt
Recycling Application, FP2 and FHWA
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/preservation/ppcl00.cfm a
second edition of this checklist is available in print and will soon be
available online.
• Caltrans Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide (MTAG) Volume I Flexible Pavement Preservation Second Edition, Chapter 13: InPlace
Recycling, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/maint/MTA_GuideVolume1Fl
exible.html
• Hot In Place Asphalt Recycling, Brian
Hansen, Dustrol, Inc., http://www.savemyroad.com/cir_hir/files/Ho
t-In-Place-Asphalt-Recycling.pdf
HIR Construction Checklist Contents
•
•
•
•

Document Review
Project Review
Materials Checks
Preconstruction
Meeting
• Pavement Preparation
• Equipment Inspections

•
•
•
•
•
•

Weather Requirements
Mix Design
Traffic Control
Project Inspection
Opening to Traffic
Common Problems and
Solutions
Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR)
CIR Applications
• Restore the structural integrity of the top 2-4
inches of the asphalt concrete
• Cover with HMA overlay or thin maintenance
treatment
• Effective in treating distress confined to the
pavement surface as well as thermal cracking.
• CIR is generally softer than HMA and may
delay reflective cracking.
CIR Equipment
•
•
•
•
•
•

Tankers
Milling machine(s)
Crushing and screening units
Mixer
Paver
Rollers
Cold Central Plant Recycling (CCPR)
CIR Project Selection
Pavement Condition Index (PCI)

VERY GOOD

FAIR

Cold
Planing

POOR

Hot
In-Place
Recycling

GOOD

Cold
Recycling

Full Depth
Reclamation

VERY POOR

Time/Traffic
More CIR Resources
• Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and
FHWA, Second Edition: expected January 2014
• Construction Inspection Checklist #12 Cold In-Place
Asphalt Recycling Application, FP2 and FHWA
http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/preservation/ppcl
00.cfm a second edition of this checklist is under final
review by ARRA and FHWA.
• Caltrans Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide (MTAG)
Volume I - Flexible Pavement Preservation Second
Edition, Chapter 13: In-Place
Recycling, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/maint/MTA_Guid
eVolume1Flexible.html
Full Depth Reclamation (FDR)
FDR Methods
• Pulverization
• Stabilization
– Mechanical = with aggregate or RAP
– Bituminous = with emulsified or foamed asphalt
– Chemical = with cement or other pozzolanic
materials

• No. of Passes:
– Single pass
– Multiple pass
FDR Application
• Restore the structural integrity of the
pavement over the entire treated depth
• Produce a uniform, stabilized, crack-free
material by mixing asphalt concrete with
underlying materials
• Cover with thin maintenance treatment,
asphalt concrete or other surfacing material.
FDR Equipment
FDR with Emulsified Asphalt
Grading
and
Compaction
FDR Project Selection
Pavement Condition Index (PCI)

VERY GOOD

FAIR

Cold
Planing

POOR

Hot
In-Place
Recycling

GOOD

Cold
Recycling

Full Depth
Reclamation

VERY POOR

Time/Traffic
More FDR Resources
• Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and
FHWA, Second Edition: expected January 2014
• FDR Construction Checklist, PRRC – FHWA ARRA available in print, it will be soon
available online
• Full Depth Reclamation, ARRA:
http://www.arra.org/presentations/fulldepth_reclamation.pdf
Section 4

IMPLEMENTATION
Green Up!
• Use a pavement management system
– Include sustainable maintenance and rehabilitation
strategies in the PMS (see article in August 2013
APWA Reporter)
– Keep the PMS data up to date

• Add or include a pavement preservation program
– Define pavement preservation triggers/criteria
– Establish default frequency for preservation
treatments
Green Up!
• Manage your resources better:
– Even when damaged, pavements have value:
aggregate, asphalt, cement, steel, etc.
– Use RAP/RCA best management practices
– Reuse materials as much as possible

• Require minimum three design/rehabilitation
alternatives for each project of which at least
one should specifically address sustainability
Green Up!
• Don’t forget the 4 R’s: Right treatment, Right
pavement, Right time, Right contractor.
• Learn more about sustainability and green
rating systems for pavements:
– LEED/Green Building Council
– Greenroads
– Invest
– Green Up
“Green Up”
• Software application to compare pavement
rehabilitation alternatives in terms of
sustainability; not a rating system;
• Under development at Cal Poly Pomona;
• Includes:
– Materials
– Technologies
– Surface Properties
– Life vs. Cost Analysis
Green Up: Materials
Green Up: Technologies
Green Up: Surface Properties and
Life/Cost
Green Up: Alternative Comparison

