Biodesiel aviation draft


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Biodiesel from Algae
Presentation; Prof. Dr. Farouk Kamel El Baz

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  • U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center Website, “Biodiesel Benefits,” available at
  • U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center Website, “Biodiesel Benefits,” available at
  • U.S. Department of Energy, Alternative Fuels Data Center Website, “Biodiesel Benefits,” available at
  • Biodesiel aviation draft

    1. 1. Biodiesel from EgyptianBiodiesel from EgyptianAlgaeAlgaeBYBYDr. Farouk Kamel El-BazDr. Farouk Kamel El-BazProf. of Plant Biochemistry, Agric. & Biol. Res. DivisionProf. of Plant Biochemistry, Agric. & Biol. Res. DivisionFormer NRC Vice President & Awarded the State ofFormer NRC Vice President & Awarded the State ofEgypt Prize of Merit in Advanced TechnologicalEgypt Prize of Merit in Advanced TechnologicalSciences ,2008Sciences ,2008
    2. 2. Global Energy Challenges
    3. 3. 1- Increased Rate of Energy Consumption1980 -2005
    4. 4. Increasing ofConsumptionrate 4000Biogas 900Nuclearenergy 500Hydro 400Coal 1200Oil 1000One Million Ton(equivalent(Total 6600 M TonTotal 10600 M T
    5. 5. 2- Price Fluctuation of Oil andPetrochemical Products
    6. 6. 30$Jan 2003147$Oct.200837$Dec.2008Price/$30$Jan 2003147$Oct.200837$Dec.2008Price/$Increased price of Oil andPetrochemical Products30$Jan 2003147$Oct.200837$Dec.2008Price/$
    7. 7. 3- Dramatic Increase in WorldPopulation Figures
    8. 8. 10 Billions People at 2050 need their EnergyResources‫كبرى‬ ‫صناعية‬ ‫دول‬‫نامية‬ ‫دول‬
    9. 9. Its is expected that the worldpopulation will exceeds 10 Billionsat 2050
    10. 10. 4- Shortage of Conventional EnergySources
    11. 11. Billion Barrel / year
    12. 12. In Egypt Population and HumanGrowth Rate of approximately2% / yearYear 2006 76.5 MYear 2007 78 MWill reach 125 million by 2050
    13. 13. ‫نظرية‬ ‫معدلت‬‫منشودة‬ ‫معدلت‬‫واقعية‬ ‫معدلت‬150‫نسمه‬ ‫مليون‬125‫نسمه‬ ‫مليون‬120‫نسمه‬ ‫مليون‬
    14. 14. Egyptian Annual Subsidise for Energy LEmore than 96 BillionAnd this value is expected to increase yearlyUnbalanced Consumption / Production
    15. 15. Al-Ahram News Paper 17-05-2010 , Page 1Subsidies of Petroleum Diesel exceeds theallocated budget of Education and Health bymore than 9 times
    16. 16. 0246810122001/2002 2002/2003 2003/2004 2004/2005 2005/2006 2006/2007 2007/2008‫عام‬/‫طن‬‫مليون‬Consumption10. & Consumption of Dieselduring 2001 - 2008
    17. 17. Biofuelsare fuels produced from renewableorganic sources
    18. 18. BiofuelCharcoal - waste of plantsBiogasBiodiesel - Bioethanol1. Liquid2. Gas3. Solid1. Liquid
    19. 19. Biodiesel are: Renewable diesel– A mixture of fatty acid methylesters (FAME)– Equivalent to petroleum diesel
    20. 20. Transesterification of oil to biodiesel byusing alcoholCatalystOil Alcohol Glycerol Fatty Acid esterBiodiesel
    21. 21. Advantages of Biodiesel1. Safe to handle, store & transport2. Advantages over Oil Diesel:• Less toxic, less risk• Low Sulfur content
    22. 22. • Reduces other pollutants• Reduction in sulfur oxides – acid rain• Reduction in methane• Reduction in particulate matter
    23. 23. Environmental Impacts-20%-90%-10%-42%-10%-58%+5%+10%-21%-58%Petrodiesel B20 B 100Quality of biodiesel as compared with petroleum diesel
    24. 24. Disadvantages of Biodiesel• The B 100 % would need engine modifications• Relative high solubility effect• Effect of color after prolonged contact• Effect on rubber parts
    25. 25. Global Production of Biodiesel
    26. 26. • EU production at 2007, 10.3 Million Tons• By 2020, 10 % of EU Diesel Consumptionwill be from Bio sources.• USA Plans to be the Major Producer by2010.Biodiesel Future Plans
    27. 27. • India Plans to produce 4 Million tons annually• Israel Plans to produce 4-5% of GlobalRequirements (4-5 Million MT)• China Plans to increase the biodieselproduction at 2012 by 900% of that at 2007
    28. 28. Top 10 countries in terms of biodieselTop 10 countries in terms of biodieselpotentialpotentialRankRank CountryCountry BiodieselBiodieselPotentialPotential(ML)(ML)ProductionProduction($/L)($/L)11 MalaysiaMalaysia 14,54014,540 0.530.5322 IndonesiaIndonesia 75957595 0.490.4933 ArgentinaArgentina 52555255 0.620.6244 USAUSA 32123212 0.700.7055 BrazilBrazil 25672567 0.620.6266 NetherlandNetherland 24962496 0.750.7577 GermanyGermany 20242024 0.790.7988 PhilippinesPhilippines 12341234 0.530.5399 BelgiumBelgium 12131213 0.780.781010 SpainSpain 10731073 1.711.71
    29. 29. OPPERTUNITIESOPPERTUNITIESNational and InternationalNational and International• National recommendation for the production andNational recommendation for the production andexpansion of biodiesel from algae alongside withexpansion of biodiesel from algae alongside withother sources of biofeul.other sources of biofeul.•Under the Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotionUnder the Directive 2009/28/EC on the promotionof the use of energy from renewable sources thisof the use of energy from renewable sources thisshare rises to a minimum 10% in every Membershare rises to a minimum 10% in every MemberState in 2020State in 202006/16/1306/16/13Biodiesel from algae; oppertuity andBiodiesel from algae; oppertuity andchallengeschallenges
    30. 30. Biodiesel and AviationBiodiesel and AviationThe EU initiative, labelled "The EU initiative, labelled "European Advanced Biofuels Flight pathEuropean Advanced Biofuels Flight path""recommend productionrecommend production of two millionof two milliontonnes of sustainably produced biofuel fortonnes of sustainably produced biofuel foraviation by 2020aviation by 202006/16/1306/16/13Biodiesel from algae; oppertuity andBiodiesel from algae; oppertuity andchallengeschallenges
    31. 31. Biodiesel and AviationBiodiesel and Aviation Egyptian Aviation authorities to haveEgyptian Aviation authorities to havenational supply for biodiesel by 2020.national supply for biodiesel by 2020. Egypt Air consumption of jet fuel is !!!!!Egypt Air consumption of jet fuel is !!!!!Annually.Annually. A big percent of this volume to be fromA big percent of this volume to be frombiofuelbiofuel
    32. 32. SolutionsSolutions There is no single solution for all purposes.There is no single solution for all purposes. One solution might be the best for oneOne solution might be the best for onepurpose.purpose. Biodiesel can be obtained from differentBiodiesel can be obtained from differentsources; Jatropha, Jojoba, Croton, recycledsources; Jatropha, Jojoba, Croton, recycledoils and fromoils and from AlgaeAlgae.. Different factors determine the best solutionDifferent factors determine the best solutionfor certain purpose;for certain purpose; Quality, water andQuality, water andfertile land availability, geography,fertile land availability, geography,productivity &productivity & economyeconomy..06/16/1306/16/13Biodiesel from algae; oppertuity andBiodiesel from algae; oppertuity andchallengeschallenges
    33. 33. Quality and tests for Aviation DieselQuality and tests for Aviation Diesel06/16/1306/16/13Biodiesel from algae; oppertuity andBiodiesel from algae; oppertuity andchallengeschallenges
    34. 34. 06/16/1306/16/13Biodiesel from algae; oppertuity andBiodiesel from algae; oppertuity andchallengeschallenges