Mill and Fill

Mill, CIR and Overlay
Thank you
Dragos Andrei, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE
Associate Professor, Civil Engineering
Director, Pavement Recycling and Reclaiming Center
CAL POLY POMONA
dandrei@prrcenter.org
www.PRRCenter.org

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Sustainable road maintenance strategies

  • 1. Sustainable Road Maintenance Dragos Andrei, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE 45th Annual MSA Conference September 2013
  • 2. About Dragos • Associate Professor, Civil Engineering, California State Polytechnic University • Previous experience with Fugro and MACTEC • P.E. California, Texas • Ph.D. Arizona State University, M.S. University of Maryland • Director, Pavement Recycling and Reclaiming Center at Cal Poly Pomona • Principal Engineer and Partner, West Coast Engineering Consultants
  • 3. Outline • State of the Pavement • Sustainability and Sustainable Roads • “Green” Asphalt Maintenance/Rehabilitation Strategies • “Green” Strategies for Concrete and Other Pavements • Implementation of Sustainable Maintenance Strategies
  • 4. Section 1 STATE OF THE PAVEMENT
  • 5.
  • 6. Source: California Local Streets and Roads Needs Assessment, January 2013, http://www.savecaliforniastreets.org/
  • 7.
  • 8. 2011: Source: Caltrans State of the Pavement 2011, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/ maint/Pavement/Pavement_Progr am/PDF/2011_SOP.pdf 2007:
  • 9. Bottom Line • We inherited a vast road network: ~ 50,000 lane miles state roads ~ 200,000 lane miles local roads • More than 50% of these pavements are “at risk” • For local roads, the funding available for maintenance and rehabilitation is less than half the funding required to maintain the current condition. • Traffic (demand) will continue to increase • $$$ Needs will continue to increase
  • 10. How Did We Get Here? • Build, build, build … but how about the future? – Don’t think about the future, enjoy the present … • Who will maintain these pavements? – Not my problem … I will be retired by then • Who will pay for this? – Don’t worry, THEY will find money, things will never change … • How are THEY going to rebuild these pavements? – Don’t worry, there’s plenty of oil, cement, aggregate …
  • 12.
  • 14. Sustainable Roads: Key Features • • • • • • • • • Durability Low maintenance Low emissions/energy Recyclable Permeable Cool Smooth Quiet Complete, aesthetically pleasing.
  • 15. Pavement Condition Index (PCI) VERY GOOD GOOD FAIR POOR M&R Immediate Effect Without M&R, Pavements Will Fail … Life Extension due to M&R Original Service Life VERY POOR M&R Effect Do Nothing Curve Time/Traffic
  • 17. Low-Emissions/Energy Construction and Maintenance • Energy = fuel consumption = fossil fuels = emissions • Greenhouse Gases (GHG): water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, ozone, CFC, other • Carbon Footprint: measure of carbon dioxide and methane emissions expressed in CO2e (carbon dioxide equivalent for 100 years global warming potential)
  • 18. Source: The Environmental Road of the Future, Colas 2003
  • 19. Carbon Footprint Categories: • “Cold” M&R strategies: emulsion-based seals, cold recycling, full-depth reclamation, soil stabilization, etc. • “Warm”: warm mix asphalt, maintenance treatments with warm mix additive, etc. • “Hot”: hot in-place recycling, hot mix asphalt, etc. • “Big Foot”: portland cement concrete (due to the manufacturing of cement and steel)
  • 20. Road Recycling - Asphalt Store for later use in: Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Warm Mix Asphalt (WMA) Crushed Miscellaneous Base (CMB) Hot In-Place Recycling (HIR) Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR) Cold Central Plant Recycling (CCPR) Full Depth Reclamation (FDR)
  • 21. Road Recycling – Portland Cement Concrete Store for later use in: Portland Cement Concrete (PCC) Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Crushed Miscellaneous Base (CMB) Rubblization: Break and Seat Crack and Seat
  • 22. RAP, RCA Management • Both concrete and asphalt are 100% recyclable • Avoid contamination of RAP/RCA stockpiles by using good management practices: – Use single-source stockpiles – Separate stockpiles by size (fractionating) – Ensure drainage and cover stockpiles to prevent excessive moisture – Use low slope to prevent segregation • More information: http://www.morerap.us/ http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/recycling/rca.cfm