    35. 35. Water and Fertile landWater and Fertile landavailabilityavailability Egypt has a limited water resourcesEgypt has a limited water resources Recycled water from Industry andRecycled water from Industry andAgriculture has drawbacksAgriculture has drawbacks The cost of land reclamation in the desertThe cost of land reclamation in the desertis increasing day by increasing day by day.06/16/1306/16/13Biodiesel from algae; oppertuity andBiodiesel from algae; oppertuity andchallengeschallenges
    36. 36. GeographyGeography((Intense sun radiation all over the yearIntense sun radiation all over the year))06/16/1306/16/13Biodiesel from algae; oppertuity andBiodiesel from algae; oppertuity andchallengeschallenges
    37. 37. Biodiesel from AlgaeBiodiesel from AlgaeNow or NeverNow or Never
    38. 38. 36000different Algae speciesUnicellularSolitary ColonyMulti-cellularREDGreenBROWN
    39. 39. CO2NutrientsAlgaeLight• Proteins• Carbohydrates• Pigments• Vitamins• Pharmaceuticals• S- Polysaccahriedes• Fatty acids• Oil
    40. 40. 1.Short life cycle ( approx. 1-10 days)2.Fast Growing with High productivity:-a. Microalgae commonly double theirbiomass within 24 hourb. Biomass doubling times during the log.phase as short as 3.5 h.Advantages of Algae over other plants
    41. 41. 3. High photosynthetic efficiency (31 folds)4. No competition with food crops5. Can be cultivated with Salty water6. Oil productivity depends on the algalgrowth rate and the oil content of the biomass
    42. 42. 7. Metabolic pathways can be directed by stressfactors ( Nutrients deficiency, low or hightemperature, pH ..), to produce the requiredtargets.8. High oil productivity (could reach 50-80 % of dryweight)9. Microalage with high oil productivities aredesired for producing biodiesal.
    43. 43. 020004000600080001000012000‫الطحالب‬‫النخيل‬‫الجاتروفا‬Gallon/Hectare/Year AlgaeDateJatrova‫جالون‬// ‫هكتار‬‫عام‬Superior Oil Production from Algaecompared to other sourcesGatropha Palm Algae
    44. 44. Palm Oil : 6000 L / ha / yearAlgae : 20000-150000 L / ha /year
    45. 45. Superiority of microalgae in producingbiodieselAlgae are one of the best sources of biodiesal:1.It can produce : up to 25 times the amountof oil per acre as soybeans2.Up to 7-30 time greater oil than palm oil
    46. 46. Biodiesel production from different sources
    47. 47. OilOil US$/TonUS$/TonCanolaCanola 750750Sun FlowerSun Flower 720720Palm OilPalm Oil 700700Algae OilAlgae Oil 500500Different Oils Prices Comparisons
    48. 48. Production of Algae
    49. 49. Commercially, microalgae arecultivated either in open pondsor in closed photobioreactors
    50. 50. 1. Open Ponds
    51. 51. USA
    52. 52. Taiwan
    53. 53. Israel
    54. 54. Hawaii
    55. 55. Maynmar
    56. 56. 2. Closed System Photobioreactors
    57. 57. Commercial Glass Photo bioreactors(700m3) producing Chlorella biomass ,Klotze Germany
    58. 58. Photo bioreactors , Germany
    59. 59. Photo bioreactors , USA
    60. 60. Photo bioreactors , USA
    61. 61. Haematococcus plantoperated by Algatech Ltd,Kibbuz Ketura, Israel
    62. 62. Holland
    63. 63. Hawaii
    64. 64. Hawaii
    65. 65. Photobioreactor is more successful,algae growth rate and productivityare usually high than the openponds
    66. 66. Comparison of open and closed algaeComparison of open and closed algaeproduction systemsproduction systemsVariableVariable PhotobioreactorPhotobioreactor OpenOpenPondsPondsArea neededArea needed5681 m5681 m227828 m7828 m22Annual biomassAnnual biomassProductionProduction100 000kg100 000kg 100 000kg100 000kgOil ProductionOil Production 137m137m33/ Hectare/ Hectare 99 m99 m33/ Hectare/ HectareAnnual CO2Consumption (Kg) 183.3 183.3