  • 23. Recyclable Import • • • • • • RAS: Recycled Asphalt Shingles Crumb Rubber from Waste Tires Blast Furnace Slag Coal Ash Silica Fume Others
  • 24. Permeable Pavements • Reduce stormwater runoff • Filter pollutants from water • Permeable pavements are also “cool” pavements when wet! • More information: – Pervious concrete: http://www.perviouspavement.org/ – Porous asphalt: http://www.asphaltpavement.org/index.php?option=com_content&view= article&id=359&Itemid=863 – Permeable pavers: http://www.icpi.org/permeable
  • 25. Source: A permeable paver demonstration, Austin's Ferry, Tasmania, Australia, J.J. Harrison, 2011
  • 26. Cool Pavements • Reduce the “heat island” effect by: – Shading – Increasing Solar Reflectance (Albedo) • Painting/Coating low albedo materials • Use high albedo materials • Apply thin maintenance treatments with high albedo materials: e.g. microsurfacing and whitetopping – Increasing Thermal Emittance • Use permeable pavements, water retentive pavements – More Info: http://www.epa.gov/heatisland/mitigation/pavements.htm
  • 27.
  • 28. Quiet Pavements • Reduce the tire-pavement noise • Methods: – Open-graded friction course asphalt (+ rubber) – Diamond grinding concrete pavements – Noise barriers, sound walls – Lowered alignment • Challenges: – Texture wears off with time and needs maintenance/replacement
  • 29. Source: Washington DOT Quieter Pavement Research, http://www.wsdot.wa.gov/Business/materialslab/quieterpavement
  • 30. Complete Streets Source: Complete Streets, http://www.smartgrowthamerica.org/completestreets/complete-streets-fundamentals/complete-streets-faq
  • 32. In-Place Asphalt Recycling Techniques •Milling •Micro Milling •Surface Recycling (Resurfacing) •Remixing •Repaving •Cold In-Place Recycling (CIR) •Cold Central Plant Recycling (CCPR) •Pulverization •Mechanical Stabilization •Bituminous Stabilization •Chemical Stabilization
  • 34. Cold Planing Applications • Remove existing asphalt concrete surface before overlay or for cold recycling (in-place or central plant) • Correction of longitudinal profile and crossslopes • Restore pavement smoothness or help achieve better smoothness upon resurfacing • Restore surface friction (micro-milling)
  • 35. CP Pattern Comparison • Tool spacing and pattern, drum speed and advance rate, will influence the final milled pattern: Source: Milling for Smoothness, Eric Baker, Roadtec 2013, http://www.arra.org/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_download&gid=510&Itemid=157
  • 37. CP Project Selection Pavement Condition Index (PCI) VERY GOOD FAIR Cold Planing POOR Hot In-Place Recycling GOOD Cold Recycling Full Depth Reclamation VERY POOR Time/Traffic
  • 38. More CP Resources • Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and FHWA, Second Edition: expected January 2014 • Asphalt Recycling and Reclaiming Association, http://www.arra.org/presentatio ns/cold_planing.pdf
  • 39. Hot In-Place Recycling (HIR): Remixing
  • 40. Hot In-Place Recycling (HIR): Repaving
  • 41. HIR Methods • Recycling: add rejuvenating agent, no additive • Remixing: add rejuvenating agent and additive: – Virgin aggregate – Asphalt cement – Plant mix HMA • Repaving: remixing + HMA overlay • Stages: – Single: up to 2 inch depth – Multiple: up to 3 inch depth
  • 42. HIR Applications • Purpose: rejuvenate/renew/improve the asphalt concrete surface, up to 2-3 inches deep • Use to address raveling, weathering, bleeding, other types of distress confined to the pavement surface. • Will not mitigate structural problems • Can be covered with chip seal or other thin maintenance treatment
  • 43. HIR Equipment • • • • Heating units Milling/Scarifying unit Drying/Mixing unit Paver • Rollers • Rejuvenating Agent • Admixture truck Source: Martec, http://martec.ca/2010/11/november-2010-ar2000-super-recycler-at-tradeshow/
  • 44. HIR Train Source: Brian Hansen, Dustrol, Inc.
  • 46. HIR Project Selection Pavement Condition Index (PCI) VERY GOOD FAIR Cold Planing POOR Hot In-Place Recycling GOOD Cold Recycling Full Depth Reclamation VERY POOR Time/Traffic
  • 47. More HIR Resources • Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and FHWA, Second Edition: expected January 2014 • Construction Inspection Checklist #11 Hot In-Place Asphalt Recycling Application, FP2 and FHWA http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/preservation/ppcl00.cfm a second edition of this checklist is available in print and will soon be available online. • Caltrans Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide (MTAG) Volume I Flexible Pavement Preservation Second Edition, Chapter 13: InPlace Recycling, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/maint/MTA_GuideVolume1Fl exible.html • Hot In Place Asphalt Recycling, Brian Hansen, Dustrol, Inc., http://www.savemyroad.com/cir_hir/files/Ho t-In-Place-Asphalt-Recycling.pdf