    67. 67. • This comparison is for an annual production level of100 tons of biomass in both cases.• Photobioreactor provide much greater oil yield /hectare Compared with raceway ponds bothproduction methods consume an identical amount ofCO2
    68. 68. Algal Biofuel
    69. 69. Microaleage can provide several differenttypes of renewable biofuels these include:-1. Bio diesel derived from microalgae oil2. Photobiologically produced biohydrogen3. Methane produced by anaerobic digestion ofthe algal biomass
    70. 70. Algae Production at theNational ResearchCentre
    71. 71. 1. Algae strains with high productivitywere isolated and identified
    72. 72. Locally Studied Algae SpeciesConsidered for oil productionAlgae1- Dunaliella Green2-Scenedesmus Green3- Chlorella Green4- Spirulina Blue Green
    73. 73. Botryococus brauniiBotryococus braunii 80 % Oil80 % Oil
    74. 74. 2. Microalgae are produced on Lab. and semipilot scale all year around with differentoutputs:-Pigment – antiviral – antibacterial – anticancer–nutraceuticals – Omega 3 & Omega 6 fattyacids, sulphtated polysaccharides, oil ……..)
    75. 75. Indoor Algae Cultivation atNRC
    76. 76. Open ponds are used for algaeproduction under open air conditions
    77. 77. Open Air pond ( 1000 L unit)
    78. 78. Open pond ( Capacity 15000 L= 15 m3)
    79. 79. Mass production of Algae
    80. 80. Open ponds should have- 10 m width- 100 m length- 30 cm depth• Built in concrete blocks on a 10 cm thick sole• A paddle wheel or rotating arm are used forculture agitation mixing and preventing thealgal cells from settling on the bottom
    81. 81. 60-80 tonsfeddan dried algae(moisture 7-9%)Annual yield
    82. 82. Photobioreactors are used forgrowing algae with the capacityof 5000L
    83. 83. Photobioreactors• They can established & maintainedeither indoor or outdoor. However theoutdoor is more successful because theycan utilize free sunlight• They consist of :1.Transparent tubes made of glass orplastics and fixed generally in the north– south direction to enable the maximumlight penetration
    84. 84. 2.Pumping system ( 50 cm / sec.), dosingpump3.Feeding vessel contain nutrient solution &CO24.Harvesting pump or filter system
    85. 85. Diagram of Photobioreactors
    86. 86. Photobioreactor (model 1)
    87. 87. Photobioreactor (model 2)
    88. 88. Photobioreactor (model 3)
    89. 89. Drawbacks of PBRs1- Oxygen poisoning –photoxidation –damage of the cell2- Over heating3- Loss of transparency- light penetrationdecreased.4- Difficulty in scaling up
    90. 90. Oil percentage increaseOil percentage increaseFromFrom ToTo55 383877 383888 59596.56.5 1919Increase of oil productivity in some algae strainsStrainStrainDunaliellaDunaliellaChlorellaChlorellaScenedesmusScenedesmusSpirulinaSpirulina
    91. 91. Fatty acids composition ofSpirulina oil
    92. 92. Fatty acids (%) of total fatty acidC8:0 Caprylic acid 1.52C10:0 Capric acid 0.12C12:0 Lauric acid 0.34C14:0 Myristic acid 0.62C16:0 Palmitic acid 31.5C16:1 Palmitoleic acid 0.70C16 Total 32.2C18:1 Oleic acid 12.6C18:2 Linoleic acid 16.46C18:3 Linolenic 19.94Total C18 49.0C 20:4 Arachidonic acid 1.8C 20:5 Timnodonic 4.8Total C20 6.6C 22:0 Docosanoic 10.6Total saturated 44.7Total mono-saturated 13.3Total polyunsaturated 43.0
    93. 93.  The fatty acid profile of Spirulina cultivated inphotobioreactors showing that palmatic C16:0,olic (C18:1), linoleic (C18:2), linolenic (C18:3) andarachidic acid (C22:0) were the most prevalent. It was also clear that total saturated fatty acidrepresented 44.7% of total fatty acids, comparedto total unsaturated fatty acid (56.3%)
    94. 94.  The results of the present study also indicatedthat fatty acids with 4 or more double bonds[(C20:4) and (C 20:5)] represented only 6.6 % ofthe total fatty acids .
    95. 95.  Schenk et al. (2008) suggested that the ideal mixture offatty acids to be: C16:1 : C18:1 : C14:0 in the ratio of 5:4: 1 such a biodiesel would have the properties of very lowoxidative potential. In the present work this ratio is nearly 0.7: 12.6: 0.62in Spirulina and 4.8: 12.9: 14.6 in Chlorella,furtherprocessing and additives are required
    96. 96. Fatty acids compositions (% of totalfatty acids) of Chlorella vulgaris
    97. 97. Fatty acids Common name%of totalfatty acidsC 14:0 Myristic acid 14.6C 14:1 Myristoleic acid 6.2Total C 14 20.8C 16:0 Palmitic acid 54.3C 16:1 Palmitoleic acid 4.8C 16:2 Hexadecadienoic acid 1.7Total C 16 60.8C 18:1 Oleic acid 12.9C 18:2 Linoleic acid 4.1C 18:3 Linolenic acid 1.4Total C 18 18.4Total saturated 68.9Total mono-saturated 23.9Total polyunsaturated 7.2TU/TS 0.45
    98. 98.  The fatty acid profile of Chlorella cultivated inphotobioreactors showing high value (54.3%) of palmaticacid which met the requirement of European legislationfor biodiesel. High content (12.9 %) of Oleic acid of Chlorella fattyacid profile may be utilized for good quality biodieselproduction
    99. 99. Acceptability of microalgal oil for biodieselDepending on the total unsaturation of the oilwhich is indicating bylodine value• Not exceed 120g I2 / 100 g oilstandard of theEuropean union ( En 14214 ) for biodiesel ofvehicle use• Not exceed 130 g I2 / 100 g oil for use as heatingoil ( standard 14213 )
    100. 100. • Fatty acids and Fatty Acid Methyl EsterFAME with 4 and more double bonds aresusceptible to oxidation and this reduces theiracceptability for use in biodiesel• In European Union separate standards existfor biodiesel of vechicle use ( 14214) ( limitlinolenic acid and its ME to 12% ) and nolimitation exists for use as heating oil ( 14213 )
    101. 101.  Our results indicated that Chlorella fatty acid profilecontain linolenic acid (1.4%) less than 12%.