  • 48. HIR Construction Checklist Contents • • • • Document Review Project Review Materials Checks Preconstruction Meeting • Pavement Preparation • Equipment Inspections • • • • • • Weather Requirements Mix Design Traffic Control Project Inspection Opening to Traffic Common Problems and Solutions
  • 50. CIR Applications • Restore the structural integrity of the top 2-4 inches of the asphalt concrete • Cover with HMA overlay or thin maintenance treatment • Effective in treating distress confined to the pavement surface as well as thermal cracking. • CIR is generally softer than HMA and may delay reflective cracking.
  • 52.
  • 53.
  • 54.
  • 55.
  • 56. Cold Central Plant Recycling (CCPR)
  • 57. CIR Project Selection Pavement Condition Index (PCI) VERY GOOD FAIR Cold Planing POOR Hot In-Place Recycling GOOD Cold Recycling Full Depth Reclamation VERY POOR Time/Traffic
  • 58. More CIR Resources • Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and FHWA, Second Edition: expected January 2014 • Construction Inspection Checklist #12 Cold In-Place Asphalt Recycling Application, FP2 and FHWA http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/pavement/preservation/ppcl 00.cfm a second edition of this checklist is under final review by ARRA and FHWA. • Caltrans Maintenance Technical Advisory Guide (MTAG) Volume I - Flexible Pavement Preservation Second Edition, Chapter 13: In-Place Recycling, http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/maint/MTA_Guid eVolume1Flexible.html
  • 60. FDR Methods • Pulverization • Stabilization – Mechanical = with aggregate or RAP – Bituminous = with emulsified or foamed asphalt – Chemical = with cement or other pozzolanic materials • No. of Passes: – Single pass – Multiple pass
  • 61. FDR Application • Restore the structural integrity of the pavement over the entire treated depth • Produce a uniform, stabilized, crack-free material by mixing asphalt concrete with underlying materials • Cover with thin maintenance treatment, asphalt concrete or other surfacing material.
  • 65. FDR Project Selection Pavement Condition Index (PCI) VERY GOOD FAIR Cold Planing POOR Hot In-Place Recycling GOOD Cold Recycling Full Depth Reclamation VERY POOR Time/Traffic
  • 66. More FDR Resources • Basic Asphalt Recycling Manual, ARRA and FHWA, Second Edition: expected January 2014 • FDR Construction Checklist, PRRC – FHWA ARRA available in print, it will be soon available online • Full Depth Reclamation, ARRA: http://www.arra.org/presentations/fulldepth_reclamation.pdf
  • 68. Green Up! • Use a pavement management system – Include sustainable maintenance and rehabilitation strategies in the PMS (see article in August 2013 APWA Reporter) – Keep the PMS data up to date • Add or include a pavement preservation program – Define pavement preservation triggers/criteria – Establish default frequency for preservation treatments
  • 69. Green Up! • Manage your resources better: – Even when damaged, pavements have value: aggregate, asphalt, cement, steel, etc. – Use RAP/RCA best management practices – Reuse materials as much as possible • Require minimum three design/rehabilitation alternatives for each project of which at least one should specifically address sustainability
  • 70. Green Up! • Don’t forget the 4 R’s: Right treatment, Right pavement, Right time, Right contractor. • Learn more about sustainability and green rating systems for pavements: – LEED/Green Building Council – Greenroads – Invest – Green Up
  • 71.
  • 72.
  • 73.
  • 74. “Green Up” • Software application to compare pavement rehabilitation alternatives in terms of sustainability; not a rating system; • Under development at Cal Poly Pomona; • Includes: – Materials – Technologies – Surface Properties – Life vs. Cost Analysis
  • 77. Green Up: Surface Properties and Life/Cost
  • 78. Green Up: Alternative Comparison Mill and Fill Mill, CIR and Overlay
  • 79. Thank you Dragos Andrei, Ph.D., P.E., M.ASCE Associate Professor, Civil Engineering Director, Pavement Recycling and Reclaiming Center CAL POLY POMONA dandrei@prrcenter.org www.PRRCenter.org