    102. 102. Specification of algal oil produced atNRCStrains Degree ofsaturationDegree ofUnstaurationDunaliella 18 80Spirulina 42 43Chlorella 70 28Scenedesums 70 26
    103. 103. Experiment Method ResultDensity, @ 15.56 oCSpecific GravityAPI gravity @ 60 oFASTMD-1298 0.86550.866431.82Kinematic viscosity, cSt, @ 40oC ASTM D-445 6.81Total Sulphur, wt % ASTM D-4294 0.74Ash content, wt% ASTM D-482 0.004Gross heating value, kj/kg ASTM D-240 41896Flash point ASTM D-240 96Cetane index 38Physical analysis of Spirulina biodiesel
    104. 104. Properties of a blend of biodiesel and solar (50%each)compared to the standard specifications of diesel fuelProperty Diesel fuel Biodiesel/solarblend-Density, at 15.56 oC-Specific Gravity-API gravity at 60 oF0.82-0.870.82-0.8731-410.86550.866431.82-Kinematic viscosity, cSt,at 40oC≥7 6.81-Total Sulphur, wt% ≥1.2 0.74-Ash content, wt% ≥0.01 0.004-Gross heating value,kj/kg47000 41896-Flash point, oC ≤55 96Cetane number- ≤55 38
    105. 105. Distillation characteristics of the 50%blend compared to that of solarIt seems that the volatility of the biodiesel blendis higher than that of regular solar. Since the10% distillation of the blend occurs at155 oCcompared to 205 oC in case of solar, it might beexpected that the starting ignition quality willbe better using this blend
    106. 106. Solar Biodiesel/solar blendDistillationInitial boiling point,oC10 ml20 ml30 ml40 ml50 ml60 ml70 ml80 ml90 mlRecovery, mlResidue, mlLoss %17020523526427527830031031532291811101551851912002202302402603009262ASTM distillation results of Biodiesel/solar 50% blendcompared to Solar
    107. 107. Economy for the production ofEconomy for the production ofBiodiesel from AlgaeBiodiesel from AlgaeEgyptian Dutch ConsortiumEgyptian Dutch Consortium:: National Research Center;National Research Center; Consortium PIConsortium PI Faculty of Pharmacy, Cairo UniversityFaculty of Pharmacy, Cairo UniversityFOPCUFOPCU Wageningen University and Research) WURWageningen University and Research) WUR06/16/1306/16/13Biodiesel from algae; oppertuity andBiodiesel from algae; oppertuity andchallengeschallenges
    108. 108. Wageningen University and ResearchWageningen University and ResearchPioneer algae research institutePioneer algae research institutein Holland and Europein Holland and Europe06/16/1306/16/13Biodiesel from algae; oppertuity andBiodiesel from algae; oppertuity andchallengeschallenges
    109. 109. Faculty of PharmacyFaculty of PharmacyWill play role in the isolation andWill play role in the isolation andidentification of Algae bio-activesidentification of Algae bio-activessuitable for nutraceutical purposesuitable for nutraceutical purposeand other high cash valueand other high cash valueproductsproducts06/16/1306/16/13Biodiesel from algae; oppertuity andBiodiesel from algae; oppertuity andchallengeschallenges
    110. 110. 06/16/1306/16/13Biodiesel from algae; oppertuity andBiodiesel from algae; oppertuity andchallengeschallenges
    111. 111. Consortium ObjectivesConsortium Objectives Overall Objective ;Overall Objective ;Development of a sustainable for theDevelopment of a sustainable for theproduction of renewable energy sourceproduction of renewable energy sourcefrom Energy.from Energy. The Specific Objectives;The Specific Objectives;Setting up a pilot production unit ofSetting up a pilot production unit ofbiodiesel from algaebiodiesel from algae06/16/1306/16/13Biodiesel from algae; oppertuity andBiodiesel from algae; oppertuity andchallengeschallenges
    112. 112. Consortium ActivitiesConsortium Activities EngineeringEngineering BiotechnologicalBiotechnological ChemicalChemical PharmaceuticalPharmaceutical
    113. 113. Estimated ResultsEstimated ResultsProduction of algal oil usingProduction of algal oil usingphotobioreactor and openphotobioreactor and openponds.ponds.Production of Biodiesel byProduction of Biodiesel byalgal oil transestrification.algal oil transestrification.06/16/1306/16/13Biodiesel from algae; oppertuity andBiodiesel from algae; oppertuity andchallengeschallenges
    114. 114.  Production of high valueProduction of high valuenutraceuticals from algae.nutraceuticals from algae. Setting up economical demo unitSetting up economical demo unitready for scaling up nationally andready for scaling up nationally andinternationally.internationally. Enhancing Egyptian capabilities forEnhancing Egyptian capabilities forbiodiesel production from Algae.biodiesel production from Algae.
    115. 115. Recommendations
    116. 116. Nation’s wealth is nothow much they haveor how much they knowBUTBy how muchthey Know what to dowith what they haveThanks
    117. 117. Thank you